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PnoFESsoB OF Sanskrit and Indo-Eubopean Gompabative 
Philoloot in the Univeesity of Chicago 


m ■ I 


die ^timmm T^vom 






Copyright, 1904 
By carl darling BUCK 




The following work is an attempt to furnish in a single vol- 
ume of moderate compass what is most essential for the study of 
the Oscan and Umbrian dialects. In spite of the meagreness of the 
material, as compared with languages like Greek and Latin, and 
in spite of the many questions of detail which are still unsolved, 
the main features of these two dialects are well understood. And 
such is their relation to Latin that some acquaintance with them 
is important, not to the Indo-Europeanist alone, but to the student 
of the Latin language, and, in a less degree, to the student of the 
history and antiquities of Italy. In order that a knowledge of 
the dialects should become more general, it is not enough that we 
have now such excellent works as Conway's Italic Dialects, with 
its full presentation of the existing material, and von Planta's 
exhaustive Grammatik der Oskisch-Umbrischen Dialekte. The 
fullness of v. Planta's treatment, the conscientious weighing of 
possibilities, and the liberal citation of authorities, all add to its 
value as a work of reference, but the resulting bulk of 1372 pages 
is likely to deter one who can devote only a moderate amount of 
time to the subject. That there is need of a briefer grammar has 
long been the author's conviction, which, has only been strengthened 
by inquiries and suggestions from others in this country and abroad.^ 

In order to secure the desired brevity, it has been necessary to 
eliminate almost wholly any detailed dis« assion of disputed points, 
as well as special ieferervV?£j fo^r the views adopted or rejected. 
Any one for whom the "cj* ' ^^Mography given below is not 
sufficient ma} 1: ^ f( rre _*. Only in a few cases, here 

1 So Skutsch, in a review of the author's Oscan-Umbrian Verb-System, Berliner 
Philologische Wochenschrift, November, 1895: "Der Verf. kame einem Bediirfniss 
entg^gen, wenn er eine voUstandige Grammatik des O.-U. im Massstab seines Verb- 
Systems schriebe. Denn neben dem trefflichen, aber weitschichtigen Werke v. Plantas 
ist ein kurzes Handbuch znr Einfiihrung erwiinscht/' 

• • • 


iv Preface 

and there, I have added references in footnotes, mostly to discus- 
sions more recent than v. Planta. Generally I have simply stated 
the view which seemed to me on the whole the most probable, or 
else contented myself with a non liquet. It is scarcely necessary 
to state that in matters of dispute I have had no predilection for 
my own previously expressed views, but have with equal freedom 
rejected them in favor of others or retained them against others, 
according to my present judgment. 

That the treatment is historical and comparative, not merely 
descriptive, is a matter of course. But the emphasis is on Italic, 
rather than on Indo-European, relations. In the case of words which 
are peculiar to the dialects and not found in Latin, a fairly wide 
range of cognates is cited, as in sections 15, 16. But ordinarily 
comparison within the Italic is deemed sufficient, and forms from 
other Indo-European languages are introduced only for special 

The grammar is called a Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian, 
not of the Oscan-Umbrian dialects, for it does not pretend to treat 
systematically the minor dialects included under the name Oscan- 
Umbrian. Most of the characteristics of these dialects (so far as 
they are clear) are mentioned incidentally, mainly in the Introduc- 
tion. But to discuss or even mention all the questions arising in 
the attempt to generalize from material consisting of only a few 
lines, would require an amount of space not justified by the results. 
Unless the material from these minor dialects is notably increased, 
our knowledge of the Oscan-Umbrian group will be almost coinci- 
dent with what we know of its two principal dialects. And in 
this approximate sense a grammar of Oscan and Umbrian is also 
a grammar of Oscan-Umbrian. 

As the book has been practically ready for the press since the 
beginning of the year, and the Phonology in type since February, 
almost nothing in the literature of 1903 has been taken account of. 
But in what has appeared there is little which has entirely con- 
vinced me. Special mention may be made of Brugmann's discussion 
of the negative prefix an- and anter < inter' (I.F. 15, 70 ff.). I have 
myself wished there were some way of equating these directly with 

Preface v 

the Latin, instead of assuming by-forms (as in 98 with c), which 
indeed seems out of the question in the case of Anafriss if = L. Imhribiis 
(see 98, h). But Brugmann's assumption that << initial e before nasal 
+ consonant had a very open pronunciation in the Oscan-Umbrian 
period and had perhaps become identical in this position with 
Italic a" fails to convince me, in view of 0. embratur, Entrai, and 
especially U. iseceles * insectis.' Nor do I see the necessity of 
separating 0. ant from L. ante because of its meaning < as far as ' 
(see 899, 2). 

For assistance I am indebted to Professors J. C. Eolfe and 
Minton Warren, who kindly offered to read proof, and especially 
to my pupils, Mr. W. C. Gunnerson and Mr. R. B. Nelson, who 
have gone over the proof with great care, devoting no small amount 
of time to the verification of references, citations, etc., and con- 
tributing in every way to the accuracy of the text. The remarkable 
keenness and intelligence of the proof-reader in the office of the 
publishers has also saved the work from many blemishes. 

C. D. B. 

December, 1903. 




Explanations xvii 


Peoples and Languages of Italy . 1 

Classification of the Italic Dialects 2 

OscAN — External Data 3 

Umbbian — External Data 6 

General Characteristics of the Oscan-Umbrian Group : 

Phonology 7 

Inflection 8 

Syntax 11 

Vocabulary 11 

Summary 17 

Special Characteristics of Oscan 18 

Special Characteristics of Umbrian 10 

Borrowed Words 20 


Alphabet and Orthography : 

Oscan 22 

Umbrian 23 

Relation of the Alphabets 24 

Notes on Orthography . . ' 26 

History of the Sounds : 

Vowels 20 

a 20 

& 30 

e 31 

§ 33 

i 34 

i 36 


u for . ... . . . . . . .37 


u 40 

fi 41 

f FOR U 41 


viii Table of Contents 


Diphthongs 41 

ai 43 

ei • .... 44 

oi 46 

au, eu, ou 46 

Lengthening of Vowels 47 

Shortening of Vowels 49 

Anaptyxis in Oscan 50 

contbaotion and hlatus 53 

Vowel- Weakening in Medial Syllables 55 

Syncope in Medial Syllables 57 

Syncope in Final Syllables 59 

Sampbasarana 60 

Loss OF Final Short Vowels 61 

Vowel-Gbadation 62 

Consonants 66 

Consonantal i (i) 66 

Consonantal u (g) 67 

r 68 

1 68 

n AND m 70 

Omission of Nasals bej^^obe Consonants . . .70 

Final n and m 71 

ns 71 

8 73 

Intebyocalic 8. Bhotacism 74 

Final a '74 

sn, am, al^zd 76 

Intebyocalic ra 76 

ra BEFOBE Consonants 77 

Final ra 77 

ar 78 

la 78 

p 78 

pt . . 78 

pa 79 

b 79 

bh 79 

Labials and Nasals 79 

t 80 

Final t 80 

Final nt 80 

U 82 


Table of Contents ix 


d 82 

Umbbian f, rs, FBOM d 82 

Final d 84 

Initial di 84 

nd,dn 84 

dh 86 

Dbntal -f 8 86 

Dental -f Dental 86 

Othbb Combinations of Dentals 87 

The Guttubals ......... 87 

k 88 

kt 89 

Umbbian Palatalization of A; 89 

k8 91 

Loss OF k between Consonants 91 

g 92 

Umbbian Palatalization of ^ 93 

gh 93 

k» 94 

g» 94 

g»h 94 

Loss OF V in kU ETC 96 

Change of Sued Mutes to Sonants 96 

Change of Sonant Mdtes to Sdbds 97 

Changes of the obioinal Sonant Aspibates .... 97 

Doubling of Consonants in Oscan 99 

Simplification of Double Consonants . . 100 

Changes in Sentence-Combination. Sandhi .... 100 

Accent 101 


Oscan 102 

Umbbian 107 

Nouns : 

Fibst Declension 113 

Sbcokd Declension 116 

jo-Stems 119 

Oscan Gentiles in -lis etc 121 

TmBD Declension 124 

Mute Stems, Liquid Stems 128 

Nasal Stems, S-Stems 130 

Ibbbgulab Nouns 131 

Table of Contents 


Fourth Declension . 131 

Fifth Declension 132 

Adjectives : 

Declension 133 

Comparison . 134 

Adverbs 136 


Cardinals and Ordinals 137 

Distributives and Numeral Adverbs 139 

Pronouns : 

Personal Pronouns 139 

Possessive Pronouns 140 

Demonstrative Pronouns 140 

Interrogative, Relative, and Indefinite Pronouns . . 143 

Pronominal Enclitics 146 

Relative Adverbs and Conjunctions 148 

Verbs : 

The Personal Endings 151 

Examples of Conjugation 153 

First Conjugation 154 

Second Conjugation 156 

Third Conjugation 157 

FouRTp Conjugation 159 

Irregular Verbs 160 



The Present Stem: 

First Conjugation 161 

Second Conjugation 162 

Third Conjugation 163 

Fourth Conjugation 164 

Forms of the Type of L. capio 165 

Irregular Verbs 166 

Remarks on the Forms connected with L. habed . 167 

Remarks on the Forms connected with L. faciQ . 168 

The Imperfect Indicative 169 

The Future Indicative 169 

The Perfect Indicative 169 

The Future Perfect 173 

Thj Subjunctive 173 

The Present Subjunctive 174 

The Imperfect Subjunctive 175 

The Perfect Subjunctive 175 

Table of Contents xi 


Thb Imperatiyb 175 

Th» Fassiyb 177 

The Periphbastic Passive 179 

The Present Ikfinitiye, The Supine 179 

The Present Active Participle 180 

The Perfect Passive Participle 180 

The Gerundiyb 181 


Brrivation of Nouns and Adjectives: 

Nouns 182 

Adjectives 186n 

Secondary Verbal Derivation : 

Denominatives 190 

Composition : 

Nouns and Adjectives 192 

Verbs 193 


Uses of the Cases: 

The Genitive 196 

The Dative 198 

The Accusative 199 

The Locative 199 


Ablative Uses . . 200 

Instrumental Uses 201 

Locative Uses 203 

Prepositions (and the Corresponding Prefixes): 

With the Accusative only 206 

With the Ablative only 207 

With the Accusative and Locative 209 

With the Locative and Ablative 210 

With Other Cases 210 

Adjectives 211 

Adverbs 211 

The Verb: 

Voice 212 

Tense 213 


Commands and Prohibitions 214 

The Subjunctive of Wish 215 

The Subjunctive in Substantive Clauses .... 216 

Clauses of Indirect Question 217 

xii Table of Contents 


Relative Clauses 217 

Temporal Clauses 218 

Conditional Clauses 220 

Infinitives and Participles 221 

Agreement 221 

Omission op Words 222 

Order op Words 223 


OscAN 226 

The Cippus Abellanus 226 

The Tabula Bantina 230 

Inscriptions op Pompeii: 

Inscriptions on Public Works, and Dedications . . 239 

The Eituns Inscriptions 242 

Inscriptions op Capua : 

The Curse op Vibia 243 

The Iovilae-Dedications 247 

Other Capuan Inscriptions 261 

Inscriptions from Other Campanian Towns 263 

Inscriptions op Samnium and the Frentani: 

The Dedicatory Tablet op Agnone 264 

Others 266 

Inscriptions op Lucania, Bruttium, and Messana . , . 268 

Coins 269 

Umbrian 260 

The Iguvinian Tables: 

V 260 

Vl-Vnandl 262 

I 288 

n 293 

III, IV 297 

Commentary 301 

Minor Umbrian Inscriptions 310 


OsCAN 311 

Umbrian 327 

Photographs op Oscan Inscriptions Plate I 

Facsimile of Oscan Inscription from Pompeii . . . Plate II 

Facsimile of the Tabula Bantina Plate in 

Photograph of Vb, Iguvinian Tables ..... Plate IV 
Map of Central Italy Plate V 


The history of the study of the Italic dialects might be expected 
to date from the discovery of the Iguvinian Tables in 1444, but for 
several centuries all the attempts to decipher these were wholly 
worthless. The first sign of progress is found in Lanzi, Saggio 
di lingua Etrusca e di altre antiche d'ltalia, Eome, 1789, in which 
the ritual character of the contents was recognized. In the first 
half of the nineteenth century fall, among others, the contributions 
of K. 0. MtlUer, who in his great work on the Etruscans (Die 
Etrusker, 1828 ; 2d ed. by Deecke, 1877) definitely disposed of the 
error that Oscan and Umbrian were connected with Etruscan; of 
the Sanskritist Lassen, who gave a critical treatment of a section 
of the Iguvinian Tables in his Beitrage zur Deutxmg der eugu- 
binischen Tafeln, Bonn, 1833; of Grotefend, celebrated for his 
decipherment of the Old Persian cuneiform, who treats selected pas- 
sages in his Eudimenta linguae Umbricae, Hanover, 1835-1839; 
of Lepsius, the future Egyptologist, who in his dissertation, De 
ta.bulis Eugubinis, Berlin, 1833, cleared up the remaining difficulties 
of the alphabet and proposed a chronological arrangement of the 
tables which is still followed in the universally adopted numbering. 
Lepsius also brought out the first trustworthy edition of the Oscan 
inscriptions together with the Umbrian, the Inscriptiones Umbricae 
et Oscae, Leipzig, 1841. ^ 

A work of prime importance for the study of Oscan and the 
minor dialects was Mommsen's Unteritalische Dialekte, Leipzig, 
1850. A similarly fundamental work for Umbrian was Aufrecht 
and Kirchhoff's Die umbrischen Sprachdenkmaler, 1849-1851, the 
first really critical attempt to interpret the Iguvinian Tables as a 
whole. Kirchhoff was also the first to recognize the true character 
of the longest Oscan inscription, the Tabula Bantina, in his elaborate 
commentary, Das Stadtrecht von Bantia, Berlin, 1853. In Huschke's 
Die oskischen und sabellischen Sprachdenkmaler, 1856, and Die igu- 
vischen Tafeln, 1859, a wealth of knowledge on the side of antiquities 

1 A full bibliography is given by v. Planta, II, pp. xi ff . For the history of the 
interpretation of the Iguvinian Tables, see especially Br^al, Tab. Eug., pp. i ff. 

• • • 


xiv Brief Bibliography 

is marred by a lack of critical judgment, especially in grammatical 
points, so that while some of the many daring conjectures have 
proved serviceable, his works in general mark a step backward. 
Kewman's Text of the Iguvine Inscriptions, London, 1864, is without 
much value. Grammatical questions were also discussed in numer- 
ous articles by Corssen, Ebel, Bugge, and others. Bruppacher's 
Oskische Lautlehre, 1869, and Enderis' Oskische Formenlehre, 1871, 
were convenient little manuals for the time, though valueless to-day. 

In the last quarter of the nineteenth century the most notable 
advance in the interpretation of the dialect remains was made by 
the works of Br^al and of Biicheler. Besides their exhaustive com- 
mentaries on the Iguvinian Tables, cited below, each of these scholars 
has discussed in one form or another most of the more important 
Oscan inscriptions. Important contributions were also made by 
Bugge, Danielsson, Deecke, Jordan, Pauli, and others. New editions 
of the Oscan and Sabellian inscriptions with facsimiles were brought 
out by the Russian scholar Zvetaieff in 1878 and 1884 (cited below). 

The Italic dialects have always held an important place in the 
interest of Indo-European philologists, and Brugmann especially 
has done much to further their study, both as author and teacher. 
It is not too much to say that the works of former pupils of his, 
appearing from 1892 on, especially the treatises of Bronisch and the 
present writer, von Planta's grammar, and Conway's edition of the 
texts, all cited below, have put the whole subject on a new footing. 
Contributions on special points, too numerous to specify here, have 
been made in recent years by E. D. Allen, Bartholomae, Ceci, 
Ehlich, Fay, Horton-Smith, Pascal, Skutsch, Solmsen, and others. 

The following is a list of the works which are now the most 
useful to the student. 

Indo-European Grammar 

Brugmann-Delbbuck, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik 
der indogermanischen Sprachen. 5 vols. Strassburg, 1886-1900. 
Vol. I in 2d ed., 1897. Vols. I-II (Phonology and Morphology) 
by K. Brugmann (abbr. Brugmann, Grd.) ; vols. III-V (Syntax) 
,by B. DelbrUck (= Delbrlick, Vergl. Syntax, I-III). 

The Oscan and Umbrian dialects are treated systematically and as fully 
as the wide scope of the work permits. 

Brief Bibliography xv 


BbuomanN; Kurze vergleichQiide Grammatik der indogennanisclieii 

Sprachen. Parts I-II, Strassburg, 1902-1903. 

In this shorter, work, to be completed within the limits of a single volume, 
Oscan and Umbrian forms are mentioned only incidentally in connection with 
the treatment of Latin. 

Latin Grrammar 

LiNDaAY, The Latin Language. Oxford, 1894. 

SoMMER, Handbuch der lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre. 

Heidelberg, 1902. 
Stolz, Historische Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. Leipzig, 


OscanrUmbrian Grammar 

VON Planta, Grammatik der oskisch-nmbrischen Dialekte. 2 vols. 
Strassburg, 1892-1897 (abbr. v. Planta). 

A sound and exhaustive treatment, fundamental for all future work. 
Also contains the texts. 

A brief sketch of Oscan-Umbrian grammar is included in Conway's Italic 
Dialects, and of Umbrian grammar in the commentaries of Br^al, BUcheler, 
and others, quoted below. Special chapters of the grammar are treated in : 

Bronisch, Die oskischen I- und E-Vocale. Leipzig, 1892. 

Buck, Der Vocalismus der oskischen Sprache. Leipzig, 1892 (abbr. 

Osk. Voc). 
Buck, The Oscan-Umbrian Verb-System. Chicago, 1895 (abbr. 


Texts and Commentaries ^ 

Conway, The Italic Dialects. 2 vols. Cambridge, 1897. 

The most exhaustive collection of the material, containing the inscriptions 
with full epigraphical data, the glosses, lists of proper names, etc., together 
with a brief sketch of the grammar, and a glossary. 

A concise but complete collection of the inscriptions is also included in 
V. Planta's Grammatik, cited above. 

Conway, Dialectorimi Italicarum Exempla Selecta. Cambridge, 1899. 
Selections from the dialect inscriptions, with translation and brief notes. 

AuFRECHT UND KiRCHHOFF, Die umbrischcn Sprachdenkmaler. 
2 vols. Berlin, 1849-1851. 

See above, p. xiii. Still to be consulted with profit. 

1 References for particular Oscan inscriptions are given in the Collection of Inscriptions. 

xvi Brief Bibliography 

Bbi^al, Les Tables Eugubines. Paris, 1875 (abbr. Tab. Eug.). 

This and the following are the two leading commentaries on the Iguvinian 

BiJCHELEB, Umbrica. Bonn, 1883. 

On the whole the most convincing interpretation of the Umbrian remains, 
and followed in large measure in the present work. 

MoMMSEN, Die Unteritalisclien Dialekte. Leipzig, 1860 (abbr. 
Unterit. Dial.). 

See above, p. xiii. Still valuable for the epigraphical data and the geo- 
graphical and historical notes. 

ZvETAiEFF, Sylloge Inscriptionum Oscarum. St. Petersburg and 

Leipzig, 1878. 
ZvETAiEFF, Inscriptiones Italiae Mediae Dialecticae. Leipzig, 1884. 

These two collections are now mainly valuable on account of the accom- 
panying facsimiles. 

Contributions on special points of grammar and interpretation are found 
in the various journals, proceedings of* learned societies, and series of studies, 
esi>ecially the following. 

American Journal of Philology (abbr. Am. J. of Ph.). 

Beitrage zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen. Ed. by A, 

Bezzenberger (abbr. B.B. = Bezzenbergers Beitrage). 
Berichte liber die Verhandlungen der koniglichen sachsischen Gesell- 

schaft der Wissenschaft zu Leipzig. Philologisch-historische 

Classe (abbr. Ber. d. sachs. Gesell. d. Wiss.). 
Classical Eeview. 
Indogermanische Forschungen. Zeitschrift filr indogermanische 

Sprach- und Altertumskunde (abbr. I.E.), with the Anzeiger fttr 

indogermanische Sprach- und Altertumskunde (abbr. I.E. Anz.). 
M^moire de la Soci^t^ de Linguistique de Paris (abbr. M^m. Soc. 

Pauli's Altitalische Studien. 5 vols. Hanover, 1883-1887. 
Eheinisches Museum ftir Philologie (abbr. Rh. M.). 
Zeitschrift ftir vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der 

indogermanischen Sprachen. Founded by A. Kuhn (abbr. K.Z. 

= Kuhns Zeitschrift). 


Black type is used to transcribe words in the native alphabets, 
and italics for those in the Latin alphabet. The same distinction 
is commonly employed for separate letters or groups of letters. But 
sometimes, to save unnecessary repetition, italics are used referring 
to the spelling of both the native and Latin alphabets. Glosses 
cited are always indicated as such, except the frequently cited/ameZ. 

The meanings of words cited are usually given, though not 
always, especially where they can easily be inferred from the Latin 
cognates cited. Vice versa, Latin cognates are sometimes left to be 
inferred from the Latin translations. In the case of words of 
doubtful meaning these translations in the grammar are to be 
regarded as expedients, subject to amplification or correction in 
the glossary. In the texts uncertain letters are distinguished by a 
change of type, and where obvious mistakes are corrected the 
original reading is given in footnotes to the text. But in the gram- 
mar proper such matters are usually ignored except when bearing 
directly on the subject of discussion. 

The signs i and u are used for consonantal i and u, English 
y and w, g, ^, y, /, for the syllabic nasals and liquids assumed in 
Indo-European forms. The colon (:) is used to point out relation- 
ship, in the sense of " cognate with.'' Besides the abbreviations of 
works of reference mentioned above, the following are used. 

Av. = Avestan. 

C.A. = Cippus Abellanus (no. 1). 

Eng. = English. 

Fal. = Faliscan. 

Germ. = German. 

Goth. = Gothic. 

Grk. = Greek. 

I.E. = Indo-European. 

Ital. = Italian. 

L. = Latin. 

Lith. = Lithuanian. 

Marruc. = Marrucinian. 

O. = Oscan. 

O.Bulg. = Old Bulgarian. 

O.Eng. = Old English. 

O.H.G. = Old High German. 

O.Ir. = Old Irish. 

O.Pruss. = Old Prussian. 

Pael. = Paelignian. 

Sab. = Sabine. 

Skt. = Sanskrit. 

T.A. = Tablet of Agnone (no. 45). 

T.B. = Tabula Bantina (no. 2.) 

U. = Umbrian. 

Vest. = Vestinian. 




Peoples and Languages op Italy 

1. The Italian peninsula, in the earliest period of history, 
was occupied by various peoples speaking a variety of languages 
and dialects. 

The Li^urians in the northwest have usually been regarded 
as relics of an aboriginal, pre-Indo-European, population, but are 
now thought by some to be Indo-European.^ The linguistic 
remains, consisting largely of geographical names, are too 
meagre to be decisive. 

The Etruscans (Latin Etrusci or Tusci^ the latter from 
*Tur8ci; cf. Umbrian Turskum, Greek Tvp(rr)vo{, Tvpprjvoi) occu- 
pied Etruria, and, previous to the Celtic invasions, much of the 
central part of northern Italy, in the valley of the Po. They 
were also masters of Campania from the eighth century B.C. 
down to the Samnite invasion in the last quarter of the fifth 
century B.C. The Etruscan inscriptions ^ number over six thou- 
sand, but only a few hundred contain anything more than proper 
names, and less than a dozen of these are of any considerable 
length. The interpretation is wholly uncertain and nothing 
positive can be affirmed as to the affinities of the language. 
But it is reasonably clear that it is not Indo-European. The 
riddle will probably remain unsolved until the discovery of a 
bilingual inscription of some length. 

1 Cf. Kretschmer, K.Z. 38, 108 ff. 

2 Now being collected in the Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum. 


2 Introduction [l 

The Veneti, at the head of the Adriatic, and the Messa- 
pians and lapygrians in Calabria have commonly been grouped 
together as of Illyrian origin. There are several hundred short 
Venetian inscriptions,^ and the Messapian is also represented 
by some hundred and sixty short inscriptions.^ From these 
remains it appears that the two languages, though Indo-European, 
do not belong to the same group, and it is uncertain whether 
the Venetian, or the Messapian with the modem Albanian, 
should be classed as Illyrian.^ 

Greek colonies occupied nearly the entire southern portion 
of Italy, many of them dating from a period earlier than the 
beginnings of Roman history and retaining their Greek char- 
acter for several centuries after Christ. 

Celtic tribes which poured in from the north, and in the 
early part of the fourth century B.C. sacked Rome, maintained 
themselves for some time in the central plains of northern 

The rest of Italy was occupied by tribes speaking dialects 
akin to the Latin and with it constituting the Italic branch of 
the Indo-European family. 

Classification op the Italic Dialects 

2. The Italic Dialects fall into two groups, the Latin- 
Faliscan and the Oscan-Umbrian. 

The Latin-Faliscan comprises the Latin, of which there 
were local variations in the different towns of Latium, and the 
Faliscan, spoken in the Faliscan plain in the southeastern part 
of Etruria. The few short inscriptions * are sufficient to show 
that Faliscan differed but slightly from Latin. 

The Oscan-Umbrian group is so named from its two most 
important members, the Oscan and the Umbrian, but includes 

1 Collected in Pauli, Die Veneter, Altitalische Forschungen III. 

2 Mostly in Fabretti, Corpus Inscriptionum Italicarum. 

8 On the Illyrian question, cf . Pauli, 1. c. ; Kretschmer, Einleitung in die 
griechische Sprachgeschichte, 244 ff . ; Hirt, Festschrift fur Kiepert, 181 ff . ; Pedersen, 
K.Z. 36, 299 ff. * Collected in Deecke, Die Falisker. 

8] 0%can — External Data 3 

also the dialects of most of the minor tribes of central Italy, 
which may be conveniently designated as Sabellian.^ The best 
known of these is the Paelignian, which shows a very close 
resemblance to Oscan. Much the same are the dialects of the 
neighboring Marrucinians and Vestinians, of which there are 
some scanty remains. Volscian, known only from an inscrip- 
tion of four lines from Velitrae, is more strongly differentiated 
and in several particulars resembles Umbrian more than Oscan ; 
but there is no sufficient reason for grouping it otherwise than 
among the Sabellian dialects. The Marsians, Aequians, and 
Sabines are connected historically with the other Sabellian 
tribes, and their dialects doubtless belong properly to the 
same group. But they were subjected to Latin influence from 
a very early period, and the meagre remains that we have give 
no satisfactory picture of their characteristics. 

Oscan — External Data 

3. Oscan inscriptions have been found in Samnium (inclu- 
sive of the territory of the Frentani and Hirpini), Campania, 
northern Apulia, Lucania, and Bruttium, and in the Sicilian 
city of Messana from the period after its occupation by the 
Campanian Mamertines. These are precisely the regions which 
we know were occupied by Samnite tribes. In calling the lan- 
guage Oscan rather than Samnitic we are following the usage 
of the Latin authors, as when Livy (10, 20) relates how in one 

I The etymological connection of Sabellus (from *Saf-no4o-), Sabini (from 
*Saf'inoi), and Samnium (from *Saf-nio-m; cf. Oscan Saflnim), together with the 
tradition of the Sabine origin of the Samnites and the minor tribes like the Paeligni, 
is a witness to the tribal relations of these peoples. The Roman writers use Sabellus 
in the sense of Samnitic, and it is properly a generic term including Samnitic. Strictly 
speaking the Samnite tribes were Sabellian, and their language, the Oscan, a Sabel- 
lian dialect. But the Samnites and their language occupy such a preeminent position 
that they are best grouped by themselves, and we may, for convenience, reserve the 
name Sabellian for the closely related minor tribes and dialects. 

The so-called Old Sabellian inscriptions, found in various parts of central Italy, 
are wholly unintelligible, and certainly are not in any of the Sabellian dialects. They 
possibly represent the language of some Dlyrian tribes. 

4 Introduction [3 

of the Samnite wars the Roman consul sent out spies who were 
acquainted with the Oscan language. Now the Oscans (Lat. 
0«d, earlier Opsci, Grk. 'Ottlkoi) were a Campanian tribe, and 
it has been held by some that Oscan was not the original lan- 
guage of the Samnites, but was adopted by them after their 
invasion of Campania. But this is altogether improbable. We 
must, rather, assume that the Oscans were simply a detached 
branch of the Samnites, speaking essentially the same language ; 
and the principal reason why this language was called Oscan 
rather than Samnitic is that it was among the Oscans that the 
Greeks and Romans first came in contact with it. The Sam- 
nites entered the field of history as a politically distinct people 
from the Oscans ; but their language, being the same, was called 
by the name already established. Moreover it was among the 
Oscans, by reason of their early contact with Greek and Etrus- 
can civilization, that the language was first reduced to writing, 
so that while they did not give the Samnites a new language, 
they did give them its written form, and to a certain extent, 
probably, a sort of normalized standard of speech. This last 
supposition would help account for the fact that local variations 
of Oscan, outside of Campania, are far less marked than one 
would expect, considering the extent of the territory in which 
the language was spoken. 

4. The Oscan inscriptions number over two hundred, but 
more than half of these contain only proper names or fragments 
of words. About three quarters of them come from Campania, 
where Pompeii, and in recent years Capua, have furnished the 
greatest number. 

The period of time covered is nearly five centuries, the 
earliest remains being some coin-legends from the end of the 
fifth or first half of the fourth century B.C., while the latest are 
some of the graffiti of Pompeii, which there is reason to believe 
were scratched on the walls after the first earthquake in 63 A.D. 
But by far the greater part of the material falls between 300 B.C. 
and the Social War in 90-89 B.C. After the Social War Oscan 

6] Oscan — External Data 5 

ceased to be used in official documents, but continued to exist 
as a local patois for some time, — how long we cannot tell. If 
at Pompeii it was still spoken, to some extent at least, in the 
first century A.D., it very likely lingered on for several centuries 
in the remoter districts of Samnium. 

Most of the inscriptions are written in the native Oscan 
alphabet, which is derived, through the medium of the Etruscan, 
from the Greek of the Chalcidian type. But a few from Lucania, 
including the longest Oscan inscription known, the Tabula 
Bantina, are in the Latin alphabet, and some from Sicily and 
various parts of southern Italy are in the Greek alphabet. 

5. As regards contents, many well-known classes of in- 
scriptions are represented. The Tabula Bantina, the longest 
inscription, itself only a fragment of the original, contains a 
series of municipal regulations. The next longest, the Cippus 
Abellanus, is an agreement between the cities of Nola and 
Abella touching certain temple property held in common. 
From Agnone in Samnium comes an inventory of statues and 
altars in a sacred grove. The Curse of Vibia, from Capua, 
together with a few shorter curses, belongs to the class of 
devotionen of which there are many examples among Greek 
and Latin inscriptions. There are several inscriptions on public 
works from Pompeii and elsewhere ; also dedications, including 
a peculiar series of ioviYa^-dedications, mostly from Capua, the 
nature of which is not fully understood. Certain inscriptions 
painted on house-fronts near some of the street-comers in Pom- 
peii seem to be guides for the allied troops occupying the city 
in the Social War. There are numerous inscribed coins from 
various towns, some of them older than any of the inscriptions 
on stone ; also several from the time of the Social War, bearing 
the legend Viteliti 'Italia', and the names of the leaders of the 
allies. There are a few epitaphs, many bricks inscribed with 
names, and probably one of the well-known inscribed missiles ; 
also some illegible electioneering notices, not to mention various 
other insignificant scrawls, on walls in Pompeii. 

6 Introduction [6 

6. Besides the inscriptions, there are some secondary 
sources, such as the Oscan glosses, mostly in Varro and 
Festus, and the geographical and personal names from Oscan 
territory. But they contribute relatively little to our knowledge 
of the dialect. 

7. Oscan was not a mere patois, nor was it so regarded by 
the earlier Roman writers. Ennius, in boasting of having three 
souls because he could speak Greek, Oscan, and Latin, gave to 
Oscan a position which he had no thought of giving to the local 
vernacular of his home, the Messapian. For a long time, while 
Latin was still confined to Latium and its immediate borders, 
Oscan was spoken over a vastly wider territory. It was the 
language of the people which gave the Romalis the hardest 
fight for the hegemony of Italy. In the early centuries the 
Oscans of Campania, under the Etruscan rule, and close to the 
Greek colonies of Cumae, Naples, etc., stood on fully as high 
a plane of civilization as the Romans of the same period. 
Eminent scholars like Mommsen have expressed the conviction 
that there once existed an Oscan literature, and certainly the 
conditions for the rise of a native literature were as favorable 
as at Rome. But nothing has come down to us, not even a 
reference to anything more pretentious than the puppet-shows 
introduced in Rome from Campania under the name of fahulae 
Atellanae or ludi Osci. At Rome, of course, these were no 
longer given in Oscan, but in rustic Latin. 

Umbrian — External Data 

8. Aside from a few short inscriptions from various towns 
of Umbria, the Umbrian remains consist of the Iguvinian 
Tables, discovered at Gubbio, the ancient Iguvium, in the fif- 
teenth century. These are seven small bronze tablets (originally 
nine, but two were lost soon after the discovery), most of them 
inscribed on both sides, and containing together between four and 
five thousand words. This makes a far more extensive docu- 
ment than any representing any other dialect except Latin. 

11] General Characteristics of Oacan-Umbrian 7 

9. Some of the tables are written in the native Umbrian 
alphabet, which like the Oscan is derived from the Greek 
through the Etruscan, others in the Latin alphabet. These 
two divisions of the material are conveniently distinguished as 
Old Umbrian and New Umbrian, but the differences are in part 
merely orthographic, and, at most, far less marked than those 
which are usually associated with the terms Old and New in 
such a connection. The New Umbrian tables may date from 
the early part of the first century B.C. How much earlier the 
Old Umbrian tables are it is impossible to say ; different parts 
were inscribed at different times, and even the relative order is 
not fuUy determined. See the Commentary on the Iguvinian 

10. The contents of the Tables consist of the acts of a 
certain corporation of priests known as the Atiedian Brothers, 
and in their general character resemble the Roman Acta Arva- 
Hum. They contain directions for various ceremonies, such as 
the Purification of the Sacred Mount and the Lustration of the 
People, as well as the more private functions of the brotherhood, 
with minute prescriptions as to the taking of auspices, manner 
of sacrificing the victims, etc.; also statements as to the duties 
of certain officials, perquisites of the priests, contributions to 
be made to the brotherhood by certain genteSy etc. Some of the 
older tables contain matter which is repeated in an expanded 
form in the later tables. 

General Characteristics of the Oscan-Umbrian Group 


11. The most striking characteristics, as regards pho- 
nology, are: 

Change of the labiovelars qV and ^^ which appear in 
^Latin as qu and v {gu after n), to the labials p and h ; e.g. O. pis 
*quis', U. pisiy Volsc. pis^ Marruc. nipis ; — O. bivus'vivi'; — 
U. benust 'venerit' ; — U. umen (from *umhen) 'unguen'. 

8 Introduction [11 

Extensive syncope of short vowels in non-initial syllables ; 
e.g. O. a(?^i^(i'agito'; — U. fiktu'figito'; — O. Mrz'hortus'; — 
U. Ikuyins 'Iguvinus'; — O. akkatas 'advocati'. 

Assimilation of nd to nn\ e.g. O. tlpsannam'operandam'; 
— U. pihaner 'piandi' (n for nn^ 26). 

Retention of « before nasals and liquids, where it is lost in 
Latin ; e.g. O. fisnam 'fanum', U. fesnaf-e, Pael./e«w. ; — O. kersnu 
'cena\ U. iesna ; — Pael. prismu 'prima'. 

Retention of a in medial syllables, where it is weakened in 
Latin to e or i; e.g. O. Anter8tatai'*Interstitae'; — U. antakres 
'integris'; — U. procanurent^*jpTOGmueTint\ 

Representation of original bh and dh by/, not only initially 
as in Latin, but also medially, where Latin has b or d; e.g. 
O. tfei, U. tefe 'tibi'; — O. mefiai 'in media'; — U. rufru Tubros'. 

Change of final a, which in Latin is shortened, in the 
direction of 6; e.g. O. moltOy U. mutu, muta'multa'. 

Change of kt to ht^ and of pt to ft (Umbrian, further, to 
ht); e.g. O. Uhtavis'Octavius'; — U. rehte'recte'; — O. serif tas 
'scriptae', U. acrehto. 

Assimilation of ka to 88^ 8; e.g. O. destrst 'dextra est', 
U. de8tram-e. 

Change of n8 to /, though under different conditions in 
Oscan and Umbrian; e.g. O. tiittiuf 'usus' from *oitidnr8 ; — 
U. Ace. PL eaf^eos^ (also Marruc. iaf-c) from *eans (but O. vfass). 


12. Declension. The types of noun-declension are suf- 
ficiently like the Latin to fall naturally into the same grouping 
of Five Declensions. But the Fifth Declension is represented 
by only a few forms, and in the Third Declension the consonants 
stems and i-stems are kept distinct in a greater number of case- 
forms than in Latin. The Cases are the same as in Latin, except 
that, in the Singular, the Locative exists as a distinct form with 
full syntactical functions. The important differences in case- 
formation are as follows (for examples, see the paradigms): 

18] General Characteristics of Ogcan-Umbrian 9 

First Declension. The Gen. Sg. has the original ending -as, 
which is preserved in Latin only in phrases like paterfamilias ; 
the Nom. PI. has the original ending -a«, which is lost in Latin. 
Second Declension. The Gen. Sg. has the ending -eis, from 
instems ; the Dat. Sg. has the ending -oi^ which occurs in 
Latin only in Numasioi of the Praenestine brooch ; the Nom. 
PL has the original noun-ending -o« for both nouns and pro- 
nouns, while the Latin has -i, from -oi, the pronominal ending ; 
the Gen. PI. has only the original -dm (L. -um)^ there being 
nothing to correspond to L. -drum^ which is a specifically Latin 
Third Declension. The Gen. Sg. always has -ei«, the ending of 
i-stems, while Latin -is is the proper ending of consonant- 
stems ; the Ace. Sg^ of consonant-stems has -om, from o-stems ; 
in the Nom. PI. the consonant-stems and i-stems are kept 
distinct, the former having the original ending -es with syn- 
cope of the e, the latter -es as in Latin (O. humuns 'homines', 
but tris'tres'). 

13. Conjugation. The conjugation-types are the same 
as in Latin, the material grouping itself under the Four Conju- 
gations, leaving the relics of unthematic inflection as "Irregular 
Verbs." But the type represented by Latin capio is, in origin, 
more closely connected with the Fourth Conjugation than with 
the Third, and in Oscan-Umbrian is better grouped with the 

The Moods are the same. As in Latin, the Subjunctive is 
a fusion of original Subjunctive and Optative forms, and the 
distribution of the forms is the same as in Latin, except in the 
Perfect Subjunctive (see below). 

The Tenses are the same, except that, perhaps accidentally, 
there is no example of a Pluperfect. 

The Voices are the same, but of the Passive there are only 
forms of the Third Singular and Third Plural. 

Of the non-finite forms there are found a Present Active 
Participle, Perfect Passive Participle, Gerundive, Present Active 

10 Introduction [18 


Infinitive, Perfect Passive Infinitive, and Supine. The Ger- 
und, Perfect Infinitive Active, Future Infinitives, Present Infin- 
itive Passive, and Future Active Participle are lacking. The 
absence of examples of some of these forms is possibly a mere 
accident, but it is probable that most of them are specifically- 
Latin formations. 

The important differences in formation are as follows : 

The Pres. Infin. Act. ends in -om ; e.g. O. ezum^ U. eroWesse'. 

The Future is an ^-formation, in origin a short-vowel Sub- 
junctive of an «-Aorist ; e.g. O. deiuast 'iurabit', U. ferest 'feret'. 

The Fut. Perf. is an i*«-formation, probably based on an 
old Perf. Act. Partic. in -us combined with a short-vowel Sub- 
junctive of the verb 'to be'; e.g. O. dicu8t^dixent\ U. benuat 

Among the different formations making up the Perfect 
System, the /-Perfect is characteristic of Oscan-Umbrian ; e.g. 
O. aikdafed 'decrevit', U. andirsafust 'circumtulerit'. (Oscan- 
Sabellian has also a ^^-Perfect, and Umbrian an Z-Perfect and 
an wAri-Perfect.) The Latin vl- and ^-Perfects are lacking. 

The Perf. Subj. is a real Subjunctive form with the mood- 
sign e, not an Optative with mood-sign i as in Latin ; e.g. O. tri- 
barakattins 'aedificaverint', U. combifianH ^nuntidLyeviV. 

In the Third Singular and Third Plural there is a distinc- 
tion between primary endings, which are -f, -n^, and secondary 
endings, which are -d (lost in Umbrian), -ws; e.g. O. faamat 
'habitat', but fakiiad'faciat'; — O. stahlnt'stant', U. furfant 
'purgant', but O. deicans 'dicant', U. dirsans 'dent'. Latin 
shows -d in some of the earliest inscriptions, but nothing cor- 
responding to -ns. 

The unthematic form of the Third Plural, -ent^ which in 
Latin is always replaced by the thematic form -ont^ -unt^ is pre- 
served, and even extended to thematic formations ; e.g. O. set, 
U. Bent 'sunt', O. censazet 'censebunt'. 

The- Third Singular and Third Plural of the Passive have 
an ending -fer, unknown in Latin, while the Latin -tur appears 

16] General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian 11 

only in Umbrian secondary tenses ; e.g. O. vincter 'convincitur', 
karanter 'vcscuntur', U. herter 'oportet'; U. emantar 'accipiantur'. 

The Third Singular Passive has also a peculiar set of forms 
in which the ending is neither -ter nor -tur, but simply -r ; e.g. 
U./erar 'feratur', O. sakrafir (Perf. Subj.) 'sacrato'. 

The Imperative Passive has an ending -7wo(d), O. -wo-r, 
which is of similar origin to the early Latin -mino ; e.g. O. cen- 
«awwr' censetor', U. jper«mAimi* 'precator'. 


14. The Syntax shows a remarkably close resemblance to 
the Latin. There are no uses of the moods and tenses which 
cannot be paralleled in the Latin, the agreement being closest, 
in some respects, with early Latin prose. The Passive forms 
include both genuine Passives and Deponents, as in Latin, but 
the frequent impersonal use is characteristic of Oscan-Umbrian. 
In the use of the cases there are many interesting constructions, 
of which the following are the most noteworthy. The Locative, 
being preserved as a distinct case-form, is used where the Latin 
requires in with the Ablative, e.g. O. elsel terel 'in eo territorio'. 
The Partitive Genitive has a wider scope than in Latin, e.g. 
U. iuenga peracrio tursituto 'iuvencas ex opimis fuganto'. A 
Genitive of Time is seen in O. zicolom XXX nesimum 'in diebus 
XXX proximis'. The Genitive is used more freely than in Latin 
to denote the matter involved ; e.g. O. eizazunc egmazum 'in these 
matters', U. pusi ocrer pihaner 'as in the case of the purification 
of the mount'. The prepositions corresponding to Latin inter 
and trans are used with both Accusative and Locative ; those 
corresponding to ob and post are used with the Ablative. 

Vocabulary ^ 

15. Of words which are characteristic of Oscan-Umbrian 
as compared with Latin, the following are the most important 
examples : 

1 Special attention is given here to the lexical peculiarities, since these are not, 
like the other characteristics, the subject of fuller treatment in the grammar proper. 

12 Introduction [16 

1. Aer-'velle'. O. Aer^«^ 'volet', heriam 'arbitrium, vim', Herenta- 
teis 'Veneris' (Pz,q\. Herentas)^ U. heri'vult', A^rie*^ 'volet', 
etc., herter 'oportet', hens 'vel', pia-her 'quilibet'. Cf. L. horior^ 
hortor, Grk. ;^at/7a>, Skt. hdrydmi 'be gratified, delight in', Goth. 
-^aim« 'eager', Eng. yearn. This root completely displaces 
uel- (L. void) in the meaning 'wish', the latter appearing only 
in a specialized meaning ; e.g. U. veltu'deligito', ehueltu 'iubeto'. 

2. toutd' 'civitas, urbs, populus'. O. tod fro Mafieprivo 'civitas 
Mamertina', toutad praesentid 'populo praesente', touticom 
'publicum', etc.; U. totam Eouinam 'civitatem Iguvinam', 
tuderor ^o^<?or 'fines urbici', etc.; Marruc. toutai Maroucai 
'civitati Marrucinae'; Volsc. toticu 'publico'. Cf. Lith. tauta 
'people', O.Pruss. tauto 'country', O.Ir. tuath 'people', Goth. 

piuda 'people', O.Eng. pSod 'people, nation', etc. <iXfxAJutc^^9^4li4u.t. 

3. aeV'sacer, divinus'. O. aisusis'sacrificiis'; U. e^ona'sacras', >v«iJ 
e«(?/io 'sacrificium'; Marruc. ai«o«'dis'(?); Mars. e«o«'dis'(?); 
Volsc. e^am^rom 'sac rificium'; alaoi- 0eol xnro Tvpprfv&v 
(Hesychius), aesar Etrusca lingua deus (Suetonius). 

Jiaps» related to Germ. JEhre (Goth. *aiza), and to Goth, aistan^ 

' revere', hrmiiimiTs from aiz-d-, ^t V^«tU ^^ **-^ ^^^ t^v^^o 
4. A:(?m7w>- 'comitium'. O. ^owono 'comitia'; U. super kumne 

'super comitio', kumnahkle 'in conventu'. From kom 'cum' 

-f- suffix -no- (cf. L. pr6-nu8y trdns-trum), 
6. hontrO' 'inferus'. O. hu[n]trui8 'inferis'; U. hondra 'infra', 

Superl. hondomu 'infimo'. From horn-, related to L. humuSy 

Grk. x^l^^^y X^^^'i ®^^' ^^^ meaning cf. L. humilig^ Grk. 
;^^a/xa\o9, Lith. z^mas 'low', semyn 'down', from zeme 'earth'. 
6. merfe«-'ius'. U. mefs, mer« 'ius', 7wer«fo 'iustum', mersuva 
'iusta'; O. meddiss'meddix', official title (cf. Festus "meddix 
apud Oscos nomen magistratus est"; Livy 26, 6, 13 "medix 
tuticus [O. meddiss ttivtiks ; see above, 2] qui summus magis- 
tratus g^pud Campanos est"; cpd. like L. index from *iu8-dik-), 
medieim 'magistracy', meddikiai 'in the meddixship'; medicatinom 
'iudicationem', medicatud 'iudicato'; Pael., Volsc, mg(iia;(Nom. 
PL); Mars, medis, Cf. L. modua^ modes-tug, Grk. fi^Sofiai, etc. 

16] General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian 13 

7. ner- 'vir, princeps', title of rank. O. nerum (Gen. PL), niir 
(Nom. Sg.); U. nerf (Ace. PL), nerus (Dat. PL). For related 
Sabine forms cf. Suetonius Tib. 1 "inter cognomina autem et 
Neronis adsumpsit, quo significatur lingua Sabina fortis ac 
strenuus"; Aul. Gellius 13, 23 "id autem, sive Nerio sive 
Nerienes est, Sabinum verbum est, eoque significatur virtus 
et fortitude"; Lydus de Mens. 4, 42 ^^vepi/cr) yhp fi avipia 
iarl Kol V€p(ova^ rois avhpeCov^ oi ^afilvoL Ka\ov<riv^\ Cf. 
Grk. ai/?7/>, Skt. nar-'man', O.Ir. wer^ 'strength'. 
^. 8. nessimo- 'proximus'. O. nessimas (Nom. PL), nesimum (Gen. 
PL), nesimois (Abl. PL); U. nesimei ^proxime^ (adv.). Cf. 
O.Ir. nessam 'nearest', etc. Cf. also O. nistras 'propinquos'. 

9. ^er^ 'trans'. O. pert viam 'trans viam', am-pert ^not more 
than, dumtaxat'; U. pert spiniam 'trans columnam'(?). An 
extension of per. Umbrian also uses traf— L. trans. 

10. ^o«<m 'according to'. O. ptistin slagim 'according to the 
territory'; U. pusti kastruvuf 'per capita' (?) etc. An exten- 
sion of *posti (early Latin paste), 

11. pur- 'ignis'. U. pir 'ignis', pure-to 'ab igne'; O. purasiai 'in 
igniaria'. Cf. Grk. irvp, irvp6<;, O.H.G. fair, fiur, Eng.^re, etc. 

12. seuo- ^totus*. O. wwWomnino'; U. «ei^ow'totum', sev-^akne 
'soUemne'. Cf. L. so-lus^ Goth. se-UQ), 

13. ^^ro- 'burnt-offering'. O. saahtdm teMrtim 'sacred burnt- 
offering'; U. tefra 'cames cremandas', tefrvrto 'ex rogo'. 
Probably from *tepsro-^ related to L. tepor^ Skt. tdpas, etc. 

14. fre6-'habitare'. U. freJei^ ' versatur', ^r^iw/ii^'tabemaculo'; 
O. trlMm 'domum', tribarakWuf 'aedificium', trflMuakaviim 
'aedificare', etc. Cf. O.Ir. ^re6 'dwelling-place', Lith. trobd 
'building', Goth. paUrp 'field'. Germ. Dorf etc. 

15. wero- 'porta'. O. veru'portam'; U. uerof-e ^in portam', etc. 
Cf. Skt. vr- 'enclose', Goth, wary an ^we^xd off', Lith. veriH 
'open, shut', vaf ^ai 'gate', L. aperio^ operio. 

For other examples, see, in the Glossary, O. akenei, U. aenu ; 
O. afkdafed, U. eitipes ; O. eebiianastim, U. ehiato ; O. eizo-, U. era-; 
O. ptimperiais, U. pumpefias. 


14 Introduction [16 


16. Of the many words which are peculiar to Oscan (or Oscan 
Sabellian) or to Umbrian, the following may be mentioned here. 

A. Oscan. 1. ae^m 'partis', ajlttitim 'partium'. Cf. Grk. al<ra 
from air-La. 

2. amntid'circuitu', awwwii 'causa' (prepos.). From am-'amb-' 
+ suffix -W0-. (Cf. howrWh^ 16, 4.) Perhaps contained in 
L. sollremnig. 

3. comparascuster 'consulta erit', kdjmparakineis 'consilii'. From 
the same root as L. po8c6, precor, but with the meaning 
which it has more commonly in other languages of 'ask, 
question' (Ski, prcchami 'ask', sam-prcchdmi ^Gons\}lt\ Germ. 
forachen^ etc.). 

4. d^ma- 'iurare' (deiuatud ^i\irsito\ etc.). Denominative from 
*deiu0' 'god'. Cf. Lettic cRwati-a 'swear', from c^ws 'god'. 

5. egmo 'res', egmazum 'rerum', etc. Etym. uncertain (h.effeo?). 

6. eituam^ eftiuvam 'pecuniam', eituas 'pecuniae', etc. Also 
Marruc. eituam 'pecuniam'. Etym. uncertain. 

7. feihtiss 'muros', feihtiis 'muris'. Cf. Grk. relxo^t Skt. deht 
'heap, wall', etc. From the same root as L. fingo^ figura^ etc. 

8. Inim, inim 'et'. Also Pael. inim and inom 'et'. Related to 
L. emm, U. e/iom'tum'. 

9. loufir 'vel'. In form a 3d Sg. Pres. Pass, from the same root 
as L. lihet. Cf. L. vel from volo^ and U. heris 'vel' (16, 1). 

10. puklum 'puerum, filium'. Also Pael. jimcfoi* 'pueris'. Cf. 
Skt. putrd' 'son', and, from the same root, L. jmer^ Grk. irak. 

11. ^awymom' sen tentiam', Abl. Sg. tangintid, etc. Cf. Festus 
"tongere nosse est, nam Praenestini tongitionem dicunt noti- 
onem. Ennius'Aliirhetorica tongent'". CL Goth, pagk^'an^ 
Eng. think. 

For other examples, see, in the Glossary, aflukad, ampt, 
amviannud, angetuzet^ brateis^ cadets^ karanter, deketasitii, ehpeHatas, 
faamat, fertalis, heriiad, idklel, iuvilu, lamatir, luisarifs, prupukid, 
serevkid, slagim, siiUus, sverranei, trutum, usurs, ualaemom^ vereiiai. 

B. Umbrian. 12. anglaf^ancla^osQ,mQ^\ Cpd.of A:Za-(L.cZa7w^), 

as L. 08Cine9 from cano. 

17] General Characteristics of OscavrUmhrian 16 

13. anouihimu ^mdcaitoT*. From ^avrouid (Conj. IV); cf. 
L. ind-uo from Hndroud^ Lith. aviil 'wear (shoes)'. 

14. ape, appei'cum, ubi' (always temporal). Probably from ad 
H- pe (L. -que)^ and so in form like L. adque^ atque. 

15. arsmor 'ritus', arsmatiam 'ritualem', arsmahamo 'ordamini', 
etc. Etym. uncertain. 

16. comJi/Ja- 'nuntiare, mandare' (combifiatuy kupifiaia, etc.). 
Probably from fif-^ the same root as in L. fido^ Grk. ireiOto^ 
or possibly from fuf-^ the same as in Grk. Trvvddvofiai. 

17. gomia 'gravidas'. Cf. L. geTno^ and, for meaning especially, 
Grk. y€fjb<D, 

18. nertru 'sinistro'. Cf. Grk. viprepo^ 'lower, nether'. Accord- 
ing to Italic ideas imus = sinister. 

19. purdouitu 'porricito', purditom 'porrectum', etc. From 
*por-douid^ with the root seen in L. duimy duam. 

20. tuder 'finem', tuderus 'finibns', tuderato 'finitum', eturstahmu 
'exterminato', etc. Etym. uncertain. 

21. wewd- ' vertere' in ahauendu 'SiYeTtito\ preuendu ^adYeTtito\ 
Cf. Germ, wenden (Eng. wind). 

For other examples, too numerous to mention, see the 
Glossary. Many of them are technical terms, often of obscure 

17. Several words are used in a sense which is either 
unknown or nearly obsolete in Latin. 

1. O. kasit (L. caret) means 'decet' or 'oportet', e.g. fakiiad kasit 
'faciat decet'. Cf. Eng. "it wants to be done", that is "it 
needs to be done". 

2. O. castrous^ U. castruo (L. castrum)^ mean either 'fundus, 
landed property', or, more probably, 'head'. 

3. O. carneisy U. karu (L. mro),have the general meaning 'part, 
portion' (cf. also U. kartu 'distribuito'), e.g. maimas carneis 
senateis tanginud 'maximae partis senatus sententia', U. mes- 
tru karu fratru 'maior pars fratrum'. But Umbrian shows also 
the specialized meaning 'piece of flesh', e.g. aseceta kame'non 
secta came'. 

16 Introduction [17 

4. The forms corresponding to L. operor are used in the sense 
of 'make, construct', where Latin would employ /aciJ; e.g. 
O. ekass vlass uupsens 'has vias fecerunt', triibtim ekak tipsannam 
deded'domum hanc faciendam dedit'; U. capirse perao ogatu 
'capidi fossam facito'; Pael. Herec. fesn. upsaseter coisatens 
'Herculi fanum fieret curaverunt'. 

5. O. ant (L. ante) means 'usque ad', e.g. ant piinttram 'usque ad 

6. U. com (L. cum)^ when postpositive, has developed a locative 
meaning, e.g. ueriB-co 'at the gate', asa-ku 'at the altar'. 

7. O. op^ tip (L. oJ), means 'apud', e.g. tip sakarakltid 'apud tem- 
plum', op ^ow^d'apud populum'. 

8. pro- ( sometimes has a temporal meaning 'before', for 
which in Latin j^rae-, or of tener ante-^ is used ; e.g. U. prupehast 
'ante piabit', O.prupukid'ex antepacto, by previous agreement'. 

9. U. emantur (L. emo) 'accipiantur' shows the original meaning 
'take' seen in Latin compounds and in the particle em. Cf. 
also Festus "emere, quod nunc est mercari, antiqui accipie- 
bant pro sumere". The specialized meaning 'buy' is found 
in errtpa on one of the short inscriptions, where it is perhaps 
due to Latin influence. 

10. U. prever (L. privus) means 'singulis', e.g. numer prever 
'nummis singulis'. Cf. Festus "privos privasque antiqui 
dicebant pro singulis". So also O. preiuatud means 'reo, 
defendant' (as rarely in Latin, e.g. Livy 26, 3, 8, etc.), — the 
single man among the many making up the assembly. 

11. U. orto (L. ortuB) is sometimes used in the literal sense of 
'rising, standing up', e.g. urtes puntis'the pentads rising'. 
Cf. Velius Longus (Keil, Gram. Lat. VII, 74) "oriri apud 
antiquos surgere frequenter significat, ut apparet ex eo quod 
dicitur : oriens consul magistnim populi dicat, quod est sur- 
gens"; Livy 8, 23, 15 "consul oriens". 

12. U. tursituto^ tursiandu (L. terreo), have the meaning 'drive off', 
which in Latin is only poetical ; e.g. ponne iuengar tursiandu 
'cum iuvencae fugentur'. But also tursitu 'terreto'. 

18] General Charaetei'istics of Osca7i'Umhrian * 17 

13. U. couertu (L. converto) always means 'return', with the 
intransitive meaning which is rare in Latin ; e.g. enom traha 
Sahatam couertu 'turn trans Sanctam revertito'. 

14. U. vurtus (L. verto) has the meaning 'take a turn, change', 
which is rare in Latin (verterat fortuna, Liv. 5, 49, 5) ; e.g. 
pune naraklum vurtus 'cum nuntiatio mutaverit'. 

15. U. ostendu (L. oatendo) has more nearly its etymological 
meaning than in Latin. It is used of 'stretching out', that 
is 'offering', fruits of the field or vessels; once of 'putting 
forward', that is 'choosing', an official. 

16. O. unist (L. oro ; see 21) is used in the technical sense of 

'plead, argue'; e.g. compreiuatud actud, , inponposmom 

con preiuatud urust 'cum reo agito, , et cum postremum 

cum reo oraverit'. Cf. Festus "orare antiquos dixisse pro 
agere"; Cic. Brut. 12, 47 "oravisse capitis causam"; Livy 
39, 40, 6 " si causa oranda esset", etc. 

17. U. comohota (L. commotus) means 'brought, offered', in Di 

Grrabouie^ tio comohota trihrisine biiOj , tiom suboeau 'lup- 

piter Grabovi, te commoto ternione boum, te invoco'. 

Cf. Cato, De Agric. 144 "lane pater, te hac strue commovenda 
(MSS. also ommovenda) bonas preces precor". 


18. The differences between Oscan-Umbrian and Latin are 
considerable. They are far greater, for example, than those 
between the Greek dialects, especially in the inflectional forms. 
But the resemblances with Latin, as compared with any other 
Indo-European language, are also notable, leaving no doubt 
that we have to do with two closely-related divisions of the 
same branch, sharing in many important characteristics which 
distinguish this among the various branches of the great family. 
This again is most marked in the inflectional system, so that 
we can maintain that the Latin inflectional system as a whole 
is also the Italic. The simplest proof of this lies in the fact 

18 Introduction [18 

that the general classifications which have been found most 
suitable for the treatment of Latin forms apply also to Oscan- 
Umbrian. For such classifications, as, for example, that of the 
verb-forms into the Four Conjugations with scattering Irregular 
Verbs, are not mere arbitrary devices, for which others equally 
good might be substituted, but actually reflect the distribution 
of the linguistic material in a given language. 

A few specific examples of these resemblances are : merging 
of the Instrumental with the Ablative ; extension of the Abla- 
tive in 'd from the o-stems to the other declensions ; partial 
fusion of i-stems and consonant-stems ; use of the Interrogative- 
Indefinite Pronoun as a Relative ; fusion of Aorist and Perfect ; 
formation of the Imperfect Indicative ; formation of the Imper- 
fect Subjunctive. 

Special Characteristics of Oscan 

19. Oscan is the Gothic of the Italic dialects. In the con- 
servatism and transparency of its vowel-system it is rivaled 
only by Greek of all the Indo-European languages. 

Diphthongs are preserved intact in all positions ; e.g. Dat.- 
Abl. PI. -ais and -ois : L. -Is ; — Loc. Sg. -ei : L. -i ; — Gen. Sg. 
of ^^^stems . in -ous : L. -m ; — deicum : L. died ; — miiinikel : 
L. {comr)munis. So also Paelignian and Marrucinian. 

The finer nuances of pronunciation are expressed by a 
highly-developed orthographical system. The qualitative dif- 
ference between the long and short vowels (except the a-vowels), 
which is known to have existed in Latin, is more marked in 
Oscan than elsewhere. For example, the short e is denoted by 
the letter e, but long e has become so close in pronunciation 
as to be denoted by an i-character (in the Oscan alphabet by I, 
the sign of the relatively open i) ; e.g. estud : L. esto^ but ligud^ 
ligatuis : L. lex^ legdtus. Note also j^orf, ptid : L. quod^ but estudy 
estud : L. esto ; also (in the Oscan alphabet) pid : L. quid^ but 
Abl. Sg. -id : L. -id. 

80] Special Characteristics of Umhrian 19 

An original s between vowels, which becomes r in Umbrian 
as in Latin, remains a sibilant (also Paelignian) ; e.g. Gen. PI. 
-azum : L. -drum. Final d after long vowels is preserved, as in 
early Latin, while in Umbrian it is lost even after short vowels (20). 

A specifically Oscan (also Paelignian) process is the devel- 
opment of an anaptyctic vowel between liquids or nasals and 
mutes ; e.g. aragetud 'argento'; — perek(ai8) 'perticis': U. per cam* 
Among other secondary changes are the doubling of consonants 
before certain sounds, and the change of u after a dental ; e.g. 
kdmbennieis 'conventus', alttram 'alteram', tiurri 'turrim'. 

See also under 20. 

Special Characteristics of Umbrian 

20. Umbrian, as compared with Oscan, is characterized 
mainly by a number of secondary phonetic changes, of which 
the most important are : 

Monophthongization of the original diphthongs in all posi- 
tions ; e.g. Dat.-Abl. PI. -es, -ir, -er : O. -ois^ L. -is ; — ote : O. aut^ 
L. auty — pre: O. prai, L. prae. So also Volscian. 

Rhotacism, as in Latin, where Oscan preserves the sibilant ; 
e.g. Gen. PI. -arum : O. -azum. 

Loss of final d ; e.g. -po in suepo 'sive': O. pod^ L. quod ; — 
fa0a 'faciat': O. fakiiad. So also Volscian. 

Loss of I before t ; e.g. muta : O. moltay L. multa, 

Assibilation of k before front vowels, as in late Latin and 
Romance ; e.g. facia : O. fakiiad, L. faciat. So also Volscian. 

Change of gutturals before t to i; e.g. aitu: O. actud^ 
L. agito (cf. French fait from L. factum). 

Change of intervocalic c? to a sound written rs (f in 
Umbrian alphabet) ; e.g. persi^ peri : L. pede. 

Change of ft (in part from pt) to ht ; e.g. screhto 'scriptum': 
O. serif tas^ L. scnptus* 

Assimilation of secondary j9« ; e.g. osatu ^iB,cit6* : O. lipsan- 
nam, L. operor. 

Change of initial 7 to u ; e.g. vutu: L. lavito. 

20 Introduction [20 

Among other Umbrian peculiarities are : 

Development of original final -ns to -f^ for which Oscan has 
-««; e.g. U. «a/'eas': O. viass'vias'. So also Marrucinian. 

Retention of intervocalic V«; e.g. fi*m^i^ 'terreto'. 

Ending of Abl. Sg. of consonant-stems in -e, as in Latin, 
while Oscan has -od after o-stems ; e.g. natine'natione': O. tan- 
ginud 'sententia'. 

Ending of Dat.-Abl. PI. of consonant-stems in -w«, after 
2*-stems, where Oscan has -iss, -i«, after i-stems ; e.g. fratrus 
*fratribus' (as if L. *fratrubus)\ O. Zz^i^ 'legibus'. 

Presence of pronominal forms with sm\ e.g. pusme 'cui', 
e«mei'huic': Skt. kdsmdij dsmdi^ etc. 

Imperative futUy contrasted with O. estud^ L. e%td (also 
Volsc. estu). 

Perfect in I and nki^ contrasted with O. tt-Perfect (13). 

Passive endings both -ter and -tur^ Oscan having only 
-ter (13). 

Use of et as the usual connective, as in Latin, for which 
Oscan has inim (16, 8). 

Arrangement of the proper name, which is praenomen, 
father's name, gentile, while in Oscan it is the same as in Latin. 

Borrowed Words 

21. The borrowed words consist mainly of Greek words in 
Oscan, introduced from the neighboring Greek colonies. These 
are mostly names or epithets of divinities, such as Appelluneis 
(Dor. ^KiriWcov) ; — Evkliii (probably EiJ^oXo?, an epithet of 
Hermes in Magna Graecia); — Herekleis ('H/}a/c\r)9, with syn- 
cope of the a and shortening of the vowel before r -f- conso- 
nant, whence, with anaptyctic vowel in different positions, 
come both the Oscan and Latin forms ; the Oscan form, in 
contrast to the Latin, is an o-stem, Dat. Sg. Hereklui; cf. also 
Vest. Her do) \ — Piistiai (11 tWto?; cf. Zeu9 YiitnLo^ for luppiter 
Fidms in Dionys. Hal. 4, 58 ; the ii of the Oscan is perhaps due 
to contamination with some such form as Piihiui); — Herukinai 

21] Borrowed Words 21 

(EpvKiVT) ; Herentatei Herukiiiai corresponds to the Sicilian *A^/}o- 
SiTf) *^pv/ciV7j^ the worship of whom as Vehu8 Erycina was also 
introduced among the Romans in the second Punic war; cf. 
Livy 22, 9, 10) ; — Meefllkiieis (MetXi^to? ; eei is merely the result 
of an attempted correction of ee to ei); — Arentika[i (Hesych. 
*ApdvTiaiv* 'Fipivvai, MaKcSove;), 

But there are also a few common nouns of the same class 
as those introduced into Latin at the same period, such as the- 
savrtim {Brjaavpo^ ; the Oscan form is neuter), kdiniks (xotw|), 
passtata (Tracrra?), tiurri, with L. turris (rvppi^); limu 'famem' 
is also suspicious, since cognates of Grk. XZ/io? are otherwise 
unknown in Italic. 

Latin influence shows itself in some official titles, as 
O. aidil'aedilis' (the d of L. aedes comes from dh^ which would 
be/ in Oscan) ; — O. kenzsur (cf . also Eenssurineis) beside the regu- 
lar keenzstur, censtur ' censor' (see 244, 1, a) ; — probably O. kvaisstur, 
U. kvestur 'quaestor', though there is a possibility that the initial 
was not j'i^, but &u, and that this gives O.-U. ku, not p (141, a). 

O. urust is best taken as ^a borrowed legal term (see 17, 16), 
since we should expect *uzu8t (see 112) as a cognate of L. oro 
according to what is still the most probable derivation of the 
latter, namely from os. 

Some proper names show Latin or half-Oscanized Latin 
forms, as Niumeriis 'Numerius', for which the genuine Oscan 
form would be *Nium8ii8 (cf. the praenomen Nijumsis). 

O. Mener, if, as is probable, an abbreviation of a form corresponding to 
L. Mineroium^ shows that the Oscan, like the Etruscan, name of the divinity 
was borrowed, together with the cult, from a dialect in which rhotacism took 
place (*Menes-ua). Though the cult of Minerva may have originated among 
the Faliscans, as many suppose, it probably reached the Oscans through the 
medium of the Romans, but at a time when the Latin form was still Menerva 
(CIL. V 703, 799, VI 623, etc.) Pael. Minerua is likewise borrowed. 

U. vinu 'vinum' (and O. Vilnikils * Vinicius', if related) must be borrowed 
from vtnum, if the latter is from ^ueino-^ earlier *uoino- (oTwj). For the change 
of uoi to uei is probably Latin only (U. uocu : Grk. Fot/coj ?), and even if it were 
Italic, we should expect then U. *venu (65). 

A possible example of borrowing from one of the minor dialects is U. felsv^, 
See 149^ b. 


fl, a 

1, V 

a, b 

i; z(= ts) 

>, g 

B, h 

a, d 

1, i 

3, e 

X, k 




22. The native Oscan alphabet consists of the following 
twenty-one characters: 

>l, 1 ^,8 

KM, m T, t 

H, n V, u 

n, P 8, f 

a, r ^■(^ k), i v, ^ 

The last two letters are simply differentiations of the ordi- 
nary characters for i and w, and are not found in the oldest 
inscriptions.^. They are commonly transcribed by i and d, but 
sometimes by i and fi, the latter also by o. The i is used to 
indicate an open i-sound, representing etymologically a short 
i (44), an e (4l), a short e in hiatus (88, l), and occurring regu- 
larly in i-diphthongs (61, 1) and in the combination ii representing 
I (47). The d denotes an o-sound, the character o being lacking 
in both Oscan and Umbrian. 

Double consonants are indicated in the writing, except in 
some of the oldest inscriptions. 

The length of vowels is often shown by a doubling of the 
vowel, as in aasas : L. dra ; — Fluusai : L. Flora. 

23. The Latin alphabet of the Tabula Bantina is of the 
usual type, z does not denote the sound ts as in the native 
alphabet, but the voiced sibilant (English z in zero)^ which in 

1 The occurrence of h on a few Boeotian inscriptions (CIGS. 1 1888, 1943, 2456), 
representing an open i which comes from original €i or from € before vowels, but in 
the usual Boeotian orthography is not distinguished from i, suggests that it may not 
be an Oscan invention after all, but possibly borrowed at a comparatively late period 
from some type of the Chalcidian alphabet in southern Italy. 


26] Alphabet 23 

the native alphabet is not differentiated from s ; e.g. Gen. PI. 
-azum (-asiim). 

Double consonants are only rarely indicated, and the dou- 
bling of vowels to denote length is unknown. 

24. The Greek alphabet, used in a few inscriptions of 
Sicily and southern Italy, is of the Tarentine-Ionic type, such 
as appears in the Heracleian tables. This is the normal Ionic 
with the addition of I- = h and C = v. Neither t) nor © is used 
to indicate quantity. 

According to the ^system of orthography represented in 
no. 62 and some others, 7)t and cof are used to represent the 
diphthongs ei and ou^ as in Gen. Sg. -7749 = -ef s, tod fro = touto ; 
while €1 and 01; represent monophthongs, the former the open 
t-sound, the i of the native alphabet, the latter the i^-sound of 
original o, e.g. fieSSei^ = meddiss, oviraev^; = uupsens. 

But in some inscriptions ei and 01; are used for diphthongs, 
and original 6 then appears as o, e.g. fepaopet 'Versori' (contrast 
the last two syllables with those of ATTTreWowrji, no. 62), 
Aou/cai'o/A'Lucanorum' (cf. Ltivkanateis ; for the last syllable 
contrast MafiepTivov/i), 

a. The spelling Aiovfei (cf . Dit^vef, Wvef) is probably due to the fact that 
the syllabic division was not clear. Cf. U. auuei beside usual aueif * avis'. 

6. A character S, occurring in Secrrtes and avaSa/cer (nos. 65-66), is of 
disputed value, but is probably the equivalent of Oscan 8. Cf. also the coin- 
legend ^EN^EP beside Fensemu. 

c. In Ntv/LurSwyij = Niumsiels, the trd is probably connected in some way 
with the dialectic use of crd for the usual f, though in the latter case it repre- 
sented the actual pronunciation. 


25. The native Umbrian alphabet consists of the following 
nineteen characters : 

ft, a 

t, '(= 

= t8) 



>Ci). t 

a, b 

G, h 

H, n 

V, u 

s, f 

1, i 

1, P 

8, f 

^, e 

>l, k 

a, r 

. d, c 

:3, V 

i, 1 

^, 8 

24 Phonology [26 

There are no signs for d and g^ the lettera t and k answer- 
ing for both surds and sonants. 

The ^ represents a sound which comes from an original 
intervocalic d and appears in the Latin alphabet as rs. For 
convenience it may be pronounced simply as r«, but probably it 
was a sort of sibilant r, like the Bohemian f, from which comes 
the usual transcription f. It is also transcribed, with ^lore 
regard for its origin than for its pronunciation, as d or tT. 

The d, transcribed $, also sometimes ^, represents a sibilant 
derived from k before a front vowel. 

Double consonants are not indicated. Vowel-length is some- 
times shown by an added h, e.g. kumnahUe with suffix -dklo-, 

a. A by-form for m, A , occurring also in Etruscan, is regularly employed 
in Table V. The san, M, occurs twice for s, and the theta, O, is twice used 
for t. The appearance of p in place of f in kutep, vitlup, turup (I b 3, 4), for 
which there is no likely phonetic explanation, is perhaps to be accounted for by 
the existence of a by-form for f resembling the form of p (cf. Faliscan T). 

26. The Latin alphabet is of the usual type, but with 
no z. The secondary sibilant, the d of the native alphabet, is 

' denoted by ^, which is transcribed «. g' is used before the 
vowel u^ as often in Latin inscriptions (pequnia) ; e.g. pequo^ 
dequrier^ peiqu. Double consonants are rarely indicated. Vowel- 
length is shown by an added A, by vowel + A + vowel, rarely by 
doubling of the vowel ; e.g. spahmu, spahamuj eetu. 

Note. For the probable origin of the use of an added h to denote vowel- 
length, which is characteristic of Umbrian of both alphabets, see 75. The use of 
vowel + A + vowel is probably a combination of this with the double-vowel method. 

Relation of the Alphabets 

27. Both the Oscan and Umbrian native alphabets are derived from the 
Greek alphabet of the Chalcidian type, through the medium of the Etruscan. 
That they are not derived directly from the Greek is shown by the absence of 
the letter o, as well as by other evidence. At the same time, the presence of 8 
points to an earlier type than that of the extant Etruscan inscriptions. Dif- 
ferences between Oscan and Umbrian may be attributed to both local and 
chronological variations of Etruscan, as well as to divergent development after 
borrowing. It is extremely probable that the Oscan development was influenced 
in some particulars by the neighboring Greek. 

28} Notea on Orthography 25 

The fact that >, g, is present in Oscan, but not in Umbrian, is sometimes 
explained by the supposition that the Oscan alplftkbet was borrowed earlier than 
the Umbrian. But at all periods Etruscan possessed both characters, > and )l, 
used as by-forms for the surd. Umbrian took only )l, possibly because this was 
preferred in the local type from which it was derived. Oscan took over both 
characters and differentiated them again. That in this process the original 
value of the signs in Greek was restored, instead of the opposite (see follow- 
ing), might be accidental, but is very likely due to the influence of Campanian 
Greek usage. 

The apparent transposition of the signs for d and r is accounted for as 
follows. The Etruscans had no sound d, but used as a by-form of S = r, in 
fact preferred it, as less likely to be confused with T z= p ; and with this value 
it was adopted by the Oscans and Umbrians. But the old signs for r were also 
taken over and employed for the sound d, — fl by the Oscans, S by the Umbrians. 
This early Umbrian use of S as d is seen in some of the minor inscriptions. 
But with the change of intervocalic d the letter was retained for the new sound, 
that which we transcribe f, and thenceforth the unchanged d was expressed by 
the letter t. 

The origin of the sign 8, f, is disputed. Possibly it is a rounded form 
of B, used first in combination with C, and then alone, as vice versa in Lq.tin 
first FB, then F. N^^w jk^-«>K.^ i^ L u ^*..<^^ >w-»c. - s ' * ' 

The relation of the alphabets may be seen from the following ^ : 

Chalcidian Greek 

/ r 

Latin Primitive Etruscan 

( I Lati] 

J \ \ I 

Campano-Etruscan Oscan Etruscan Umbrian 

(of Etruria) 

Notes on Orthography 

28. Resume of methods of indicating vowel-length. The 
length of a vowel may be indicated : 

1) by doubling of the vowel sign, — in Oscan of the native 
alphabet, rarely in Umbrian of the Latin alphabet. See 22, 26; 

2) by vowel + A, — in Umbrian of both alphabets. See 25, 26. 

3) by vowel -\-h-\- vowel, — in Umbrian of the Latin alphabet. 
See 26. 

1 From Conway's Italic Dialects, Part II, which also contains a comparative 
table of the alphabets with the variant forms of the letters. 

26 Phonology [88 

But oftenest there is no designation of the length, and in 
such cases it is not customary to supply marks of quantity, as 
is done in the case of Latin, where metrical usage furnishes 
a criterion lacking in the dialects. For example, we write 
O. aasas, eituas, U. totar, though in this case there is no doubt 
of the vowel-length in the last syllable (Gen. Sg. ending -da). 

In Oscan the designation of length is, with a few excep- 
tions, confined to root-syllables. 

29. Use of ei, «i, in Umbrian. While in Oscan the digraph 
ei, ei, uniformly designates the diphthong ei^ its uses in Umbrian, 
where the original ei had become a monophthong, are various. 
Sometimes it designates a secondary diphthong, the i of which 
comes from a guttural, e.g. teitu, deitu 'dicito' (148). 

But it is frequently used in the Latin alphabet, and rarely in 
the native, much as in Latin inscriptions of the first century B.C., 
as one of the various spellings of a monophthong. It is notably 
frequent in the first thirty-odd lines of Table VI a. Oftenest it 
stands for original i, e.g. screihtor (L. scriptus); sometimes for the 
close e resulting from oi in final syllables (67, 2), e.g. Dat.-Abl. 
PI. uereir, or from original (?", e.g. nesimei 'proxime' (adverb in 
-^), heriiei (Perf. Subj. with mood-sign <f). There are also a few 
reasonably certain instances of its use for a short i, namely Dat.- 
Abl. PI. aueis (^-ifs)^ Ace. Sg. Fisei (-im)^ 3d Sg. Pass, hertei 
beside herti^ herter (-tir from -ter; see 89, 2). 

Puzzling is the use of ei in neip, neip'nec' (with'neifhabas; 
see 84), in eikvasese, eikvasatis, of uncertain meaning, and in 
eiscurent^a,TGes8iennt\ For eitipes see 264, 2. 

a. For eikvasatis and eikvasese connection with L. aequus is plausible ; and 
for eiscurent the comparison with O.H.G. eiscon (Germ, heischen), Lith. jeszkoti 
*seek% etc., pointing t6 a Present *aiS'8kd (Skt. iccJidmi from Hs-sko with 
reduced grade of root) is the most probable of all suggestions offered. Yet 
according to the usual orthography we should expect e for the open g coming 
from ai (68). It is conceivable however that we have here isolated survivals of 
archaistic spelling, representing not the earliest period when ei was still pro- 
nounced as a diphthong, but a second period, in which the spelling ei was 
retained for the sound resulting from ei and extended to the same sound resulting 

80] Notea on Orthography 27 

from ai (both ei and ai resulted in an open g ; see 68, 65). Cf. early Latin 
deico and inceido. 

The ordinary use of ei for % close g, etc., as described above, cannot be 
the result of any such orthographical development within the Umbrian, since it 
does not appear where the sound was originally ei. It must rather be regarded 
as borrowed from contemporary Latin spelling. 

h. For neip, neip we might also assume archaistic spelling (cf. O. Tidp)^ 
but its almost uniform appearance in this particular word (neip, neip 9 times, 
once ne/p) would remain to be accounted for. A suggested derivation from *ng 
(from *ng, O. ni^ or */i€i, O. nei) + particle -i + p would explain the spelling, as 
representing a genuine diphthong, but for various reasons seems improbable. 

30. While Oscan orthography, barring the inconsistency in 
the designation of vowel-length and a few other, mostly local, 
variations, is remarkably uniform, Umbrian orthography is as 
diverse as possible. Various spellings of the same sound are 
used, sometimes wholly promiscuously, sometimes with a marked 
preference for one spelling in certain portions of the tables or 
in certain classes of forms. Among the commonest variations 
are the following : 


1. Variation between e and i. In the great majority of instances this 
occurs where the soimd lies between c and i, or, more correctly, between the 
extremes of an open e and a close i ; that is, it is either the open i from original 
short i (46), or the close g from original I (42) or from oi in final syllables 
(67, 2). The spelling e is relatively more frequent in the native than in the 
Latin alphabet. The use of e for closed I from original i, or, vice versa, of i 
for the open e from original short e, or for open e from original ai or ei, is rare. 
The variation between e and i cor^sponds then in general to the Oscan use of 1. 

2. Variation between ei and e or i. See 29. 

8. Variation between o and u (only in the Latin alphabet, of course, since 
the native alphabet has no o), mostly in the case of original b (54), sometimes 
for short o, especially before r (61). 

4. Variation between a and u (in the native alphabet only ; in the Latin 
alphabet always o) for the rounded a (as in English call)^ coming from final -a (84). 

6. Variation in the designation of vowel-length, e.g. ee, eA, or e^e (in 
native alphabet only eh), or, oftenest, simply e, e, without indication of length. 
See 25, 26, 28. 

6. Variation between p and b in the native alphabet, e.g. habina, hapinaf. 
It is doubtless owing to the double value of t and k, which answer for both 
surds and sonants, that p is also used not infrequently for b. 

7. Variation between single and double consonants. Double consonants 
are not Indicated in the native alphabet, and only occasionally in the Latin. 

28 Phonology [80 

8. Presence or absence of h. The weak pronunciation of h in Umbrian 
is responsible for considerable inconsistency in spelling, just as is the case in 
Latin. See 149, a. The use of A as a sign of hiatus is common to both Oscan 
and Umbrian, e.g. O. stahlnt *8tant% U. ahesnes *ahenis\ 

9. Presence or absence of n before a consonant (108, 1). 

10. Presence or absence of r before s (115, 116). 

11. Presence or absence of most final consonants (164, 9). 

31. An important difference between the orthography of 
the native alphabets and that of the Latin alphabet, in both 
Oscan and Umbrian, is the following. The glide sound which 
naturally intervenes between i or u and a following vowel is 
regularly expressed in the native alphabets, but nearly always 
omitted in the Latin alphabet, as in the spelling of Latin. So 
U. triia, but trio (L. tria) ; U. tuves, but duir (L. duo) ; O. eitiuvam, 
but eituam. 

a. ii, i. In Umbrian, of words occurring in both spellings the examples 
are: triia (9), trio (2); heriiei (1), heriei, herie (4); Atiietiur etc. (17), Atiersur 
etc. (5) ; Klavemiie (2), Claverniur (1) ; Vehiies (2), Vehier (4) ; in all, 46 occur- 
rences with no exception to the distribution of the two spellings as stated. In 
Oscan too the spelling ii is employed consistently, as in the oblique cases of 
names in -iis, contrasted with i in the oblique cases of names in -is; e.g. 
Dekkieis Rahiieis Gen. Sg. of Dekis Rahiis (174). 

Since ii is so evidently the normal spelling in the case of vowel i, there is 
the strongest presumption that, where the spelling in the native alphabets is 
simply i, this must represent something different, namely the consonantal i. 
And this is often corroborated by other evidence, such as doubling of consonants 
in Oscan, occasional omission of the i in Umbrian, etc. (100, 3). 

Yet some exceptions must be admitted. In O. Dekkviarim and U. tekvias 
i cannot possibly represent a consonantal i ; O. luviass is not to be separated 
from Idviia ; in O. vlii, U. via, vea, consonantal i is of course impossible, and 
that the vowel is other than original i (cf. L. via) is improbable ; consonantal i 
is also impossible in U. arvia, and improbable even after v preceded by a vowel, 
as in aviekla etc. It is perhaps for the very reason that there would be no 
ambiguity, that i is so often used in place of ii after v. 

A different case is that of the Oscan i coming from original e before a 
vowel (38, 1). Here too in the earliest inscriptions the spelling is ii, but after 
the introduction of the character 1 this alone is used ; e.g. iiuk, later ft^k ^ea\ 

h. uv, u. In Umbrian the contrasting examples are: tuves etc. (5), 
duir (2); kastruvuf (4), castruo (11); prinuvatur (5), prinuatur (8); vatuva (6), 
uatuo (6) ; in all 47 occurrences with no exception to the distribution of the two 
spellings as stated. But we find saluuom, saluua^ once each beside 24 examples 

82] Vowels . -29 

of saluom etc., and ^wua *tua' once beside 18 examples of tua, tuer (once also 
touer). The omission of v in partuetu is doubtless accidental, and aruvia beside 
usual aryia is probably an engraver's error. In Oscan, v is used instead of uv in 
sakrvist beside sakruvit, in eitiv. for eitiay(ad), and probably in minive (no. 31 b). 
So possibly in U. iveka ' iuvencas', though here the omission of u seems much 
stranger, and many assume an actual phonetic change of iuu- to iu-. 




32. 1. a in initial syllables remains unchanged, as in Latin. 
So O. actud : L. agd ; — U. affer : L. ager ; — O. alio : L. alius ; 

— O. patir, U. patre : L. pater ; — O. fakiiad, U. fa§ia : L. facio ; 

— O. castrous, U. castruo : L. castrum ; — O. ant : L. ante. 

2. Final a is also unchanged, as in the Umbrian Vocatives 
Tursa^ louia, etc. See 169, 6. 

3. Likewise in medial syllables, where in Latin a has been 
weakened to i or ^, it is regularly preserved. So O. Anterstatal : 
L. *Interstita (cf. Praestitia); — O. tribaiakaviim 'aedificare': 
L. (co)-erced ; — U. antakres : L. integer ; — U. procanurent : 
L. (pcydnul ; — U. arkani 'cantum': L. *accinium ; — U. tuplak 
'furcam' (?) : L. duplex (cf. Grk. hiirXai;), See 85. 

1 The arrangement of the material and the choice of headings is dictated by 
considerations of convenience. Since we are dealing primarily with the relations of 
the sounds of the dialects to one another, rather than with their relations to the 
sounds of the other Indo-European languages, the material is arranged with refer- 
ence to what belongs together from the Italic point of view. Thus, under the heading 
a is considered the history of Italic a, regardless of its various I.E. sources (a, 9, etc.) ; 
en from I.E. n has the same history as original en, and need not be treated separately ; 
similarly with or, olj from r, I, ou from ew, etc. Only in the treatment of Vowel- 
Gradation is there any necessity of reverting to the I.E. vowel-system. But the 
headings do not always represent the Italic sounds. It is often simpler to take the 
I.E. sounds as the starting-point, as, for example, in the case of the sonant aspirates, 
dhf bhf etc., for which the precise stage of development reached in the Italic period 
is not in all cases certain. Or, again, it may be desirable to discuss in one place 
the history of a sound or group of sounds, which is partly of Indo-European, partly 
of Italic, and partly of still later origin, as, for example, in the case of ns. In 
general, the author has not hesitated to sacrifice consistency to convenience. 

30 . Phonology [82 

4. But a weakening in the direction of w, where a labial 
consonant precedes or follows, is seen in a few words. See 86. 


33. a, except when final, remains unchanged, as in Latin. 
So O. fratrtim, U. fratrum: h.frdter ; — O. Maatreis, U. Matrer : 
L. mater ; — O. aasas^ U; asam: L. dra ; — Abl. Sg. of First Decl., 
O. toutad^ U. tota : L. -a ; — suffix -dno-^ O. Abellands, U. Trehlanir: 
L. Romdnus, 

34. Final a, which in Latin is shortened, preserves itis 
quantity, but is changed in quality to a rounded sound like the 
a of English call. In Oscan it went so far in the direction of 
that it is never denoted by the letter a, but always by ti, o, o, 
or, rarely, by u, u. In Umbrian the sound is written both a 
and u in the native alphabet, but always o in the Latin. Ex- 
amples are the forms of the Nom. Sg. of a-stems, which ended 
in a, as shown by Greek, Sanskrit, etc., and of the Nom.-Acc. 
PI. Neuter, in which the <f, belonging properly to (Hstems, was 
extended in the Italic period to other stems. 

Oscan. vlii 'via', fiisnd 'fanum' (Ace. fiisnam), iiu-k, M-k, 
io-c 'ea', molto 'multa', alio 'alia', touto 'ci vitas'; -^- comono 
'comitia', teremenniti 'termina', petiru-pert, petiro-pert 'quater' 

(192, 2). 

Umbrian. muta, mutu 'multa', panta 'quanta', etantu 'tanta'; 
— veskla, vesklu 'vascula', vatuva, vatuvu, uatuo 'exta'(?), proseseto 
'prosecta', atru, adro 'atra'. See also 286, 286, 2, 287, 800, 9. 

35. In Umbrian this rounding of the a takes place also 
before final -ta (from -to-a or -ti-a by vowel-syncope). So pihaz, 
jt?iAo«'piatus', kunikaz, conegos ^ conixus^ (in form as if L. ^cdni- 
gdtus), Casilos 'Casilas' (Dat. Casilate)^ -vakaz, -uacos 'vacatio, 
intermissio' from *uakdt{iy%, 

a. A similar variation in spelling, which can hardly be separated from 
the phenomenon just described, is seen in Prestate, Prestote, and Tesenakes, 
Tesenocir. The former word, although L. Praestitia suggests * praest&td-^ may 
be from a by-form *praestatd- (cf. L. prae-^tatus beside praestittLs)^ and for 

87] Vowels 31 

the latter word a suffix -dko- is in itself more probable than -ako-, the existence 
of which is doubtful. But the explanation is difficult, since elsewhere there is 
no indication of a change of & except under the conditions described above. It 
is possible that in the later Umbrian even the d of medial syllables changed 
slightly in the direction of o, but not enough to affect the usual spelling. Yet 
it is strange that the o is so consistently employed in these two words, and never 
found as a variant in the great majority of words containing d. But to regard 
the o as standing for short a only increases the difficulty. Such a weakening 
of a where there is no contiguous labial consonant (86) is unsupported and 

A somewhat different, but equally difficult, case is svbotu if this is the 
same word as subahta *deponito' with secondary & (181, 76). 

36. 1. e generally remains unchanged. So O.edum : L. edd ; 

— O. ezum^ est, estud, U. erom: L. esse, etc.; — O. destrst 'dex- 
tra est', U. destrawre: L. dexter \ — O. mefiai: L. medius; — 

_ U. ferestyfertu: It. f era; - — O. aragetud: L. argentum. 

2. e also remains before I + consonant, or final Z, where in 
Latin it becomes first o, then u. So U. pelmner : L. pulmentum ; 

— (also U. veltu 'deligito', eh-veUdu *sententiam', but in these uel- 
is from uele-i L. volty vult); — O. famel : L. famul ; — U. sumel : 
L. simul (early inscr. semol), 

3. e also remains generally in medial syllables, where in 
Latin before a single consonant it is weakened to L So U. ta9ez, 
tasetur : L. tacitus ; — U. maletu : L. molitus ; — O. Genetai : 
L. genitus, . 

4. But before a labial in medial syllables a weakening 
occurs, resulting, just as in Latin, sometimes in w, sometimes 
in L See 86. 

37. A change of e to o is seen in *pompe 'quinque' (O. pum- 
perias, U. pumperias ' *quincuriae', O. pomtis 'quinquiens') from 
*k'^enk^e (150), where it seems due to the position between 
two k^'s. 

a. The combination «j^e which becomes so in Latin (soror from *8j#e5or, 
etc.) remains unchanged in 0. sverronef (96), but Umbrian shows the same 
change as Latin in aonvtu : L. <8ond, from *8y,en- (Skt. svan-). 

32 Phonology [88 

ifor e 

38. OscAN. 1. Before another vowel, e becomes an open i 
and is invariably denoted by an i-character (i in the native 
alphabet, earlier ii; see 81, a). Compare Ital. mio from L. mews, 
cria from L. create etc. So iiu-k, iii-k, io-c 'ea', iorirc 'eum', iw«-c, 
iussu 'iidem': L. ea etc. (cf. also Marruc. ia/-c? 'eas'); — fatium 
'fari': L. fateor\ — putiiad, pdtlad 'possit', as if L. *poteat; — 
turumiiad 'torqueatur', as if L. Hormeat; — Tianud 'Teano,' 
Loc. Sg. Tiianei; — Tiiatium 'Teatinorum'. 

2. Before r the e had a closer pronunciation than usual, as 
is shown by amiricatud '*immercato', with which maybe com- 
pared rustic Latin Mir curios^ stircus^ etc. ; further by Tirentium 
'Terentiorum' and Virriis 'Verrius'. But the change was so 
slight as to be commonly ignored in the spelling (cf . pert, perek., 
pumperias, etc.). 

3. Tintiriis, if, as probable, from ^Tinktrio- and related to 
L. tinffuoy tlnctus (Grk. reyyo))^ is evidence of the same change 
as occurs in Latin before n -f- guttural. 

4. In nistrus *propmquos' beside nessimas *proximae' etc., the i is prob- 
ably only a misspelling. 

5. For ist beside est *est\ see 217, 2. 

39. Umbrian. 1. Before another vowel e had a rela- 
tively close pronunciation, as shown by farsio^ fasiu 'farrea', 
tursiandu 'terreantur', and by iepi, iepru, in case these are from 
the stem eo-. But the change did not go so far in the direction 
of i as in Oscan, and the spelling is regularly e, e.g. earn, eaf, 
eo^ etc. 

2. From ostenaendi for *08ten8ender (ending -ter, 288, l) and 
herti (4 times), hertei (once), beside herter, herte, we may assume 
that e before final r had a close pronunciation verging on i, 

3. In cringatro^ krikatru 'cinctum' beside krenkatrum, from 
*krengh- (O.Eng. hring^ O.Bulg. krq^u 'circle'), we have a 
change of e in the direction of i, as in Latin before n + guttural 
(tinguo^ lingua^ etc.). See 88, 3. 

41] Vowels 33 

4. In wir *his' beside eslr, — iso, issoc 'ita' beside eso, esoc^ — isec, isek 
*item% — isunt *item', the i is perhaps due to a partial contamination of the 
stems essO' and i-. But see the following. 

5. The single occurrence of tasis against 21 examples of tases etc., and 
of yisti9a against 18 examples of vesti9a, vestigia, etc. , show that in the following 
forms, which occur but once each, we may have, accidentally, the abnormal 
rather than the normal spelling: ti9it: L. decet; — ise9eles *insectis\ with i for 
e(n)-; — vajetum-i se 'in vitiatum sit'(?) with i for postpositive e(n). But it 
cannot be wholly accidental that in all these cases (cf . also isir etc. , above) the 
vowel is followed by a sibilant. Apparently the i-quality of the sibilant has 
had some effect on the preceding e — but so slight that in most words it is never 
shown in the spelling. 

6. In U. vitlu *vitulum% uiUu, etc. the i is Italic (L. vitulus, also 0. Viteliii 
* Italia'), though probably from original e ('yearling'; cf. L. vetus^ Skt. vatsd- 
*calf '). Where and how the change came about is unknown. 

40. e had a closer pronunciation in Latin than the short e, 
as we know from its development in the Romance languages 
and from statements of the grammarians. It was the French ^ 
of StS rather than the ^ of mere. It probably had this rela- 
tively close pronunciation in the Italic period, and in Oscan 
and Umbrian progressed still further in the direction of i. 

41. In Oscan it has gone so far that we may speak of a 
change to i, since it is invariably denoted by an i-character. 
This I was a relatively open t, indicated in the native alphabet 
by i or fi, being thus distinguished from original i, which was 
close.^ Examples: li(/ud 'lege\ ligattiis 'legatis': L. lex^ legd- 
tuB ; — fiisnii, filsnam, fisnam 'fanum': 1^. festus^ feriae (99, 1); — 
Hkitud, licitud 'liceto': L. liceto ; — hipid 'habuerit', from ^heped^ 
belonging to the same Perfect-type as L. cepi,, legi^ and with the 
Subjunctive-sign e\ — fusid 'foret', hjerrins 'caperent' with the 
same mood-sign e as the Latin Imperfect Subjunctive, but with- 
out the shortening seen in L. -et^ -ent (78). 

1 This and similar statements as to the distinction in use between 1 and i refer 
to the normal Oscan orthography. It must be remembered that the 1 is lacking in 
the oldest inscriptions, and also that after its introduction it was so carelessly 
employed in some inscriptions, mostly those of Capua, that their evidence in this 
regard is to be ignored. 

34 Phonology [41 

a. An g which is the result of contraction in the Italic period has the 
same development as original e. Thus tris : L. irga, from Hrejfis ; — hihtiii 
*in horto' from *horteJcen. See 82, 1. 

h. But an S resulting from some later process of vowel-lengthening retains 
the quality of the short e, and is not written i ; e.g. keenzstur, censtur, eestfnt, 
etc. (78, 77). 

42. In Umbrian the spelling i occurs frequently, especially 
in the Latin alphabet, but e is far more common. 

The Imperatives of the Second Conjugation always have i 
in the Latin as against e in the native alphabet, but this dis- 
tinction does not hold for other words. Thus habitu^ habetu: 
L. habeto; — turaitUy tusetu: L. terreto; — filzu, feliuf *lactentes' 
from thefe- of h./e-mina ; — plener, plenasier : L. plenus ; — rehte : 
L. recte, earlier *rected. In a few cases the spelling ei occurs ; 
e.g. heriiei 'voluerit' with the Subjunctive-sign e; — neaimei *pro- 
xime', adverb in e like rehte; 8ei'{podruhpei) 'seorsum': L. sed-. 

Evidently e in Umbrian had a very close pronunciation, 
but had not gone as far in the direction of i as in Oscan. 

43. i remains an open i. This open quality is shown by its 
designation f in the Oscan alphabet,^ and for Umbrian by the 
frequent spelling e (80, i). Final i, unless dropped, remains i 
in Oscan, but becomes e in Umbrian, as in Latin. Thus U. ute, 
ote 'aut': O. auti ; — U. sakre, aacre^ etc. (Nom.-Acc. Sg. N. of 

44. Oscan. Examples: dadikatted 'dedicavit': L. dedico; 

— meddiss, meddis 'meddix'. Gen. Sg. medikeis, Nom. PL meddiss, 
fieSSei^ (for et see 24 ; compare also eLvei/i = fnim), a compound 
of dik'^ like L. iudex, iudicis (16, 6); — likitud, licitud 'liceto': 
L. liceo', — uincter 'convincitur': L. vinco; — tiurri: L. turrtm; 

— pf 8, pis^ pid, pitpit : L. quia^ quid, etc. ; — suffix -iko, e.g. ttiv- 
tiks 'publicus', toutico 'publica'. 

a. When the consonantal i intervening between the vowel i and another 
vowel is expressed in the writing, as is nearly always the case in the native 

1 See footnote, p. 33. 

47] Vowels 35 

alphabet (81), the vowel i is then written i, not i ; e.g. fakiiad ^faciat% heiiiad 
^ capiat* , Heleviieis * Hel vii * . 

h. An i arising from consonantal i by sampras&ra^a (91, 1) seems to have 
differed in quality from original i, judging from the spelling of pfistiris 'poste- 
rius' with -is, not -is, from -jps, in consequence of which the anaptyctic vowel 
is also i, not f. Cf. also the proper names like Vibis ^Vibius' etc. (172-174). 
For i in Mais etc., see 176, 3. 

c. Isolated examples of e for i are : menvum * minuere* on the carelessly 
written Curse of Vibia ; — esfdum, e8idu[m], for the usual fsldum *idem', on two 
inscriptions of Samnium, possibly due to a local contamination with the stem of 
essttf 4pse'. 

45. Umbbian. The spelling is either i or e, oftener the 
former. As is the case also with Other sounds which are rep- 
resented by both spellings, the e is more frequent in the native 
alphabet than in the Latin. See 30, i. For the rare ei, see 29. 

Examples: tijel 'dedicatio', tikamne 'dedicatione': L. died- 
tio etc.; — dersicust 'dixerit' from ^de-dic-ust : O. dicust (44, 95) ; 
— uirseto 'visum' from *uidetO'i L. videos — steplatu, stiplatu^ 
stiplo : L. stipulor ; — sestu, seste : L. sisto ; — tefa, dirsa^ dersa 
'det' (from Redupl. Pres. *didd): O, dideat ''dshit''; — pif-e, 
pirS'i, pers-i, etc. : L. quid, O. pid ; — suffix -iAo-, e.g. Pupfike 
'Publico' (?), fratreks, fratrex '*fratricus'. 

a. The Accusative Singular of instems nearly always appears as -e(m), 
-6(m), e.g. uvem, uve, ocrem, ocre, etc. (178, 4), indicating that before final m 
an i was more than ordinarily open. Contrast the -i(m), -t(wi), -ei, of jo-stems, 
in which the i comes from consonantal i by samprasarana (91, 1). Cf. 44, h. 

46. I had a closer pronunciation in Latin than the short i, 
as is proved by the Romance development ; e.g. Ital. chi, scritto 
from L. qui, acnptus, contrasted with che, lece from L. quid, 
licet. The same qualitative difference existed in Oscan-Umbrian, 
as is shown by the fact that original l is indicated in Oscan by 
i, not f, and that in Umbrian the spelling e, so common for short 
i, is rare. 

47. Oscan. The spelling is i, not f, but where doubling 
is employed as a mark of length we find 11, not ii like aa, etc. 

36 Phonology [47 

This spelling il may possibly indicate a nuance of pronunciation 
something like le, but more probably it is purely a matter of 
orthography, ii being avoided on account of its other uses. 

Examples: liimitii[m] 'limitum': L. limes; — imad-€n 'ab 
imo': L. Imus ; — scWffa« 'scriptae': L. scriptus ; — Abl. Sg. 
slaagid contrasted with Ace. Sg. slagim ; — suffix -mo-, e.g. deivi- 
nais'divinis'. Banting 'Bantinus', Mafieprivo 'Mamertina'. 

48. Umbrian. The spelling in the native alphabet is i, ih, 
rarely e ; in the Latin it is z, ihi, ei (very frequent in the first 
thirty-odd lines of VI a), rarely e. 

Examples: persnimu, persnihmu, persnimu^ persnihimu 'pre- 
cator', Imperative of the Fourth Conjugation ; ^— screhto^ screih- 
tor I L. scriptus ; — peica^ peico^ peiqu (10 times in Via 1-17): 
L. pica^picus ; — pehatu, pihatu 'piato', pihaner^ pehaner, peihaner 
'piandi': L. pio from *pid, O. Piihiiii ' Pio' ; — suffix -mo-, e.g. 
Ikuvins 'Iguvinus', louinam, loueine (ei once only in over 100 

49. remains for the most part unchanged, and appears in 
the Latin alphabet as o, in the native Oscan alphabet as li. 
But in the native Umbrian, and also in the earliest type of the 
OsCan, the V did duty for both o and u. All forms from these 
sources must therefore be ignored in distinguishing the sounds 
of and u. 

Examples: O. dp, op, U. ostendu 'ostendito' from ops--. 
L. o6, ohs; — O. pdst, post, U. post: L. post; — O. piid, pod, 
U. puf-€, pors-e: L. quod; — O. lipsannam 'faciendam', U. osatu 
*facito': \j,operor; — O. htirz: h^hortus; — V.poplom: IL. populus. 

The is also preserved before I 4- consonant and before n -f- 
guttural, where in Latin, except in early inscriptions, it appears 
as u. Thus O. molto 'multa', miiltasikad 'multatica', U. motar: 
L. multa, early molta, moltdtiedd; — O. liltiumam 'ultimam': 
L. idtimus from *oJtimo-; — O. ionc 'eum', with which compare 
L. hunc, early Jionc, 

61] Vowels 37 


50. In Oscan, before final m the o became w, or at least 
was changed so far in the direction of u as to be commonly 
written u. Thus the Present Infinitive (ending -om^ 24i), with 
the possible exception of tribarakavlim (li not certain) on the 
Cippus Abellanus, shows -um^ -um; e.g. acum, deicum^ ezurn^ 
censaurrij deikum, fatium. The enclitic particle -om (201, 5) always 
appears as -um; e.g. jt?mWw'cuiuspiam',pidum'quidquam' (C. A.), 
isidum 'idem'. The Ace. Sing, of o-stems, however, though 
sometimes showing -um, as in dolum^ trutum^ NiiveUum, etc., 
usually appears as -om (more frequent than -um on the Tabula 
Bantina) or -lim (always on the Cippus Abellanus). It is alto- 
gether probable that this spelling of the Ace. forms is a sort of 
pedantic orthography, due to the o of other case-forms (-oi,tii-,etc.), 
while the spelling of the other forms, which were not subject to 
such influence, represents more faithfully the actual pronunciation. 

Note. In Umbrian not only does o remain unchanged before final m, 
but even u becomes o (67). 

51. In Umbrian before r -f consonant, or even before r 
alone, we find so many examples of the spelling w, although o 
also occurs, as to make it evident that the vowel was consider- 
ably modified in this position. Thus curnaco^ curnase (5 times): 
L. comix; — prefix pur- in pur ditom 'poYrectum^ etc. (10 times, 
never joor-): h. por-; — tursitu 'terreto' etc. (4 times) from Hor- 
sed (97); — courtuat 'reverterit' for *couurtu8t beside couortus: 
early L. vorsus, advortit, etc. (97); — furo 'forum': h. forum (it 
is unnecessary, though possible, to assume that furo contains 
the reduced grade dhur-^ like Grk. 0vpd^ as compared with dhy^or- 
in L. forum) ; — tursiandu 'fugentur' with -du for -tur from -tor ; 
— uru 'illo' beside orer 'illius'(?). 

a. Possible examples of u for o before rs from d (181) are dti-pursiLS^ petur- 
pursus (but see 94) ; also atripursatu ' tripodato% the explanation of which depends 
on the view taken of L. tripudium etc. beside early tripodo (late weakening of 
to M, or contamination with a derivative of a root pud- related to paviof). 

h. An isolated instance of u elsewhere is sunitu beside aonitu : L. sono. 

38 Phonology [62 

52. The relation of J to o is parallel to that of ^ to e. We 
know that in Latin the o had a closer pronunciation than the o, 
and the same is true of Oscan and Umbrian. But the develop- 
ment of J in the direction of u has gone further in Oscan than 
in Umbrian. 

53. In Oscan, 6 becomes w, and is regularly denoted by u, 
uu, w, not by ti, o (except dtintim 'donum', no. 53, which is doubt- 
less due to an error). Examples: Fluusai 'Florae': Ij.flds^Fldra-y 
— djuunated 'donavit' : L. dono ; — pru 'pro' : L. pro ; — uupsens, 
upsens, oviraev^ 'fecerunt', Perf. with lengthened vowel to *op8d' 
seen in dpsannam (49); — suffix -tor- in Regatarei 'Rectori', kvais- 
stur 'quaestor', censtur 'censor', kenzsur, censtur 'censores'; — 
suffix -ion- in trfbarakkiuf 'aedificatio', dittiuf 'usus'; — Impera- 
tive ending -tod in likitud, licitud^ estud, actud^ factud. 

The only exceptions to this orthography are case-forms in 6 
such as Abl. Sg. -od, Nom. PL -J«, Gen. PL -om^^ which on the 
Cippus Abellanus and other specimens of the standard Oscan 
orthography appear as -dd, -ds, -dm. But we also find -ud, -us, 
-um, and in the Latin alphabet always -ud^ -U8, -^m. So that the 
spelling d is probably another piece of pedantry in the standard 
spelling, due to the d of other case-forms (see also 60). Exam- 
ples : Abl. Sg. tangindd, amndd, aakatakldd, Bdviandd, etc., but also 
tanginud, aiagetud, trfbud, trfstaamentud, amnud^ doited^ amiricatud^ 
etc. ; Nom. PL Abellands, Ndvlands, etc., but also ius-c ; Gen. PL 
AbeUandm, Ndvlandm, fratrdm, etc., but also nesimum (once zicolom)^ 
nerum^ egmazum^ MafieprLvovfi (ov as in oviraev^ ; for Aovxavofi 
see 24). 

a. The Pompeian inscriptions have Abl. Sg. in -ud, not -dd. Hence, in 
no. 3, Nom. PI. lussu is more probable than f^ssu, though from the stone it is 
impossible to tell whether u or d was intended. 

54. In Umbrian both u and o are found, but not promiscu- 
ously. The spelling of individual words is uniform, likewise 

1 Here and in 54 it is assimied that -dm had not been shortened to -om. See 78, 4. 

64] Voweh 39 

that of most formations. It is not clear whether we have to do 
with an actual difference in pronunciation, or with an artificial 
regulation of what was once a promiscuous use of both spellings 
for the same sound. 

The spelling u is universal in the Imperative endings -tod^ 
-mody e.g. fertUy deitu^ etc.' (some 300 occurrences); likewise, 
with one or two exceptions (171, 6, a), in the Abl. Sg. ending -od^ 
e.g. popluy pihaclu, etc. (over 100 occurrences); in the su£Bx 
-^r-, e.g. arsferture. The Nom. PL M. of o-stems, ending -J«, 
has -^r (on the forms in or see 171, 13), e.g. Atiersiur^ tasetur; 
note especially the contracted form dur 'duo' from *duur^ *dii68. 
The Ace. PI. M. of (>-stems, with secondary o (74 ; but see also 
74, note) usually shows -w, e.g. toruy rofuy but sometimes -o, e.g. 
neiro (171, 11, a). Cf. also durpursus 'bipedibus', petur-pursua 
^quadrupedibus', probably containing pod- (94) ; bue 'bove', 
Ace. PI. buf (cf. Dor. /Swi/, /8w); the pronominal adverbs j^we 
*ubi' (202, 7), podruhpei 'utroque' (190, 2), panupei 'quandoque' 
(202, 12). 

The spelling o is found in the Gen. PI. ending -<Jw,^ with a 
single exception (pracatarum) ; in the su£Bx -on-, as Acersoniem^ 
homonus^ etc. ; in the pronominal adverbs ulo 'illuc,' himo * retro,' 
e«o((?) 'ita', etc. (190, 2); in the root-syllables of several words, 
as w<?we 'nomen' (nearly 100 occurrences): L. nomen; pone 
'posca': L. po-sca^ po-tua, etc. 

Note. Observing that the occurrences of u are in final syllables, or 
syllables which were final before the addition of enclitics {podruh-pei etc.), or 
before r {arsferture etc.), we may surmise that in these positions the o actually 
had a closer pronunciation than elsewhere (for the position before r compare u 
for short o, 61). Further, the predominance of o even in final syllables before 
m might be attributed to the same influence of m which is seen in the change 
of original m to o (67). So much is reasonable, perhaps even probable. But 
to ma]{:e further distinctions in final syllables — for example, to account for the o 
in 680 etc. as compared with the u of the Ablatives on the ground that these 
adverbs are Instrumentals, and so ended in -o, not -od — is to lay more stress 
on the spelling than Umbrian orthography will warrant, not to speak of the 
additional complication caused by podruh-pei etc. It is not unreasonable to 

1 See footnote, p. 38. 


40 Phonology [64 

suppose that even in final syllables the sound was one which niight be denoted 
by 0, and that in the almost complete uniformity of spelling in the Ablatives 
there is something artificial, which would not necessarily affect the spelling of 
the adverbs, whether themselves of Ablative or Instrumental origin. 


55. Original u remains in general unchanged. Examples : 
O. supruis'superis', U. super, super-ne^ «wJra: L. auperus^ super^ 
supra; — O. purasiai ^in igniaria', U. pure-to *'dib igne': Grk. 
7ri;/0€TO9, 7rv/509, etc. ; — O. puf, puz^ U. pufe^ puse: L. ubi^ uti; 
— U. rufru, Rufrer: L. ruber. 

Oscan iu for u 

56. In Oscan, after the dentals ^, rf, w, and once after s, 
is found the spelling iu. Thus Diumpais 'Lumpis': L. lumpa 
from *dumpd ; — tiurri : L. turrim ; — eitiuvam 'pecuniam' : eituam 
in Latin alphabet^ — tiltiumam 'ultimam' with secondary u 
(86, 1); — Niumsieis, ^ivfiaSLrji^ 'Numerii'; — Siuttiis 'Suttius'. 
This spelling is not found in the Latin alphabet, and to judge 
from eituam, eituas, was not used. Just what modification of 
the sound this iu was intended to represent it is impossible to 
say. But the theory that it was iu like our English pronun- 
ciation of u in cube etc. meets with the least objection. 

Umbrian o for u 

57. In Umbrian, o appears regularly for u before m. Thus 
8omo; L. summus; — Ace. Sg. of i^-stems, e.g. fr(/b 'tribum'; — 
Supine in -turn, e.g. a«enaf(? 'observatum'. Before jt? also, the 
spelling, though usually u (superne, dupla), is sometimes o, as in 
«opa, Bopam, sopo, beside supo : L. supinus. Here too the soimd 
must have been open, but not so markedly as before m. Another 
example of o for u, the cause of which is not clear, is sorser 
'suilli', sorsom, sorsalem, etc., probably from ^sttrdo-, ^nu-d-dli- 
(cf. L. pecU'd-, pecu-d-dli') : L. sur in su-bus etc. 

1 Once pouSf but the ou is probably a mere slip of the enj^raver, whose eye was 
caught by the ou of the following word ou the copy, touto. 

60] Diphthongs 41 

a. A change of initial ju to i is generally assumed on account of U. iyeka 
'iuvencas*. But possibly this is only a matter of spelling, as in O. eltiv for 
eitiay(ad) etc. See 81, 6. 


58. u generally remains unchanged, as in Latin. Exam- 
ples: O. Puutrei 'Genetrici' from bhu- (cf. Grk. c^O/ta, Skt. hhuti-^ 
etc.); — O. fruktatiuf 'fructus': L. frux^ fructu8\ — U. mugatu 
'rauttito': L. mugio. Note also the secondary u in U. 8tnih9]a, 
BtruUa 'struem, *struiculam' from ^struuikeld-. 

z for u 

59. It is probable that a change of u to i (through the 
intermediate stage of a w pronounced like French u^ German u) 
is to be recognized for monosyllables in Umbrian and perhaps 
for final syllables in both Oscan and Umbrian. Examples: 
U. pir 'ignis': Grk. ttO/o; — U. sim 'suem' from *sw-wi (Grk. u-i/), 
Ace. PI. sif from *8u-f; — U./nf 'fruges' from ^frug-f: h./rux; 
— Abl. Sg. of w-stems, e.g. U. trefi'tribu', afputrati 'arbitratu', 
mani'manu', O. (?a«fnrf 'capite'(?) (Gen. Sg. castrous). 

Note. The author has elsewhere (Osk. Voc, p. Ill ff.) shown the 
possibility of explaining U. pir etc. without the assumption that they come 
from forms containing u. But it must be admitted that the direct comparison 
with forms in u (especially pir : vvp) is far simpler. The Ablatives might be 
explained as examples of heteroclism, but if the change is admitted at all, it 
may be assumed for these also. At best, however, the precise conditions under 
which the change took place cannot be formulated with certainty without more 


60. In the following sections are considered together not 
only the original diphthongs ai, oi, etc., but also those which, 
with shortening of the first element, come from I.E. ai, oz, etc., 
as in the Dat. Sg. of a- and <J-stems (Grk. -ai, -7;i, -cdl). For 
there is no evidence of the preservation of a long diphthong as 
such even in Oscan, and the monophthongization in Umbrian 
presupposes an intermediate stage of short diphthongs. 

42 Phonology [60 

But under certain conditions the long diphthongs, instead 
of shortening the first element, lost the second element, and in 
this case their further history became identical with that of the 
original long vowels. Thus the Dat. Sg. ending of o-stems, -oi 
(Grk. -0)4), became on the one hand -oi, represented by the Oscan- 
Umbrian forms and by early Latin (Praenestine) Numasioi^ on 
the other hand -J, represented by the usual Latin form. 

a. It is uncertain whether the Dat.-Abl. PI. ending of o-stems, -ois (like- 
wise Grk. -ot$), represents the old Instrumental ending -ois (Skt. -ais) or the 
Locative ending -ois(i) (Grk. -owi) or both. After the analogy of -ow was 
formed the -ais of o-stems. 

61. Diphthongs are always preserved unchanged in Oscan, 
while in Umbrian they have become monophthongs, even such 
as are retained in Latin. 

1. In the Oscan alphabet the i-diphthongs appear as ai, ei, 
Hi, the i, as usual, denoting the open quality of the second ele- 
ment (cf. ae^ oe^ in Latin). 

2. The w-diphthongs appear in the Oscan alphabet as av 
(rarely au), ev, tiv, that is with the sign I], not V . But there is 
no reason to believe that this represents a pronunciation like 
that of modem Greek av, eu, in which the second element is a 
spirant (English v or /). The sign we transcribe v denoted 
simply the consonantal u (English w) and might with perfect 
propriety be used for the second element of a diphthong. Com- 
pare the occasional appearance in Greek inscriptions of a/r, o/r, 
for the usual au, ov ; e.g. l^afTra/cricov^ airophhdv. 

a. In the Oscan inscriptions of the Greek alphabet we find likewise A/rSetcs, 
TufTo, but also ravpofiy Avo-kXi, and beside the last the curious spelling Avhva-KXi, 
that is Avhva-KXi (cf. also Ahydiu on a fragment). 

3. But the history of i-diphthongs followed by consonantal 
i is exceptional, as it is also in Latin, and is not included in the 
following treatment of the several diphthongs. In Oscan the 
second element is written i, not i (compare fakiiad, 44, a), and 
in Umbrian the diphthong does not become a monophthong. 
Thus O. Wmpaiians'Pompeianus', Ptimpaiianeis, Pdmpaiiana, etc., 

62] Diphthongs 43 

U. pemaiaf, pustnaiaf (pusnaes for ^pusnaies, like pemaies), pefaia, 
persaia^ persaea (for pefaem, pdrae, persae^ see 173, 1), with suffix 
-aiio' (263, 1) ; — O. Maiiiii 'Maio' (147, 3) ; — O. vereiiai, vereias (once 
verehias?), U. Teteie8(?), with -eiio- (263, 2); — O. Kerriiai, Kerriitiis, 
etc., with -eiio- (263, 3); — O. ptiiiu, ptiiieh : L. quoiua^ Grk. ttoao?, 
from *quoi'io' (199, b),' The pronunciation is most exactly 
represented by the spelling with two i's, which is usual in 
Oscan and frequent in Latin inscriptions and early manuscripts 
(Maiia preferred by Cicero to Maia, eiius^ quoiiua^ etc.). But a 
single i, representing a sound belonging equally to both sylla- 
^bles, was also sufficient, and this spelling is regular in Umbrian, 
occasional in Oscan (Bdvaiantid, Tantmnaitim, vereias; Maraies 
beside Maraiieis, 176, 4), and usual in L^^tin. 

a. With O. ai, ei, iii, not al etc. , compare L. mai(i)uSy quoi(i)tuty not *mac(i)M«, 
*quoe{i)uSf and with the preservation of U. diphthongs in this position compare 
L. ei(i)us contrasted with died from deicd, and qtLoi(i)uSj hoi{i)u8^ contrasted with 
unu8 from oinos (the change to cui{i)us, hui{i)iL8^ is much later than that in unvs 
and of an entirely different character). L. Pompeianus beside O. Piimpaiians 
shows that -aiio- became -eiio and so was merged with original -eiio. That is, the 
diphthong ai became ei, as regularly in medial syllables (cf. *in-caidd, inceidd), 
and this ei instead of passing on to i (incldd) retained its diphthongal value 
before the i (as in ei(i)us). At least it remained ei in Pompeii^ Pompeianus. 
But for many proper names which sometimes show -eius^ as Pohleiios, Puhleius, 
Clodeius^ etc., and which seem to belong here, the normal Latin, form has -ius, 
as PuUiuSy Clodius, etc. Cf . also Marius beside Faliscan Mareio, O. Maraies. 
One might assume that these names simply yielded to the analogy of the com- 
moner type of proper names in -ius. But in view of L. Bovictnum beside 
O. Bdyaianiid,^ it is worth while to consider the possibility that in medial sylla- 
bles, even before i, the ei became I, which was then shortened to i; and that 
it was retained, as in Pompeianus^ only under certain (accentual?) conditions no 
longer understood. 


62. Oscan. Examples: kvaisstur, Kfai(T[Top (borrowed? 
See 21) : L. quaestor ; — aidil borrowed from L. aediUs ; — ajittitim 
'portionum', aeteis 'partis': Grk. alaa (*aiT'ia); — 'prai^ praesen- 
^irf 'praesente': L. prae; — svai, swae 'si'; — Dat.-Loc. Sg. of 

A That this word, which occurs in an inscription found on the site of Bovianum, 
has nothing to do with the name of the town, as seme assume, is incredible. 


44 Phonology [62 

a-stems (60), e.g. Fluusai ^Florae', ejisai viai mefiai 'in ea via 
media', Bansae 'Bantiae'(Loc.) ; — Dat.-Abl. PL of a-stems (60, a), 
e.g. Diumpais'Lumpis', kerssnais 'cenis', exais-c-en '^iw his'. 

a. The ai of the last example, as contrasted with usual ae in the Latin 
alphabet, is due to the following s. For mais see 91, 1, for maimas 114, h. 

63. Umbrian. ai became an open e. Its open quality is 

attested by the fact that the spelling i, so frequent in the case 

of original e, or oi in final syllables, never occurs (cf. also 

82, 2, a). Examples: kvestur: O. kvaisstur; — pre, pre^ prehabia, 

etc. : L. prae ; — sve, eve : O. svai, suae ; — Dat.-Loc. Sg. of 

a-stems, e.g. ase'arae', tute, ^o^e 'civitati', Tt/rg^ 'Torrae'; Dat.-' 

Abl. PL of a-stems, e.g. tekuries, dequrier ''decurns*; semenies, 

sehmenier 'sementivis.' 

a. For the possible appearance of ei as an archaistic spelling representing 
an intermediate stage in the development of ai, see 29, a. 


64. OscAN. Examples: deikum, deicum ^AicQVQ\ deicans 
'dicant': L. dlco^ early deico; — Deivai 'Divae', deivinais 'divinis': 
L. divuSy early deivua; — felhtiss 'muros': Grk. ret;^©?; — 
preiuatud ^leo* : L. pnvdtus; — ehpeilatas *erectae, set up': 
L. pila ; — Gen. Sg. of i-stems, I.E. -eia (Skt. -es) transferred to 
consonant- and o-stems, e.g. Maatreis 'Matris', carneis 'partis', 
eiseis, eizeia 'eius', Korreiiyi? 'Cottii', ^TarrLT^L^ 'Statii' (for r^i see 
24) ; — Loc. Sg. of (?-stems like Grk. o?/cei, Lat'. -i, e.g. mtiinikei 
terei 'in communi territorio', comenei 'in comitio'; Dat. Sg. of i- 
and consonant-stems, e.g. Diiivei, Aiof/rei 'lovi', kvaisturd 'quaes- 
tori', AjTrTreWouz/iyi 'ApoUini'^ etc. 

a. The form ceus ' civis' : L. civis^ early ceivis^ if not merely a misspelling, 
indicates a special development of H before u, such as is seen in L. seu beside 
«ii?e, early seive. 

h. In some Campanian inscriptions, mixed with Etruscan, we find c for el, 
e.g. Gen. Sg. Luvcies * Lucii' ; cf. also Gen. Sg. pdiieh ' quoius' (no. 39). 

65. In Umbrian the ei appears regularly as e, e, the spel- 
ling i being of the utmost rarity. This indicates an open e^ 

67] Diphthongs -45 


like that from ai (63), as contrasted with the close e from origi- 
nal e^ or oi in final syllables, for which the spelling i is so 
common. Contrast the spelling of the Gen. Sg. ending, from 
-eis (64), which is regularly -es, -er, and only once -zV, with that 
of the Dat.-Abl. PI. from -oi«, which in the Latin alphabet is 
nearly always -ir (or -eir). See also 82, 2, a. 

Examples: prever 'singulis': h.privua^ O. preivatud; — etu, 
eetu, from *ei46d : L. ltd ; — pronominal stem ero-, e.g. erer 'eius', 
erar^ etc. (once, amid countless examples of e, irer): O. eiseis, 
eizeis^ eizoisj etc.; Gen. Sg. of i-stems etc. (see 64), e.g. Matrer 
'Matris', katles 'catuli', joop^er 'populi'; — Dat. Sg. of i- and 
consonant-stems (64), e.g. luve 'lovi', kame 'cami', nomne 

a. Por the uses of the spelling ei, ei, in Umbrian see 29 with a. 


66. In Oscan, oi remains, both in initial syllables, where 
in Latin it becomes w, and in final syllables, where in Latin it 
becomes!. Examples: miiinikd 'communis': h, com-milnis, ea^rly 
comoinem (Goth. ffOrmains etc.); — liittiuf' usus': L. utor^ early 
oetor; — Dat. Sg. of o-stems (60), e.g. htirtiii 'horto', Abellaniii 
' Abellano'; — Dat.-Abl. PI. of o-stems (60, a), e.g. felhiiis 'muris', 
eizois 'eis', nesimoia 'proximis'. Cf. also Pael. coisatena (67, 1), 
oisa 'usa', Dat.-Abl. PL puclois^ etc. 

a. Since in all the examples in the Latin alphabet the oi is followed by a 
sibilant, in which case we also find az, not ae (62, a), it is likely that the ordi- 
nary spelling was oe. 

67. Umbrian. 1. In initial syllables oi becomes <J. The 
most obvious examples are in the native alphabet, where u 
might denote either u or J, namely: unu 'unum': L. iinus^ early 
oinoB^ oenus; — kuraia'curet': L. ciiro^ early coiravere^ coeravit^ 
Pael. (joisafgns'curaverunt'; — muneklu 'sportulam': L. munus^ 
related to com-munis etc. (66; cf. also Lith. rnainaa 'exchange'). 
But in the Latin alphabet there are several more or less certain 
examples, on the basis of which we assume that the sound was 

46 Phonology [67 

0, namely: pora 'qua': O. poizad (thought by some to contain <Ji, 
but see 199, d) ; — Nom. Sg. poei^ poe^ poi^ which probably con- 
tains *pJ, from ^poi (O. pui), with the enclitic h; — no8ue 'nisi', 
which is most naturally explained as containing *woi, a by-form 
of net (cf. O. net suae 'nisi') ; — uocu-cum^ vuku-kum 'ad aedem' (?), 
perhaps: Grk. fol/co^, ol/co^ (sometimes used of a temple or 
special shrine), L. vicua, 

2. In final syllables oi became a close e^ written e, e, i, i, ei. 
Examples: Dat. Sg. of o-stems (60), e.g. Tefre, Tefri, Tefrei 
'Tefro', pople ^po^uW; — Dat.-Abl. PL of (Hstems (60, a), e.g. 
pre veres Treplanes ' ante portam Trebulanam', uerir Trehlanir^ 
uereir Treblaneir. 

For the contrast with the open e from ai or ei, see 68, 65 ; 
also 82, 2, a. 


68. OsCAN. Examples: avt, aw^'at, aut', aw^i'aut': h.aut; 
— Avdiis, AfSeie; 'Audius'; — Aukfl 'Aucilus'; — ravpofi 'tau- 
rum': L. taurus; — thesavrdm, from Grk. drjaavpo^; (21). 

69. In Umbrian, au becomes <J. Examples: ute, ote^emV: 
L. aut (see 68); — turuf, ^on^'tauros' (see 68); — uhtur, oflScial 
title : L. auctor ; — frosetom 'fraudatum' : L. fraudo, 


70. Original eu became ou in the Italic period, so that its 
further history belongs with that of ou^ given below. There 
are no examples of secondary eu resulting from contraction, as 
in L. neu etc. But it occurs in O. Evkliii borrowed from the 
Greek (21). 


71. OscAN. Examples: touto^ TonpTo 'ci vitas', ttivtikB 
'publicus', etc.: Goth. />mrfa 'people' etc. (15, 2); — Ltivkanatefs 
'*Lucanatis', Aou/caz/o/i'Lucanorum', Liivkis 'Lucius': L. lux 
etc., Grk. Xeu/co?; — Gen. Sg. of i^-stems (L. -?7«, Goth. -au9^ etc.), 

74] Lengthening of Vowels 47 

(?asf rows 'capitis'; — loufir^yeV (96); — Itivkei'in luco': L. lucus 
(early loucom); — Liivfreis 'Liberi' (Pael. loufir ^liher^): L. liber 
(with dissimilation of ow to oz, ei, between I and labial ; cf . lubet^ 
libet)y Grk. iXevffepo^. 

72. In Umbrian, ou becomes o. Examples: tuta, totam 
'civitatem': O. touto etc. (71); — r(?/w 'rufos' (96); — Gen. Sg. 
of ^^^steras (71), trifor 'tribns'. 

a. If Vuvjis is 'Lucius* (O. L^yMb etc.), as seems probable (104), it is an 
example of the archaistic spelling often found in proper names, in this case 
handed down from a period prior to the monophthongization of ou. The normal 
spelling is seen in Vugiia-per, if 'pro Lucia\ 

Lengthening of Vowels 

73. In Latin, vowels are regularly lengthened before ns, 

nf net, wa?, and so also in Oscan-Umbrian, at least before w«, 

and, with accompanying loss of n, before net Thus O. keenzstur 

(nz = nt8 from ns; 110, l) 'censor': L. censor; — O. saahttim 

'sanctum', U. sahta, sahatam: L. sdnctus; — U. sihitu ^cmQtos\ 

ansihitu : L. cinctus. 

a. For lengthening before n/, U. aanfehtaf *infectas, non coctas'{?) is 
more doubtful evidence, since, with one a at the end of a line, the other at the 
beginning of the next, simple dittography is not unlikely. 

74. In Latin, final ns loses its n with accompanying length- 
ening of the preceding vowel, as in the Ace. PI. endings -6s, -i», 
etc. from -ons, -ins, etc. The Umbrian change of -ns to/ (110, 2) 
seems to have been accompanied by lengthening of the preceding 
vowel, since the o-stem forms are usually written with u (for 
o; 54), e.g. torn, rofu^ and the i-stem forms sometimes with ei 
(for I ; 48), e.g. aueif, treif. 

Note. If, as some suppose, the endings were originally -bns^ -ins^ etc., 
and if, further, the shortening of vowels before n + consonant had not yet 
taken place, the long vowels in the forms cited might be regarded as original 
rather than secondary. This would have the advantage of enabling us to 
explain the -/ from -ef in the Ace. PI. of consonant-stems as due to regular 
syncope instead of to analogical influence. See 178, 10. Nevertheless, in view 
of the uncertainty of the two premises, especially the second, the above state- 
ment has been preferred provisionally. 

48 Phonology [76 

75. In Umbrian the h resulting from k before t (142) or/ 
before t (121) was weakly sounded or wholly lost, as is obvious 
from its frequent omission in the writing, and its time seems to 
have been added to that of the preceding vowel. For only on 
the supposition that the pronunciation was substantially that of 
a simple long vowel can we understand such a spelling as 
sahatam beside sahta (where, however, the vowel was already 
long before the reduction of A; see 78), or the extension of the 
spelling h to cases where it had no etjntnological value but was 
only a mark of vowel-length. For example, by assuming that 
in apehtre 'ab extra' (cf. O. ehtrad) the eh was pronounced e, we 
understand how the same characters could be used as a sign of 
length in ampr-ehtu'ambito' beside eetu. 

76. There are certain examples of lengthening, which, 
although not all on precisely the same plane, have this in com- 
mon that the vowel is or had been followed by r«. 

1. U. meersta ^ iasta,\ In Umbrian the r of ra was weakly sounded, as is 
shown by its frequent omission in the writing. And this is true not only of 
original rs {e.g. fasio, fasiu * f arrea' beside /arsio; sesna *cenam' beside (ersna- 
tur), but also of the rs which in the Latin alphabet represents original d (e.g. 
Acesoniam beside Acersoniem: Akefunie). In meersta the rs belongs to the 
latter class, for it is a derivative of merSr mefs (16, 6) ; moreover, in all 
examples of the word the r happens to be written. But the spelling with ee, 
though occurring only once, may fairly be taken as an indication that in general 
the reduction of r was accompanied by a lengthening, perhaps but slight, of the 
preceding vowel. 

2. O. pees8l[iim beside pestl^m ^ templum^ from *p€rstlO': U. .persklum 
*sacrificium', persclo^ pesder. In Oscan there is no such general reduction of r 
in rs as in Umbrian (cf. kersnu *cena' always written with r), but apparently it 
was differently treated in the group rstl. That the lengthening is confined to 
pees8l[6m and connected with the loss of t (139, 2), is unlikely. 

3. U. frateer * f ratres* from *frat€r(e)s points to lengthening before final 
rSy the s then disappearing. 

Note. The early Latin use of ter^ from *ier«, as a long syllable 
is not parallel, since the form was not ter with vowel-lengthening, 
but terr, like hocc^ miless, etc. The same is true of /ar, from fars, 
which occurs as a long syllable in Ovid and is cited by Priscian 
(Keil II, 313) among words ending in ar, 

4. O. teer[6m*territorium', related to L. terra from *t€rsa. This form 
is commonly, and perhaps correctly, derived from Herso-, it being assumed 

78] Shortening of Vowels 49 

from this that original rs between vowels in Oscan became r with lengthening 
of the preceding vowel (115, 1). But as this is the only example for such a 
development of rs, it is well to point out another possible explanation, which is 
as follows : There once existed a simple neuter s-stem *t€rs- with Nom.-Acc. Sg. 
Hers which became O.-U. *ter according to 3. The oblique cases were affected 
by the analogy of the Nom.-Acc, e.g. Gen. Sg. Herseis being replaced by 
♦tgrets (terels), just as U. Gen. Sg. *farser waa replaced by farer under the 
influence of far. The word then went over completely to the commonest 
neuter type, that of the o-stems, giving Nom.-Acc. HSrom, 

77. 1. The e of O. eestint 'exstant', eehiianasilm 'emitten- 
darum', U. ehetur8tahamu^exteTmin2iU)\ etc., like L. e- beside 
eX'yUiust be due to secondary lengthening, but the conditions 
under which this took place cannot be the same as in Latin, 
and are not yet clear. 

Note. The e in' Latin is readily explained as due to the lengthening which 
regularly accompanies the loss of s (in this case from ks) before m, n, Z, etc. 
But this cannot hold for Oscan-Umbrian, where s remains in these positions (114). 
The Umbrian B might be explained as coming from ek- before t according to 
76, but there seems to have been no such reduction of A in Oscan, since in all 
other forms it is uniformly written. 

2. The a of O. aamanafied 'locavit', U. ahauendu 'avertito', 
etc., like L. a beside a6, aJs, is likewise due to a secondary length- 
ening, the conditions of which for Oscan-Umbrian are not clear. 

Note. It is possible here to assume a distinct prefix, onginal d-, 
but the difficulty in the derivation from abs is no greater than that 
involved in the B of O. eestint, where original g, even if there were 
evidence for any such prefix, is out of the question (41). 

3. The 6 of U. ooserclom, if this is **observaculum,' offers the same diffi- 
culty. But meaning and etymology of the word are uncertain. The explana- 
tion as * *aviservaculum' (o from au(iy ; 69) is also possible. 

Shortening of Vowels 

78. Vowel-shortening such as is seen in Latin before final 
r, Z, t, ?n, or when the vowel is itself final, is not observable in 
Oscan or Umbrian. Positive evidence for the preservation of 
the long vowel is furnished as follows : 

1. For final a, by the forms in -u, -ti, -o (34), since final 
short a remains (32, 2). 

50 Phonology [78 

2. Before -r, by O. patir^ : L. pater (Grk. irarrip)^ since the 
i points to e (41) ; — O. keenzstur, cenatur : L. censor (Grk. -®/5), 
since the u, u points to 6 (63) ; similarly by the Passive forms 
O. loufir (Pres. Indie, of Second Conj. ; 288, 2), sakrafir (Perf. 
Subj. with mood-sign e; 234). 

3. Before -^, by O. kasit^: L. caret (17, 1), with i for e of 
the Present Stem; cf. also (before -d) O. fusid: L.foret^ with i 
for e of the Subjunctive. 

4. Before m, by O. paam, L. quam. 

Note. As this form is a monosyllable, it would still be possible 

to assume shortening in x>olysyllab]es. But the analogy of the cases 

in 2 and 3 is against this, and moreover the forms of the Gen. PI. are 

more easily understood as retaining -6m than as having -om. The 

Oscan forms might indeed be taken as -am according to 60, but in 

Umbrian even the single occurrence of -um in pracatarum is of weight 

in favor of -dm, since -om never appears as -um, 

a. It is probable that the shortening of a long vowel before n + consonant, 

whether final or not, as in L. amant from *ama-nt, Partic. amant- from *ama-nt-, 

took place in the Italic period, but the evidence in Oscan-Umbrian is very 

meagre. See 215, 2, on O. stahlnt ; 217, 4, on 0. amfret ; also 74, note. For the 

similar shortening before r + consonant, cf. O. Hereklels, L. HerculSa, from Grk. 

*HpaKX^s (21). 

The long vowel before the secondary ending -ns (e.g. Imperf. Subj. 
O. h]enfns *caperent'), which has replaced original -nt, may well be due to the 
analogy of the other forms (O. fusld etc.). Or, if the explanation given in 
128, 1, is correct, the change of rU through nd to n may have antedated the 
shortenmg process. 

Anapt3nd8 in Oscan 

79. Anaptyxis, or the development of a secondary vowel 
between a liquid or nasal and another consonant either preceding 
or following, is a wide-spread phenomenon in Oscan, though 
unknown in Umbrian. It is necessary to divide the examples 
into two classes according as the liquid or nasal precedes or 
follows the other consonant. If it precedes, the quality of the 
new vowel is that of the vowel preceding, while if it follows, 
the new vowel has the quality of the following vowel. In 

1 We should expect patlr, kasit, but the inscriptions containing these words 
are careless iu the use of i and i. 

80] Anaptyxis 51 

other words, the newly developed vowel has the quality of the 
vowel of the syllable in which the liquid or nasal stands. 

a. In the case of mn it is n which is parallel to the nasal in other groups, 
e.g. comenei from *komnei (81). In fact there is no example of an anaptyctic 
vowel developed through m. 

6. Por the secondary vowel-development in connection with samprasa- 
rana see 91. 

80. The liquid or nasal precedes. This type of anaptyxis 
is one of the marked characteristics of the Oscan (and Paelig- 
nian). The regularity with which it appears makes it well nigh 
certain that the newly developed vowel was not a mere glide, 
as in vulgar Latin dulieia for dulciuj etc., but formed a full 
syllable. An interesting parallel is seen in Russian, e.g. golova 
'head' from *golva^ her eg 'bank' from *bergu. 

1. Liquid. The vowel develops bet\\reen a liquid and a 
guttural (including A) or a labial (including u) ; but not between 
a liquid and a dental. Examples : aragetud 'argento'; — Herekleis 
'Herculis'; — Mafiepe/cie^ 'Mamercius'; — tribarakaylim 'aedifi- 
care' from ^treh-ark-: L. arx ; — aTwinVa^i^c? '*immercato' (38, 2) ; 
— Mulukiis 'Mulcius'; — Verehasitii 'Versori' from verh-i L. ver- 
gd{?) ; — kulupu ' culpa' (?) ; — Urufiis ' Orfius'; — Alafatemum 'Alfa- 
temorum'; — turumiiad 'torqueatur' : L. tormen; — ^^ teremniss 
'terminibus'; — Salaviis 'Salvius' (salavs, aaXaf^ 'salvus' owes its 
form to the oblique cases, for *8aluo8 would give *8alu8 in the 
O.-U. period; see 91, 1); — Kalaviis 'Calvius' (Calavius on Latin 
inscriptions is simply the Oscan form) ; — Heleviiels 'Helvii' ; -— 
serevkid 'auspicio' from *8eru{i)kio' ; — uruvii 'flexa'(?) : urvumQ). 
Of. also Pael. Herec,^ Alafi8^ ffelevis, Salauatur. 

As examples of the lack of anaptjrxis before dentals may 
be mentioned Mafieprivo 'Mamertina', molto 'multa', alttrei 
'alteri', (?aryieis 'partis', kerssnais'cenis', Fe/xro/oei 'Versori.' 

2. Nasal. The vowel develops between n and /, and in 
some cases between n and a guttural. Examples : 

Anafriss 'Imbribus'(?) ; — aamanaffed 'locavit', from *manf(e)- 
fed (223); avafa/cer (for/ see 24, b) 'dedicavit' from *anfaked; 

52 Phonology [80 

— Anagtiai 'Angitiae' from *Ang{e)tid-\ — Liganakdikei, name of 

a goddess, from Hegdn(i)ho-dik- (or from Hegndko-^ and so 

belonging in 81?). Cf. also Pael. -4wa<?eia 'Angitiae' beside 

Anceta^ Anacta, 

Note. Usually there is no anaptyxis between n and a guttural, e.g. 
tangintid. The conditions under which it took place are not clear. 

81. The liquid or nasal follows. This sorl of anaptyxis, 
the same that is seen in Latin poculum^ pidculum^ etc., is of a 
less determinate character than the preceding. It is subject to 
local variation: at least in the inscriptions of Capua there is 
no indication of it in the spelling. Elsewhere it occurs regu- 
larly after short syllables, but is not entirely confined to this 
position, the more precise conditions not being clear.^ Exam- 
ples : paterei 'patri' (contrast maatreis 'matris') ; — piiterei-pid 'in 
utroque', Nom. PL piitiiriis-pid, etc., from ^potro- (88, 4); — petiro- 
pert 'quater' for *petirio-pert (100, 3, c), from *petrid-pert (192, 2); 

— Sadiriis'Satrius'; — pdstiris 'posterius' from *po8trio8 (88,4), 

1 Thumeysen, who first assumed that anaptyxis occurred only after short 
syllables (K.Z. 27, 181 ff.), has since modified his view to the extent of admitting 
anaptyxis even after a long syllable in the case of r followed by consonantal i or i 
in hiatus (I.F. Anz. 4, 38). This would cover piistiris, Aadirils, etc. In this he 
is followed by Brugmann, who however treats the development in these cases as a 
distinct phenomenon (Grd. I^, p. 825). But still further restrictions are necessary. 
As regards zico^om * diem', Ace. PI. djiikiilds, we agree with Thumeysen against 
V. Planta that the suffix, though originally -kelo-, has passed through the stage -klo-f 
and that the vowel of the penult is as truly anaptyctic as any other. But we can 
see no plausibility in his view that the first syllable of this word, and also of Dilviiai, 
is to be taken as dii- from dio-. Such a change is without even the remotest analogy 
in Oscan phonetics. And what of the preservation of {d)io not only in iiiklei and I&viia, 
with which Thumeysen equates zicolom and Dilviiai, but also in DiAvel, Acov/rei, 
Itivefs, etc. ? Does he mean to assume a local change confined to Bantia, Samnium, 
and the land of the Frentani ? But Diiivei is also Samnitic. There is no real diffi- 
culty in assuming that anaptyxis in the case of kl took place without regard to the 
quantity of the preceding syllable. Its absence in sakarakltlm may well be due to 
the preceding anaptyxis (cf. Herekleis). 

The author is convinced that the quantity of the preceding syllable is not the 
only factor to be considered, but that others, such as relative rapidity of utterance, 
local variations aside from that of Capua, inconsistency in the spelling of what was 
perhaps not a full vowel, etc., are to be reckoned with. In Latin, where the material 
is so much more plentiful, it is admitted that the factors are t jo complicated to allow 
any precise formulation of the conditions of anaptyxis. 

82] Contraction and Hiatus 63 

but Capuan pdstrei 'in postero'; — Aadiriis 'Atrius' (whence by 
extension Aadirans); — Vestirikiiiii 'Vestricio'; — sakarakliim *saeel- 
lum' from *8akrd'klo-^ sakarater 'sacratur', aa/copo 'sacrum', but 
Capuan sakrim, sakrafir, etc. ; — tefdrdm ' burnt-offering' from 
Hefro- : U. tefra 'cames quae cremantur' ; — Pukalatlii '*Puclato', 
but Capuan puklum'filium'; — zicolom 'diem\ Abl. Sg. ziculud^ 
Loc. Sg. zicel[ei]^ Dat.-Abl. PI. zicoloia, Ace. PL djiikdliis, from 
*die-klo-^ : L. diecula ; — Patanai 'Pandae' from ^Pat-nd-; — akenei 
'in anno'(?), Gen. PI. acunum (probable reading): U. acnu ; 
— comono 'comitia', Loc. Sg. comenei^ from ^komno- (16, 4): 
U. kumne; — O. Safinim 'Samnium', from *Safniom : L. Samnium, 
Cf. also Pael. sacaracirix^ pristafalacirix, as if L. *Bacrdtr%x^ 

a. In kii]mparakmeis ^consilii% compardscmter ^consulta erit\ it is uncer- 
tain which a is anaptyctic ; but if the second, and so falling under 80, 1, it 
would be the only example before 8. Against the assumption that the first a is 
anaptyctic, the preceding long syllable is not decisive. See footnote, p. 62. 

Contraction and Hiatus 

82. Like vo.wels are contracted. 

1. The loss of intervocalic I in the Italic period was attended 
by contraction of like vowels. Thus the ending of the Nom. PI. 
of i-stems, originally -eiea (Skt. -ayaa)^ became -^«, and the e had 
the same history as original e. So O. trfs : L. tree ; — U. pacrer 
'propitii', from stem pakri-. Another example of the same 
contraction is O. htirtin'in horto' from *hortei-en (Loc. Sg. with 
postpositive en; 171, 7). 

2. In Umbrian the close e resulting from oi in final sylla- 
bles (67, 2) was so near in quality to i, that in the Dat. Sg. and 
Dat.-Abl. PI. of stems in -iio- and -io- it contracted with the 
preceding i (and i). Contracted and uncontracted forms are 
found side by side, but the latter are due to the influence of 
the other case-forms. Thus Dat. Sg. luve, loui^ beside luvie, 
louie^ Dat.-Abl. PI. Atiersir beside Atiersier^ etc. Compare 

1 See footnote, p. 52. 

54 Phonology [82 

Latin Nom. PL fill beside filil^ Dat.-Abl. PI. auspicla beside 
auspidis^ etc., the contracted forms being very frequent in 
inscriptions. Contraction of u with the sound resulting from o 
is seen in U. dur 'duo' from *duds (54). 

a. There are no such contracted forms in the case of the open e from 
original e (Voc. Sg. arsie)^ or the open g from ei (Loc. Sg. Fisie, Gen. Sg. Fisier) 
or from ai (Dat.-Abl. PI. of First Decl. dequrier), 

83. Unlike vowels remain uncontracted, and sometimes A 
is used as a mark of the hiatus. Thus we find uncontracted: 
ao, in Infinitives of the First Conjugation, O. moltaum^ tribara- 

kavdm (v is simply the glide sound preceding the rounded 

vowel ; cf. occasional Grk. afvrdp for avrdp, etc.). 
do, in U. atahu 'sto' from *8taid, U. subocau, mihocauu 'invoco' 

from -did (uu = uu with glide as in trfbarakavrim ; less probably 

doubling to indicate length, since this is verjr rare in final 

ae, in U. ahesnes 'ahenis' from* a(i)e8no (Skt. dyaa) ; — U. staheren 

'stabunt' from *8ta(i)e8enL 
de, in Present Subjunctive of First Conjugation, O. deiuaid, 

sakahiter, from 'die-, 
eo, edy in O. ioc, tone, lak, U. earn, etc.: L. ea, eum, etc., from 

*eio-. eid'. For O. i, see 38, l. 
oe, in U. Puemune : Sabine Poimunien, L. Pomona, pomum from 

*po-emO' (cf. como from *co-emd)?- 
01, in U. pue 'ubi' from *pd (L. quo) + 1 ; — U. poei 'qui' from 

*pd (earlier *poi) + 1. 
al, in O. stahint'stant', U. stahitu 'steito\ But the retention of 

the hiatus here is probably due to analogy, partly of other 

forms of this verb, partly of the corresponding endings in 

forms of other verbs. 

a. Between i and a following vowel there is no hiatus, but a glide i 
which is indicated in the spelling of the native alphabets (81). The consistent 
use of h in U. pihatu ^ i>iaXo\ pehatu, pihaner^ etc. and O. PiIhiiii*Pio' (also 
Volsc. pi^m *pium') is remarkable, and without adequate explanation. 

1 Osthoff, I.F. 5, 317 ff. 

86] Weakening of Vowels 65 

84. Of the various phenomena which take place when 
vowels of two different words are brought together in the 
sentence, namely "crasis," "aphaeresis," "slurring," etc., we 
have but little evidence. 

With L. honast for bona est etc. are obviously parallel 
O. teremnatust 'terminata est' and destrst (for *destru8t) 'dextra est'. 
A more anomalous case is U. neifhabas 'ne adhibeant', if for 
iiei(-a)rhabas. With animadverto from animum adverto^ with slur- 
ring, is parallel U. eitipes ' decreverunt' from *eitom *hipens (264, 2). 

a. For O. ptisstfst (C. A. 33) the meaning 'positum est' is so much more 
suitable to the context than that of 'post est' that we cannot reject the possi< 
bility that the form comes from ^piisttim ist, in spite of the fact that the regu- 
larity with which final m is written in Oscan, except at Pompeii, would naturally 
point to its full pronunciation. That it is not the vowel of the enclitic that is 
absorbed, as in teremnatttst, would be accounted for by the fact that the ist of 
the Cippus Abellanus laSst (217,2). 

Vowel-Weakening in Medial Syllables 

85. The wide-spread weakening of short vowels and diph- 
thongs which occurs in Latin in medial syllables, such sylla- 
bles being in the earlier system of accentuation unstressed, is 
unknown in Oscan-Umbrian. Examples of unchanged a and e, 
such as U. pro-canurent : L. {oc)-cinui^ or U. tacez : L. tacitus^ 
have been cited in 32, 3, 36, 3. 

86. But in the position before a labial, or in some cases 
after a labial, a weakening takes place, which results sometimes 
in w, sometimes in i. In the corresponding Latin. phenomenon 
the determining factor in the development to u or i respectively 
was the character of the vowels of the surrounding syllables 
(cf. occupo^ nuncupo^ but anticipoy occipio^ etc., from cap-)^ but 
so many secondary changes have taken place, owing to the 
mutual influence of forms belonging to the same system or for- 
mation, that the original distribution is only partially reflected 
in the actual forms. Much the same is true for Oscan-Umbrian. 

1. The superlatives, formed from the suffix -(t)emo- (I.E. 
'{t)mmO')y show the influence of the preceding vowel. Thus 

56 Phonology [86 

with L. optumus, maxumuSy proxumus^ vltumuB (eventually 
optimua etc., under the influence of the commoner type) may- 
be compared O. liltiumam 'ultimam' (iu from u; see 66) and 
U. hondomu ^m&mo* (o from u before m; see 67); while with 
the Latin forms in -imus may be compared O. nessimas 'proxi- 
mae', nesimoia^ U. neaimei^ and O. messimass 'medioximas'(?). 
But note U. nuvime'nonum' from ^nouemo- (Skt. navamd-). 

2. In O. pertumum 'perimere' from *pert^mom the follow- 
ing vowel seems to have been a factor, though in pertemuBt^ 
peremuat^ as well as in pertemest, the e is retained, apparently 
under the influence of the simplex ("recomposition"). 

3. In O. sifei 'sibi' (cf. Pael. sefei^ U. tefe)^ as in L. sihi, the 
weakening is due to the enclitic use of the pronoun, to which 
points also O. tfeL In L. aimul^ early semol, semul^ from *8emel 
the weakening in the first syllable is likewise due to enclitic use, 
and to this probably corresponds U. sumel 'simul', although it is 
possible to see in the latter an original 8om- (Grk. ofiaXo^). 

Note. The single occurrence of O. tfei is not sufficient warrant for 
assuming actual syncope of the e, but on the other hand, taken in connection 
with slfel, it cannot be regarded as a mere graver's error without any foun- 
dation in the actual pronunciation. It is doubtless a careless spelling, but one 
that is due to the reduced pronunciation of the vowel. 

4. U. prehubia 'praehibeat' beside prehabia may owe its t^ to 
the existence of such forms as *prehubust (cf. hahus)^ just as the 
u of early Latin derupio is probably due to a *derupui. 

Although there are no examples of i for original a, it is 
altogether probable that, as in Latin, the a had the same double 
development as the e, as seen in the superlatives cited above ; 
in this case we must regard prehabia as an example of recom- 
position for *prehibia, 

5. O. praefucuB ^praefectus' beside /a«^8 'factus', where the 
labial precedes, is different from any case known in Latin, but 
here too the vowel of the following syllable is obviously a 
factor. A still different, though uncertain, example is O. pru- 
pukid 'ex ante pacto', which is most naturally derived from 

88] Syncope bl 

^pro-pakio-, although it is possible that this is a case of vowel- 
gradation (u = <? in interchange with a, a). 

6. A change oi o to u is seen in O. amprufid 'improbe'. 

7. In Latin we find a similar interchange of u and % where the original 
vowel is either u or i. A parallel to L. dissipo beside the more original dissupO, 
or lacrima beside lacruma, would be U. combifiatu *nuntiato', if this were related 
to Grk. irvd- (irvu0dvo/Mi etc.); but this is uncertain, since connection with Grk. 
Ti6- {TclOtj etc.) is also possible. Vice versa, with L. pontufex beside pontifex 
we may compare U. atropusatu beside ^ripursatu *tripodato% if the former 
spelling is not simply a mistake. (9^A->'^2aa. c/laX( 

8. A change of ou to u, such as is seen in L. dentLO from *de novo, has been 
assumed for Oscan-Umbrian, but on insufficient evidence. 

Syncope in Medial Syllables^ 

87. Syncope of short vowels in medial syllables, as in 
L. caldus beside calidus^ rettull from *retetull, etc., is far more 
extensive in Oscan and Umbrian than in Latin, yet there are 
numerous examples of the retention of short vowels. We must 
confine ourselves to a statement of the facts. 

Note. Even in Latin the factors involved are so complex and have been 
so obscured by subsequent leveling that it is impossible to formulate the precise 
conditions, though much progress has been made in this direction. For Oscan- 
Umbrian, with the limited amount of material before us, it is almost useless to 
speculate upon the original conditions of the syncope. 

88. Syncope oi e. 1. In the Imperatives of the Third 
Conjugation the original e^ which in Latin is changed to i 
(agito)^ is always lost, except after w. Thus O. actud, U. aitu 
(ai from aAr, 143): L. agito; — U. kuvertu: L. convertito; simi- 
larly U. 08tenduj fiktu, ninetu, etc. ; — but U. kanetu : L. eanito. 

2. In the Participles in -eto- the e is retained, e.g. U. tasetur 
'taciti', maletu ' molitum', etc. (244, 4). 

3. Further examples are : O. prdfied 'posuit' from *prO'fefed^ 
aamanafied 'locavit' from ^mdn-fefed : h, pro-didit^ etc.; — O. upsed 
'fecit', tipsannam 'faciendam', U. osatu ^i2icito\ from *ope8d-: 
L. operor; O. cebnust^Yeneiit^: U. benust; — O. Dekmannitiis 

1 For a few examples of haplology (L. sPDiestris from *ffe{nu)-inestris), see 
201, 6, 236, 2, «, 237, a, 261, .5, 

68 Phonology [88 

'*Decumaniis': L. decumdnus^ decimus from ^dekemo- ; — O. fruk- 
tatiuf 'fructus' from ^frugU'etdtiortr^ as if L. *fruitdti6 ; — U. mersto 
'iustum' from *medes-to : L. modes-tus. 

4. Syncope is usual in the suffixes -kelo-^ -elo-, -tero-^ -ero-^ 
-merir. In some few eases the short form may be an inherited 
variety of the suffix, such as -tro- beside -tero-^ -lo- beside -eZo-, 
etc. But for the majority of the examples this is improbable, 
and for some distinctly impossible, e.g. in U. ti9lu on accoimt of 
the § (144), in U. katlu because original tl becomes kl (129, 2), etc. 
Examples: U. ticlu 'dedicationem' from ^dikelo- (in Nom. Sg. 
tigel the o of the final syllable is lost and the e remains); — 
U. veskk ' vascula' from ^ves-kelo- ; — ^die-klo- (whence O. zicolom 
'diem' etc., 81) from ^die-kelo- ; — U. katlu 'catulum' from 
*katelO' (Nom. Sg. katd like tigel) ; — U. vitlu ' vitulum' from 
*uitelO' (cf. O. Viteliti 'Italia', 250); — O. piistrei, U. postra^ 
*po8trio8 (whence O. piistiris, 81, 91, l): L. posterus, posteriua; 
— *potro- (U. podruhpei 'utroque', O. piiterei-pid by 81): Grk. 
7roT€/)o? ; — O. alttram : L. alter o- ; — O. teremniss : L. terminihus 
(but O. teremenniii : L. *terminia) ; — U. nomner: L. nominis.^ 

89. 1. Loss of I is seen in O. minstreis 'minoris': L. minis- 
ter ; — O. Pupdiis 'Popidius' beside Piipidiis ; — U. totcory todeeir : 
O. ttivtiks, toutico (15, 2). The loss is common to Latin also in 
dexter^ O. destrst, U. deatram, etc: Grk. he^irepo^^ and in the 
prefix of L. amh4gd^ am-plector^ O. am-vlannud, U. an-ferener^ 
etc.: Grk. a/i</)/. 

2. Loss of a is seen in O. eestint 'exstant' from *ek9-%tahint 
(cf. stahint 'stant') ; — O. embratur : L. imperdtor^ from ^errirpardtor 
(paro) ; — O. prdftti 'posita' from ^pro-fato- (244, 1). 

3. Loss of is seen in O. akkatus 'advocati' from ^ad-uokdto- 
through *adokdto- (cf . 102, 3 ; otherwise we should expect 
^adukatus by 91, 1); — perhaps in O. meddiss (263, 1, with foot- 
note) and O. Vezkei (266, 8). 

1 In O. teremnfss, U. nomner ^ tikamne, etc., it is possible to assume the retention 
of the reduced grade -mn- instead of syncope. But the probability is that these have 
the same grade as the Latin forms. That the latter owe their -min- to anaptyxis 
(Sommer, Lat. Laut- und Formenlehre, 164) we are not convinced. 

90] Syncope 59 

Syncope in Final Syllables 

90. In final syllables also, syncope is far more wide-spread 
than in Latin. 

1. A short 0, e, or i is dropped before final «. Examples : 
Nom. Sg. of o-stems, e.g. O. htirz'hortus' from *horto8, Bantins 
'Bantinus', Ptimpaiians 'Pompeianus', tdvtlks 'publicus', Mutil 
'Mutilus', U. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus', fratreks '*fratrieus', pihaz, pihoa 
'piatus' from *pidto%^ U. tigel 'dedieatio' from *dikelo8 ; — Nom.- 
Acc. Sg. N. of «-stenis, e.g. O. min[8 'minus' from *minos^ U. mors 
'ius' from *medo8 ; — Dat.-Abl. PI. (ending -foa: L. -6w«), e.g. 
O. luisarifs 'lusoriis', teremniss 'terminibus', ligia 'legibus', U. avis 
'avibus',/raen^'fratribus'; — Nom. Sg. of i-stems, e.g. O. ceus 
'civis', aidil'aedilis', U. /(m« 'favens' (suffix -m-; of. Nom. PI. 
foner) ; — Nom. PI. of consonant-stems (ending -es : Grk. -€?), 
e.g. O. humuns 'homines', meddiss 'meddices', <?ew«^wr 'censores', 
U. /ra^er'fratres'. (See also 2.) 

a. Before final m vowels are retained, e.g. Ace. Sg. O. htirtdm, toviicom, 
slagfm, U. poplom, etc. 

h. That u was not dropped even before final « is in itself probable. Cf . its 
universal retention in Latin, and likewise in Gothic {dag8 from *dag<i8, ansts 
from ^avstis^ but sunus). So O. sipud 'sciens% which in its relation to L. sapid 
evidently contains the form of the root which characterizes Perfects like L. c^l 
to capid^ etc. (225), may be a stereotyped Perfect Active Participle with Nom. 
Sg. in -t^, like Skt. vidus^ Avest. vldv^. But it is also possible that it comes 
from *8^uo8^ like O. facus from *fak-uo8 (91, 1) ; cf. Volsc. sepu *sciente' from 

2. Syncope of e before final « and also before a final dental 
is seen in the 2d Sg. and 3d Sg. Fut. and Fut. Perf. as in 
U. heries 'voles', Am^«^ 'volet', from ^herieses, *herieset See 

221, 2S0. 

But e remains in the 3d Sg. Perf. Indie. (O. kiimbened 'con- 
venit', etc. ; 228 ff.); also in the 3d Sg. Pres. Indie, of the Third 
Conjugation, though the only examples are from the minor 
dialects (Marruc. /ere^ 'fert', Vest, dtde^'dat'). U. seste also, 
though variously taken, is probably 'sistis', with e retained, 
perhaps under the influence of a *mteL In U. pis-her 'quilibet', 

60 Phonology ' [90 

probably from *-herit (216), the syncope is due to the enclitic 
use of the verb. 

Note. Assuming that under conditions no longer apparent both synco- 
pated and unsyncopated forms existed in the Present and Perfect, the survival 
of the latter may be due to the fact that many of the syncopated forms v^ould 
have lost their distinctive character, e.g. *kdinl)en(e)d v^ould have become 
^ktbnben. The Fut. and Put. Perf. forms retained or seemed to retain the 
characteristic endings -s, -t. 


91. In those cases of syncope in which the consonant pre- 
ceding the syncopated vowel itself assumes the function of a 
vowel, so that there is no reduction in the number of syllables, 
the phenomenon is known as samprasarana. Such cases are 
best kept apart from the preceding, not only on account of the 
additional process involved, but because, when samprasarana is 
possible, syncope may take place in positions where it does not 
otherwise occur. Thus, in general, syncope does not occur 
before final m (O. hiirtdm, etc. 90, 1, a), but this need not 
prevent our assuming that 4om becomes -im. 

1. uo to w, io to L Examples : O. facus 'f actus' from 
*fak'UO% (suffix -W0-; 258, 1); — O. /orii« 'potius': \j. fortm%\ — 
O. pustiris from *poBtrio8 (81): L. posteriua; — so probably mats 
'plus' from *maiio8 (*magio8 ; see 147, 3) : L. mams^ like Mais 
^Maiui beside Dat. Sg. Maiiui ; — Nom. and Ace. Sg. M. and 
Nom.-Acc. Sg. N. of io-stems, e.g. O. Pakis'Pacius', Ace. Pakim, 
medicim 'magisterium', U. Fisim ' Fisium', etc. (see 172 ff.). 

2. ro and n to r (syllabic r), later er. Examples : U. ager : 
L. ager^ from *agro%\ — U. pacer 'propi tins' from *pahri% (cf. 
L. deer from *dkris) ; — U. -jE?er 'pro', as in totd-per 'pro populo', 
etc., from -pro; — O. Aderl. 'Atella' from *Atro-ld (cf. L. agellu% 
from *agro-lo9) ; — O. Abella- (Abellaniis) probably from ^Apro-ld- 
(L. aper). Observe also O. trstus 'testes' from *tri9to-h L. testis 
from Hristi' (biit O. tristaamentud : L. testdmentum) ; — O. Tantm- 
naium from *Tantrinnaio-(f). See also 239 on O. -ter. 

1 That is, * third party'. See Skutsch, B.B. 23,100, Solmsen, K.Z. 37,18. 

92] Syncope - 61 

a. The parallel change of no (cf. L. Sdbellus from *Safno40') is seen in 
U. Padellar from *Padenla, *P(idnla, *Patno-la (cf. O. Patanaf). For the 
corresponding development of lo there are no certain examples, since U. ti9el, 
katel, perhaps also O. famd, contain the suffix -elo- (88, 4). O. Flml, Mill 
probably stand for *Fimel, *Mitel (*Mitel : L. Mitulus = O. famel : L. famulus). 

b. U. ocar, ukar*mons% although its oblique cases are from the stem 
okri-, is not from *okris^ but from a by-form with suffix -ari-, or diri-. 

Note. The chronology of this process is a difficult problem. 
The agreement between Latin and Oscan-Umbrian would lead us to 
infer that it took place in the Italic period. But O. Aderl. and 
Abella-, with the change of surd to sonant which is observed else- 
where before r (157), would indicate that in the Oscan-Umbrian 
period the development had not passed beyond the stage ^, and now 
comes the Latin form 8]akros = sacer on the newly discovered forum- 
inscription, which, unless an analogical restoration, proves that the 
whole process took place independently in Latin. 

The reduction of ri in accented syllables (L. ter from Hria, 
etcA) was doubtless later than the change in unaccented syllables, 
and this is borne out by the existence in Oscan of trlstaamentud. 
But here too the development seems to have begun in Oscan, judging 
from trstus. 

Loss of Final Short Vowels 

92. As in Latin, final short vowels are sometimes dropped, 
sometimes retained. It may be assumed that in the Italic 
period sentence-doublets arose, of which the dialects inherited 
now the form with the vowel, now the one without it. 

The primary personal endings -ti^ -nti (Grk. -ta, -vtC) are 
without the final vowel in Oscan-Umbrian, as in Latin, e.g. 
O.-U. est 'est', O. stahint'stant', etc. Further examples are: 
U; et : L. ety from *eti (Grk. ert) ; — O. nep^ neip, U. neip : 
L. nee beside neque ; — -O. avt, aut'oij aut', but also O. auti 
'aut', U. ote : L. aut ; — O. ant : L. ante ; — O. puf, but U. pufe : 
L. ubi ; — O. pan^ but U. pane : L. quamde ; — O. ptin, but 
U. ponne : L. ^quomde, 

1 The contrast between ter^ testis^ and tribus, not to speak of triplex^ etc., shows 
that in Latin the change was conditioned by the nature of the following sound. It 
took place before « (cf . change of final -ro«, -m), and possibly before n, though cemo 
is not decisive. 

62 Phonology [98 


93. In many cases the difference in the vowel of related 
words is not due to any of the regular vowel-changes of a 
particular dialect, such as have been described in the preceding 
sections, but is inherited from a system of Vowel-Gradation, or 
Ablaut, already existing in the parent speech. It is unnecessary 
here to enter into any discussion of the subject as a whole, but 
will be sufficient to mention such of these inherited variations 
as show themselves in the relation of Oscan-Umbrian forms to 
one another or to the cognate Latin forms. 

94. 6, 0, etc. The interchange of e and o (L. tego : togoi) 
is seen in L. gemo : U. gomia 'gravidas' ; — U. mefs 'ius', O. meddiss, 
etc. (16,6): L. modu%} modestua; — U. nufpener '-pondiis': L. porir 
du8^ dv^ondiu8. Less certain examples are U. sukatu ' decla- 
rator?), probably a denominative from *8okO' : L. insece ; — 
U. pruzufe 'praestante'(?), possibly for ^pro-sode : L. aedeo. 

The ^-grade is seen in U. prusikurent 'pronuntiaverint': 
L. insece (cf. L. sedi : sedeo) ; — O. triibdm 'domum' etc. (16, 14): 
U. trebeit '\eT82it\xT\ ^remwi^ ' tabemaculo' (L. traba, if related, 
has a reduced grade). r . , . y *> '^ . .^ ^ ^ 

The o-grade is probably seen* in U. du-puraua 'hipedihus\ 
petur-pursus (cf . Dor. tto)?, Goth, fotus) : L. ped-^ ped-^ although 
the o-grade is possible. 

95. ei^ i, etc. The interchange of ei and i (L. deico^ died : 
dictus) is seen in O. rfetcans'dicant': O. dicust^ U. dersicust 
'dixerit', U. ti^el 'dedicatio', etc.; — O. felhiiss 'muros' (Grk. 
relxo^) : L. fingo^ figura^ etc. 

An example of the oi-grade is U. noBue 'nisi', if from *not- 
suai (67, 1) : O. nei^ L. nei^ nl. 

Nouns formed with the suffix -ten- show an interchange 

between the strengthened grade 'idii- and the long reduced 

grade -in- (181, a), 

a. O. Diiviiai 'Diae' beside Defvai etc. would point to a reduced grade dtj^-. 
But this, although not inconceivable in view of such forms as Skt. dixyyaii 

1 But some regard the o in modus as due to assimilation. 

97] Vowel^adatiofi 63 

* play 8% aivyati 'sews% is regarded with suspicion, since the cognates such as 
Skt. divydr point rather to diu-. Possibly the Oscan form is due to an error. ^ 

96. ou^ w, etc. Since eu becomes ou in Italic (70), ou may 
represent either this or the original ow-grade. Examples : O. lonr- 
fir 'vel': L. lubet^ libet; — U. iouies 'iuvenibus' : L. iuvenis ; — 
U. rofu'TMios*: U. rufru 'rubros', L. ruber; — U. purdouitu 
'porricito' : U. purditom from *duito- (cf. L. duam). 

The interchange of ue and u is seen in O. sverrunei 'spokes- 
man' (?) from *8uere8dn : L. susurrus from *8Vr8ur-e8o-^ the root 
suer-j sur-^ being the same as in Skt. avdrati 'sounds' and Eng. 
swear and answer. 

97. er (el), or (ol), etc. Since I.E. j becomes or in Italic, 
or may represent either this reduced grade or the original or- 
grade. Examples: U. couertu'^reveTtiW: Fut. Perf. couortus 
etc. (early L. vorsus^ advortet^ etc.); — L. terreo: U. tursitu 'ter- 
reto'; — U. persclo 'sacrificium', persnimu 'precator': U. pepurku- 
nent 'poposcerint', L. posed from *porkskd (Skt. prcchdmi); — 
L. circulus (i from e): U. kur^lasiu '*circulario, extremo'(?). 

The ^-grade is seen in the Nom. Sg. of nouns of relation- 
ship, as in O. patir 'pater' (78, 2), beside Dat. Sg. O. paterei from 
*patrei (81), U. patre, with reduced grade as in L. patrl^ Grk. 
irarpi; — O. niir 'vir', beside Gen. PI. nerum with the «-grade 
(cf. Skt. wa, Vedic Gen. PI. nardm). 

The o-grade is seen in the -tor- of agent-noims, which 
belonged originally to the Nom. Sg., but was extended to all 
cases, as in Latin. See 63, 64, 180, l. The reduced grade -tr- is 
seen in some derivatives, as U. kvestr-etie beside kvestur, etc. 
(cf. L. victr-ix). See 246, l, a. 

The long reduced grade r becomes ar or rd in Italic. Prob- 
able examples are : O. kdjmparakineis 'consilii', comparascuster 
'consulta erit', with park or prdk (81, a) : L. posed (see above); — 
U. mantrahklu from *manrtrdff-klo- : L. mantele from *man-terg- 
sli- (terged). 

1 See Solmsen, Stud z. lat. Sprachgeschichte, 112. Neither the explanation of 
V. Planta, I, 173, nor that of Thumeysen, I.F. Anz. 4, 38 (see footnote, p. 52) is at 
all probable. 

64 Phonology [97 

U. comatir^ kumates 'commolitis', with loss of Z as in mutu 
'multa', is an example of al for I (cf. Skt. murnd-), while the 
oZ-grade^ (cf. Goth, malan^ Lith. malu) is seen in Pres. Imperat. 
comoltu^ kumultu (kumaltu is probably due to confusion with the 
preceding). For maletu see following. 

The antevocalic form of the reduced grade, that is rr^ 
becomes ar in Italic, as in L. caro^ U. karu, from the root ker- 
(Grk. iceipG) etc.); — O. karanter 'vescuntur', cana 'panis' (gloss) 
(cf. Grk. /copevpvfii^ Lith. szeriit 'feed'). Of similar origin is al 
in U. maletu 'molitum' and in O. ualaemom 'optimum': L. volo, 

a. The relation of O. jiflukad *deferat'(?) to Fut. Perf. aflakas is wholly 
uncertain, as is the etymology, though connection with L. Jlectd seems probable. 
They might contain the root in the forms ^ofc and^dA: from fpc (cf.X./ote), but 
such an interchange between Present and Perfect stems is without parallel in 
Italic. A more natural interchange would be that of flak and flak, but the 
assumption of weakening of a to u in aflukad is somewhat bold, in spite of the 
uncertainty as to the precise conditions of this phenomenon (86). 

98. en, on, an. Italic en may represent either original en 
or the reduced grade n ; and an may represent either the long 
reduced grade w, or, according to a view which we regard as 
probable, the antevocalic reduced grade nn (L. canis, etc. ; 
cf. card with ar for rr, 97). The negative prefix, which repre- 
sents the reduced grade of the ne seen in O. ne, L. ne-faa, etc., 
appears in Latin a^ m-, from en-, n, but in Oscan-Umbrian always 
as an-; e.g. O. ancensto ^incensei, U. anhostatu ^non hastatos'. 
That this an- represents n, for which there is no other evidence,^ 
is less likely than that it is a generalization of the antevocalic 
form (Grk. av-, Skt. an-) as compared with the generalization in 
Latin of the anteconsonantal form (Grk. a-, Skt. a-). 

a. In O. tanginom * sententiam' beside L. tonged^ tongitid, the an might 
represent n (cf. y, and on in Goth. />ugkjan beside />agkjan), but the assumption 
of a grade n in this root meets with difficulty. Perhaps it is a case of secondary 
gradation, with interchange of a and o (99, 3). 

1 L. mold is commonly derived from *meld (O.Ir. meZim), but U. ol cannot have 
tliis origin (36,2). 

2 On Grk. vrfKipSris see now Brugmann, Sitzungsberichte d. konigl. sachs. 
Gesellschaft d. Wiss. 1901, p. 102. 

99] Vowel-O-radation 65 

b. O. Anafrfss, if related to L. imber (*7^-5Ari-; cf. Skt. a5Ard-*cloud% 
Grk. d4>p6s) would seem to point to a by-form *m-hhri-, but this is regarded 
with rightful suspicion. The connection of the two words is entirely uncertain. 

c. The relation of O.-U. anter to L. inter is almost certainly a different 
one. It is probable that *en-ter, containing en ' in' (L. in, Grk. ev), was replaced 
by a similar formation from an- (L. an- in an-Mld, Grk. dvd), which in Umbrian 
is used interchangeably with en- {andendu, endendu). Cf. O.Bulg. ^ri * within' 
(as against jgtro * liver': Grk. ivrepov), which is of similar origin. 

99. Other variations are : 

1. <f, a (I.E. d). U. fetu 'facito': O. fakiiad, U. facia (of. 
L. fecri: facw) ; — O. fiisnam, U. fesnaf-e, from ^fes-nd- (cf. L. 
fe%tu8^feriae): Jj.fdnum from ^fas-no-. Cf. also the ^-Perfects 
to Presents with a, O. hzpid 'habuerit', sipus 'seiens' (90, i, b). 

2. a, a (I.E. 9). O. Staatiis: stahint (short a shown by 
eestint), statif, statds, probably also with short a (of. L. stdre^ 
prae-8tdtu8^ etc. : atatio^ praeHztus^ etc.) ; — L. fdri : O. fatium,' 
L. fateor (denominative from a Partic. *fatO'^ replaced in Latin 
by fdto-); — O. faamat 'habitat, tendit': L. famulus, familia, 
O. famel, famelo. 

3. a, 0, a. L. acies, acud, etc. (Grk. aicpoi) : L. ocm, 
U. pear (Grk. oKpi^) : L. «cer (so probably O. akrid, but possibly 
Sk-) ; — O. kahad : L. incoho ; — L. hasta : U. hostatu, etc. 

4. e, a. Of this variation, which is seen in the relation of 
L. pateoy pando, O. patensins, to Grk. Treravvvfii, the following 
are uncertain examples: L. tepor: U. tapistenu 'caldariolam'(?); 
— U. erietu (or e?): L. aries. 

5. iy I. L. vir (Goth, wair, O.Ir. fer) : U. ueiro, uiro 
(Skt. viref-, Lith. v^ras). 

Note. The three occurrences of the spelling ueiro make it less likely 
that this is to be added to the rare cases of ei for short i (29). Cf. also Volsc. 
couehriu * curia' from ^co-ulrio- (L. curia from *co-ulria-). 

6. Uy it. \J, pure-to, O. purasiai : U.pir' ignis' (69). 

7. The relation of U. veskla'vascula' to U. uaao, L. vds^ia 
not clear. A variation of e or ^ with d is not well established. 

8. 0, 0. O. tipsannam, etc. (49) : O. uupsens, etc. (58). But 
see 225, a. 

66 Phonology ^ [lOO 

Consonantal i (i) 

100. 1. Initial i remains unchanged, as in Latin. Thus 
U. iouies 'iuvenibus' : L. iuvenis (Skt. ydva/nr). 
For j[ from d^ see 134. 

2. Intervocalic i was lost in the Italic period, and of the 
resulting vowel-combinations some are contracted, while others 
remain in hiatus. See 82, 88. But between i and a following 
vowel there naturally intervenes a glide, or transition sound, i, 
which is shown in the spelling of the native alphabets, but not 
in the Latin ; e.g. U. triiu-per, but trio-pen L. tria. See 81, a. 

The i following an i-diphthong is also retained. See 61, 3. 

a. For U. portaia^ kuraia, etc., see 282 ; for U. fuia, fuiest, 215, 3; for 
O. stafet, 215, 2. 

3. Postconsonantal i, which in Latin becomes a vowel 
(e.g. medius for original dissyllabic ^medh-io-)^ retains its con- 
sonantal function. In the Latin alphabet it is impossible to 
know whether an i stands for consonantal or vocalic i, but in 
the native alphabets, where the latter regularly appears as ii, a 
single i is evidence of consonantal value, though there are 
some few cases in which it is used carelessly in place of ii. 
See 81, a. 

But more direct evidence of the consonantal function is 
furnished in those cases in which a preceding consonant has 
been affected, as follows : 

a. Gemination of consonants before i is frequent in Oscan, 
e.g. kdmbennieis 'conventus', Mamerttiais 'Martiis', tribarakkiuf 
'aedificatio', etc. See 162, i. 

6. In Umbrian, i palatalizes a preceding n and i, and the i 
is then sometimes omitted in the writing. So spina beside 
spinia, Itubine beside Rupinie; iapi beside fagiu, etc. (144). 

c. In the local dialect of Bantia, i unites with a preceding 
Z, r, t, d, k, to form l{l), r(r), «, z, x. Thus alio from *alia : 
L. alia; — famelo from *famelid\ h. familia; — so perhaps 

108 Consonants 67 

mallom^ mallud^ malud from a stem ^malio- beside L. malo' ; — 

Jierest ^Yolet^ from *herie8t: U. heriest ; — petiro-pert^qiiB.teT^ 

from *petirio'pert^ this from ^petrid-pert (81, 192, 2); — Bansae 

from *Bantiae ; — zicolom 'diem' from *diekolom : L. diecula : 

— merfciiiwd'magistratu' from *meddikidd (260, 2). 

Note. In some cases the jj itself is the result of a local change of vocalic t. 
So *p€trid-pert must have had i, not j, and probably *diSkolom (184, a). 

Consonantal u (^) ^ 

101. Initial and intervocalie u remain, as in Latin. 
Examples : 

O. viti, U. via, vea, uia : L. vm ; — O. Fepa-opei '*Versori', 
U. ku-vertu, {?o-wer^i^'convertito': L. verto. 

O. luvei, U. luve : L. lovl ; — O. bivus : L. vivus; — O. deivi- 
nais: L. divinus; — U. uvem, oui : L. ovis ; — U. avif, auif: L. avis. 

The glide u, which was regularly sounded between u and 
a following vowel, shows itself in the spelling in the native 
alphabets, but not in the Latin ; e.g. U. tuves, but duir : L. duo. 
See 81, (. 

102. 1. Postconsonantal u generally remains unchanged. 
Thus O. svai, auae^sV (L. 8i is from a form without u); — 
O. dekkviarim'decurialem'; — U. arvla'frumenta': L. arvum. 

2. After labials u is lost, as in Latin. Thus O. fufans 
'erant': L. -bant from -bhud-; — O. amprufid 'impTohe\ prdfatted 
'probavit': L. probus from ^pro-bhuo-; — U. subocau ^iavoco^ 
from *8ub-uocdid ;^ — O. Piihiiii 'Pio', U. pihatu 'piato': L. pius 
from *puiio' (cf. L. puruB). 

3. du^ in Latin b (and v), becomes d. Thus U. di-fue 
*bifidum': L. bis etc., from *dui-; — U. dia 'det' from *dvrii6 
(cf. L. duam) ; — U. pur-ditom 'porrectum' from ^dvrito- beside 

1 In the citation of Oscan and Umbrian forms it is customary to use the ▼ only 
for forms written in the native alphabets, in which there was a distinct character for 
it, and not for forms written in the Latin alphabet. But for Latin words we continue 
to use the v, in spite of the resulting inconsistency. 

3 L. subvenio etc., under the influence of the simplex (but aperio from *ap' 
UeriOf the simplex being lost). See 164, a. 

68 Phonology [102 

pur-douitu (96); — O. akkatus'advocati' from *ad{o)kdtO' (89, 3), 
this from *ad-uokdtO'.^ 

4. An apparent loss of u after r is seen in U. aeritu ^servato', ansericUo 
* observatum', and caterahamo **catervamini', as compared with L.«en>5, caterva. 
But the precise explanation is not clear. In aeritu etc. it may be due to the 
position between r and i, i.e. *8erji,d from *seruid. 

5. For sue, see 87, a. 

103. 1. r usually remains unchanged, as in Latin. Ex- 
amples: O. Regaturei'Rectori', U. rehte'recte': L. rego ; — 
O. teremniss'terminibus', U. termnornre: L. termen; — U. fertu, 
ferar^ etc.: h.fero. 

2. It is also retained in some combinations in which it is 
lost in Latin, as r«i, rsn. But in Umbrian, in these combinations, 
and in general before «, the r was faintly sounded and often 
omitted in the writing. See under r«, 116, lie. 

a. In 0. Falenias, beside Paler, on a companion inscription, the omission 
of r is due to carelessness in spelling, though the sound of r is naturally some- 
what less distinct before consonants than elsewhere. 

3. The combination rl appears unassimilated in 0. Aderl. 
' Atella' of an old coin, but has become K, as in Latin, in Abella- 
(Abellantis), probably from *Aberld'y ^Apro-ld- (91, 2). 

4. Final r is frequently omitted in Umbrian, mostly in the 
forms of the Passive. So herte, herti^ hertei^ beside herter; — 
emantu beside emantur ; — pihafi^ pihafei : O. sakrafir ; — tuta-pe 
beside usual tuta-per 'pro populo'. 


104. Initial I is seen in O. %z^6?'lege'; — likitud, licitnd 
' liceto' ; — loufir ' vel' : L. lihet ; — Liivfreis ' Liberi' ; — liivkei ' in 
luco', etc. 

In Umbrian there is no example of an initial I on the Igu- 
vinian Tables, and a change of initial I Uy u^ though disputed, is 

^ ■■ ^^^^— - -- ■■ — — ..— I..I. -■■-■■■ ■■ ■■' ■ ■ ^ ■■■■! ■ ^^»^ 

1 L. advoco^ etc., under the influence of the simplex. See 164, a. 

106] Consonants 69 

probably to be recognized in vutu 'lavato' : L. lavo\ — ^vapef-, uaperB- 
'sella': L. lapis (cf. suhsellis marmoreis of the Acta Arvalium); 

— Vuv9i8 'Lucius' (72, a). Other examples are very doubtful.. 

Note. A change of Z to u before consonants is seen in many languages, 
e.g. French autre from L. alter ; Dutch koud : Eng. cold. In such cases, and 
likewise in Umbrian, the change must have been through the medium of a 
strongly guttural I. 

105. 1. Medial I is generally preserved in both Oscan and 
Umbrian. Examples: O. Fluusal 'Florae'; — O. aKo 'alia'; — 
O. Alafatemum, U. alfu 'alba': L. alius; — U. plener ^'plenis' ; 

— U. saluom 'salvum'. 

a. O. Fiuusasials ^Floralibus^ beside Fluusaf, if not simply due to the care- 
lessness of the engraver, would point to the beginning of a change similar to what 
has taken place in Italian jUyre^ piano^ etc. But all other evidence is against this. 

2. In the combination It the I is lost in Umbrian. So muta, 
motar^ etc. : O. moltam^ L. multa ; — kumates, comatir ' commoli- 
tis'. But in the Imperatives kumultu, comoltu ^Gommo\\U)\ vdtu 
'deligito', etc., in which the I and t were formerly separated by 
a vowel, the I is always written. 

a. The Oscan aXrud beside aUrei on the Tabula Bantina is an indication 
that in tiie dialect of Bantia the I was not fully sounded, though in the numerous 
occurrences of molta it is never omitted. 

3. U. JJoisiener ' Volsieni', on an inscription of Assisi, shows a local pala- 
talization of I before s, or else is due to Etruscan influence. 

106. In a number of Umbrian words an original I is repre- 
sented by f, r«, which commonly stands for an intervocalic d (I3l). 
This points to a change of I to {£, with which we may compare 
the opposite change of rf to Z in L. lingua., lacrima^ etc. The 
most certain examples are kafetu, cam^w 'calato', ufetu 'adoleto', 
famefias 'familiae'. 

a. Whether arsir (VI a 6, 7) is 'alius' or Dat.-Abl. PI. ' caerimoniis' ^ ^ 
belonging to Voc. Sg. arsj'e 'sancte', is uncertain. That Pupfike, PupHce, epi- 
thet- of Puemune, is * Publico' is extremely probable, in view of L. Puhlica Fides^ ^ 
PvMica Fortuna^ etc. The old explanation of tribfi^u *temio' as = L. *triplicid '^ /. 
cannot be considered impossible, but Brugmann's derivation from *tri'P(e)d' 
ikUy/ir 'band of three' (L. pedica) offers a plausible substitute for this. ^X^/U/ S ^ 

No satisfactory statement can be made as to the conditions under which'" 
the change took place. . 

^ A dMMi^ d^ yj^-^dUM^^Uj^ (^ -L^^^-^uJ^^ -J^ d^ v^>-^ ^^ 

70 Phonology [107 

n and m 

107. 1. Initial and intervocalic n and m remain imchanged, 
as in Latin. Examples : O. m, nep, neip, U. neip : L. ne^ nec^ 
etc. ; — U. nome : L. nomen ; — O. dunum, U. dunu : L. donum ; 

— p. Maatreis, U. Matrer : L. mater ; — O. moltam^ U. motar : 
L. multa ; -^ O. pertemest^ U. emantur : L. emo. 

2. Similarly postconsonantal n and m ; e.g. O. egmo 'res'; — 

0. Patanai 'Pandae' from *Patrnd- (81) ; — O. comono 'comitia', 

U. kumne, from *komno- (16, 4, 81). 

a. A change of mn to m is perhaps to be recognized in the Passive Impera- 
tive ending, O. -mur^ U. -mw, though this is by no means certain. See 287. 
This would involve the supposition that in all the numerous examples of mn the 
combination is of secondary origin, as indeed it probably is in many cases, e.g. 
U. nomner *nominis' etc. (88, 4).^ 

3. Assimilation of nl to U, as in Latin, is seen in O. Vesul- 
liais from * Veson-lid- : U. Vesune ; — U. Padellar from *Paden-ld 
(91, 2, a) ; also in U. apelust etc. with I from wZ, earlier ndl (186). 

Omission of nasals before consonants 

108. 1. In Umbrian, nasals were not fully sounded before 
mutes and spirants, as is evident from their frequent omission in 
the writing. The circumstance that in the Latin alphabet this 
omission is to be noted only before 8 (once before /) is perhaps 
due to the influence of Latin orthography, the omission of n on 
Latin inscriptions being far more conmion before « than elsewhere. 
Examples: ustetu beside ustentu, os^^ncii^'ostendito'; — iveka beside 
iuenga 'iuvencas'; — kupifiatu beside kumpifiatu, combifiatu 'nun- 
tiato' ; — azeriatu, aseriatu beside anzeriatu, anseriato ' observatum' ; 

— dirsas beside dirsans 'dent' ; — sis beside sins 'sint' ; — Sage 
beside Sansie ; — aferum, afero^ beside aw/er^Tier 'circumferendi'. 

2. In Oscan, n is regularly omitted in the case of final ent. 
Thus set 'sunt', fiiet 'fiunt', staiet 'stant', censazet 'censebunt', etc. : 

1 Admitting the change, we should hold to the derivation of O. comono etc. 
and amnud * circuitu' from *kom-no-y *ain-no- (v. Planta prefers *A;om-6eno-, *amA)eno-)f 
and assume that the words came into existence at a later period. 

110] Consonants 71 

U. sent^ benurent, etc. Note that in this case the n is always 
written in Umbrian, while, vice versa, in the case of final -w«, 
where it is frequently omitted in Umbrian (above), it is always 
written in Oscan (deicans^ uupsens, etc.). 

The same omission is frequent, though not universal, in 
the case of medial ent^ e.g. aragetud 'argento', Aret[ikai] beside 
Arentikai, deketasiiii (degetasis etc.) ^ ^decentario'. 

a. Isolated examples of omission elsewhere are mistreis beside minstrels 
^minoris' and Aairoyis ^Lamponius'(?). 

In ekak^hanc' and fak^eam' beside tone ^eum% eisank^eorum\ etc., the 
omission is probably due to the influence of Accusatives with final m omitted. 
All the certain occurrences of ekak are on Pompeian inscriptions, which have 
vfa*viam' etc. (109, 2). 

3. A special case in which n is lost in both Oscan and Umbrian is in the 
combination nkt See 78. 

Final n and m 

109. 1. In Umbrian, final n and m were so faintly sounded 
that they are far oftener omitted than written. Thus Ace. Sg. 

puplu, poplo^ beside puplum, poplom ; — nome : L. nomen ; e 

beside -en 'in'. For final n we also find m written. This is not 
merely the result of confusion caused by the reduction of both 
nasals, since we never find n for tw, but is due to the influence 
of a preceding 7n, as in numem beside nome^ and in Akehiniam-em 
etc. beside esunum-en, esunum-e, etc. From its use with the Ace. 
Sg. the -em came to be used elsewhere too, as in Loc. Sg. Acer- 
soniem etc. 

2. In Oscan, final n is never omitted. Final m is nearly 
always written except on inscriptions of Pompeii, where it is 
oftener omitted than written, e.g. via 'viam', tiurri 'turrim'. But 
it is possible that even where m was regularly written it was 
reduced in pronunciation. See 84, a. 


110. The history of the combination ns is somewhat com- 
plicated. It is necessary to separate the cases of original ns 

72 Phonology [110 

from those in which it is of later origin, and again to distinguish 
these latter according to the period at which the n% arose. 

1. Original medial ns becomes nts^ as appears from the 
spelling nz in the native alphabets, though this is not constant. 
In the Latin alphabet ns is written. Cf. z: s for final -ts in 
U. tagez : tases 'tacitus', etc. (137, 2). Thus O. keenzstur (for zs 
see 162, 2), (?en«^wr 'censor' from ^kens-tor; — U. anzeriatu, anseri- 
ato 'observatum' from *a7i-«ma-; — U. menzne'mense' (from stem 
*menS'enr', cf. Sab. mesene)^ antermenzaru 'intermenstrium' ; — 
U. uze, onse 'in humero' from *om(e)80'. 

2. Original final ns becomes -88 in Oscan, but ;/*in Umbrian. 
Thus Ace. PI. O. viass, eitua8^ feihuss, U. vitlaf, vitluf, etc. 

a. Umbrian final / was so weakly sounded as to be frequently omitted in 
the writing, e.g. uitla^ uitlu. In the oldest tables the omission is comparatively 
infrequent, while in those written in the Latin alphabet the / is omitted nearly 
ten times as often as it is written, except in monosyllables, where it is written 
nearly four times as often as omitted. 

3. Secondary medial n8 from w««, originating m nt-t or 
7i(l-t (138), becomes / in Umbrian, there being no examples in 
Oscan. Thus «pe/*a'sparsam' from *8pen88o-^ * spend-to-^ (cf. Grk. 
<nr€vhco)\ L. 8pdn8U8 ivovcL *8pon880-y *8pond-to-^; — similarly 
mefa 'mensam' from *men88d- : L. mensa^ men8U8 ; — subra spafu 
'superiectum' from ^spansso-. 

a. *men88o- is not from *mend'to- (cf. L. metior^ Skt. ma-^ etc.), but is 
formed after the analogy of Participles of related meaning such as *pen88o- 
(L. pensus), Henaso- (L. Unsus), from roots in -nd. *span880' may be of similar 
origin, but it is possible that beside the *8pa- of U. spahatu^ apahamu (cf. Grk. 
<nrd(a) there was another root-form *spand' and that L. pandd represents a 
contamination of this with the root seen in L. pateo. In this case U. spafu 
could be compared directly with L. pansus. 

4. Secondary final ns from -nss^ earlier -nts^ becomes / in 
Umbrian, there being no examples in Oscan. See 248. Thus 
zefef, serse 'sedens': L. sedens from *sedentr8\ — restef, reste^m- 
staurans'; — traf^ tra 'trans'. For omission of/, see above, 2, a. 

5. Secondary final ns in the Nom. Sg. of rustems (181) 
appears as /. Thus O. tiittiuf, tribarakkiuf, statif, and probably 

1 See p. 80, footuote. 

Ill] Consonants 73 

O. essuf, esuf'ipse\ U. esuf (197, 6). On the strength of esuf we 
assume that Umbrian had the same formation and that m tribfi^u 
and karu the f is omitted, as often (above, 2, a). 

6. Secondary final ns resulting from syncope of vowels 
(90) remaina unchanged. Thus O. Bantins 'Bantinus', U. Ikuvins 
'Iguvinus', O. humuns 'homines' from *h6mdnes^ etc. See 90, l. 

7. Final ns appears also in the secondary ending of the 
Third Plural, as in O. deicans, U. dirsans^ etc. On its origin 
see 128, 1. 

In tabular form the representation is as follows : 

O. U. 
. 1. Orig. -w«- -ntS' -nts- 

2. Orig. -ns -ss -f 

3. -ns- from -nss- {-ntt-) — -f- 
II. 4. -ns from -n8« [-nts) — -f 

5. 'US in Nom. Sg. of w-stems -f -f 

III. 6. -ns by Syncope -ns -ns 

Note. Although there are no Oscan examples for 3 and 4, the probability 
is that Oscan agreed with Umbrian and that 3, 4, and 5 belong together. This 
change of secondary ns must have antedated the appearance of what might be 
called the tertiary ns of 6, which doubtless belongs to the close of the Oscan- 
Umbrian period. Again, the change of original ns must have antedated the 
appearance of the secondary im^ else they would have had the same develop- 
ment. Here arises a complication in the case of original final "m. • The diver- 
gence between Oscan and Umbrian shows that the development could not have 
been completed in the Oscan-Umbrian period. The only solution is to assume 
that final n^^ either in Italic 9r in the earliest Oscan-Umbrian period, was so 
changed as to remain distinct from both secondary and tertiary ns throughout 
the Oscan-Umbrian period, and also in Oscan, though in Umbrian finally yielding 
the same result as secondary n%. 


111. Initial s and s in connection with a surd mute remain, 
as in Latin. Examples : O. stim, set, U. sent^ sins : L. stim, sunt, 
etc. ; — O. sakrim, U. sakre : L. sacer ; — O. stait, U. stahu : h.sto ; 
— O. est, U. est, est : L. est ; — O. ptist, U. post : L. post 

74 Phonology [112 

Intervocalic s, Rhotacism 

112. Rhotacism of intervocalic « occurs in Umbrian as in 
Latin, but not in Oscan. In the latter the % has become 2, 
written z in the Latin alphabet, but s in the native alphabet, 
in which z had the value of ts. This change of « to its corre- 
sponding sonant 2 is a necessary stage in the development of 
rhotacism, and was probably reached in the Italic period, Oscan 
then remaining on this stage. Examples : Gen. PI. of a-stems, 
O. -astim, -azurriy U. -am, -arum : L. -drum (Skt. -dsdm^ Hom. -aoDv 
from *'aa(ov\ — O. ezum^ U. eru, erom 'esse': L. ero, etc.; — 
O. efseis, eizeis^ U. erer'eius' from *ei8o-; — O. kasit 'decet': 
L. caret; — forms of Imperf. Subj., Fut. Indie, and Fut. Pert 
Indie, in which « is a part of the tense-sign (see under Inflec- 
tion), e.g. O. fusid'esset': L. foret; — O. censazet ^censehunt\ 
U. furent 'erunt'; — O. tribarakattuset'aedificaverint', U. henurent 
'venerint'. Cf. also Pael. coisatens 'curaverunt' (U. kuraia 
'curet'), upsaseter 'operaretur, fieret'. 

a. In most cases where a is found between vowels in Umbrian, this 8 is 
obviously not original but comes from a group of consonants, such as 88,U, ts, 
k8, ps. But there are some forms the explanation of which is not so apparent. 
Nothing satisfactory can be said of asa-, asa- : 0. aasal, L. Sira. For eaono- 
^sacer% related to O. aisusis ^sacrificiis' etc. (15, 3), it is possible to assume an 
extension of an s-stem, i.e. *ais{e)8-dno-, while eru« *magmentum'(?) and ere^lu 
*sacrarium', if cognate, show the regular change of simple 5. In plenasier, 
umasier, etc., as compared with Latin words in -driuSy the « is probably due to 
the fact that the following i was consonantal, that is they contain the suffix 
'OSJiO-, while the by-form -Osio- is perhaps to be recognized in ezaxiaf *escas'(?), 
from *ed{e)s-d8iO'(?). 

Final s 

113. Final 8 remains in Oscan, and in Umbrian on the older 
Tables I-IV, but on Tables V-VII it appears as r. Thus Nom. 
PI. of o-stems (O. -us, -us)^ U. prinuvatus, prinuatur^ Atiidriur (V), 
etc. ; — Dat.-Abl. PI. of o-stems (O. -tils, -ois)^ U. veres, uerir^ tri- 
pler (V), etc.; — 2d Sg. U. «ir'sis'. These r-forms doubtless 
represent sentence-doublets, arising before words beginning with 

114] Consonants 75 

a vowel, but finally coming into general use without regard to 
the following word. 

a. Before enclitics an s is treated in the same way as in the interior 

of a word. So U. funtler-e, /owdZir-6 'in fontulis', but esunes-ku ' apud sacra', \y' 

wem-co 'apud portam'. But pis-i kept its s under the influence of pis (svepis 
*si quis'), and retained it even after the latter had become pir (pm, but aopir). _- ■"' 
Similarly pis-est 

b. The final s of Tables I-IV is sometimes omitted, e.g. Ikuyina beside ^ "', 
Dnivinus, prinuvatu beside prinavatus, snate beside snates, antakre beside antakres, 

etc. The later r is also occasionally omitted, as in set, «i, beside air 'sis', fieri 
' vel ' beside heris, but scarcely ever In noun-forms. 

(?. In Oscan there are two examples of h for final «, where 
the next word begins with «, namely upsatuh sent'operati sunt', 
piiiieh slim 'cuius sum'. The occasional omission of « in the 
Nom. Sg. of proper names in -is, -iis, etc., e.g. Steni, Paapi, Paapii, 
Paapii, is merely graphic, perhaps due to the influence of Latin 
orthography (Claudi= Claudius^ etc.). 

sn, sm, sly zd 

114. The combinations «n, «m, «Z, zd, which in Latin lose 
the sibilant (if medial, with lengthening of the preceding vowel), 
remain unchanged. 

sn. U. snata 'umecta': L. ndre ; — O. fiisnti 'fanum', U. fes- 
naf-e (also Pael. fesn,) : L. fdnum from * fas-no- (99, l) ; — 
U. ahesnes'ahenis': L. ahenus from *a{i)es-no- (aes^ Skt. dyas^ 
etc.); — O. kersnu 'cena', U. iesna : L. cena ; — O. casnar 
'senex' (Festus, Varro; also Pael.): L. cdnus^ eascus. 

em. U. pusme'cui', esmei ^huic* (Skt. dsmdi etc.); so also 
O. jt?o8mom'postremum' with sm from stm (139, 2). Cf. also 
Pael. prismu 'prima'. 

6l. O. slaagid'fine' (derivation uncertain); — O. Slabiis 
'Labius'; — U. dis-ler alinsust 'iniitum fecerit' (cf. L. diligo 
from *dis-liffd, etc.) ; — so also O. pee88l[tim with si from stl 

(189, 2). 

zd. U. sistu 'sidito', ander-sistu^ is best explained as from 
*sizd{e)tdd : L. sidd from *si-zdd (cf . nidus from *nizdos^ ^ng.nest). 

76 Phonology [114 

a. U. ninctu *ninguito', the root of which appears in other languages with 
initial a (Eng. snow^ Lith. snSgas, etc.), may represent a by-form without «, like 
Grk. T^yos beside a-riyos, etc. 

b. 0. maimas ' maximae' is probably from ^maisemo- (147, 3, a, 189, 3), 
through the stages *7naizemo- (113), ^maizmo-, with loss of z, in contrast to the 
preservation of s. 

c. U. sumtu^sumito', which cannot be explained in the same way as 
L. 8umd from *susmd, *8ups-(e)md, is probably from *«Mmmo, *sup-{e)rrw (136, 1). 

d. That O. imad-en *ab imo' comes from Hns-mo-,, often assumed as the 
derivation of L. imus, is unlikely. 

Intervocalic rs 

115. 1. Original intervocalic rs, which becomes rr in Latin, 
remains unassimilated in Umbrian, while in Oscan it appears as 
r with lengthening of the preceding vowel. In Umbrian r% the 
r was weakly sounded and often omitted in the spelling. Exam- 
ples: U. tursitu^ tusetu'terreto': L. terreo from Hersed^ — 
U . farsio, fasio^ fasiu 'farrea': h.farreus from ^fars-eo- (see 117), 
O. tertiin, teer[um'territorium': L. terra from Hersd. 

a. U. Gen. Sg. farer instead of *far%&r (L. f arris) is due to the influence 
of the Nom.-Acc. far (117). 

2. Intervocalic rs arising from syncope, in Latin not dis- 
tinguished from the preceding, appears in Umbrian as rf, in 
Oscan as rr. Examples : U. Cerfe, Serfe : L. CeruB (i.e. Cerrus)^ 
from *Ker{e)s0' ; — O. Kerri 'Cereri' from *Ker{e)s-€- ; — U. parfa 
'parram' from ^paresa-; — O. hjerrlns 'caperent' from *her{i)8€nt 
(216) ; — O. sverrunei from ^sueres-ovri L, suBurruB (96). 

Note. For the development of original rs in Oscan, as given above, the 
following stages must be assumed : rs — rz — rr — r with compensative length- 
ening. The later rs of 2 passed through the first two stages, but stopped at rr 
(the still later rs of 3 remained unchanged, though in Umbrian the rs oi 2 and 3 
have the same history). But it should be pointed out that the assumption of a 
double development in Oscan, according as the rs was original or arose through 
syncope, rests wholly on the form teer[iim, and that for this a different expla- 
nation is at least possible, though somewhat complicated (see 76, 4). Barring 
this word, we should assume that Oscan, like Latin, had rr for the rs of 1 as 
well as for that of 2, and at least one of the examples under 2, namely sverranef, 
would be more naturally put under 1. Further material, such as a form corre- 
sponding to U. tursitu, is necessary to settle the matter conclusively. (O. teras 
' terrae'(?), from the Curse of Vibia, might stand for Herrds sub well as for *t&fil8.) 

117] Consonants 77 

3. Intervocalic rs from r««, earlier rts or rtt (187, 1, 188), 
remains in Oscan as in Latin, but appears as rf in Umbrian. 
Thus O. Fcpcropct ' * Versori', IJ. ^raAwor/?' transverse': h. versus. 

rs before consonants 

116. rs before consonants, which in Latin loses r, or in 
some combinations s, is retained, though in Umbrian the r, as 
in the case of intervocalic rs, was weakly sounded and often 
omitted in the speUing. 

1. rsk. U. persklu, persclu^ pesclu 'precatione': L. posed 
from *porscd ; — here also O. comparascuster^ consultsi, erit' if 
from parsC'^ not prase- (see 81, a); — U. Turskum, Tuscom *'T\xs- 
cum' (cf. Grk. Tvpar)V0L^ Tvpprjvot), 

2. rsn. O. kersnu ^cena', kerssnais, kerssnasias, etc., U. iesna, 
^ersnatur : L. cena from *kesnd, *kersnd (earlier ^kers-sna-, ^kert- 
snd^ from root qert- 'cut', Skt. krt-^ etc. ; for meaning, cf. Grk. 
Sat9 beside Saiofiai) ; — U. persnihmu, pesnimu, persnihimu^ pes- 
nimu 'precator', denominative from *persk-ni- (146). 

Note. For original rsn, which gives L. m (cernuus), there is no example. 

3. rst U. perstu, pestu 'ponito' (?) from *perskt6d (146). 
But O. pestltiin, pee88l[tim, indicates that in Oscan the r was lo§t 
in the combination rst^ or at least in rstl (76, 2). 

Final rs 

117. Final rs becomes -r, as in Latin. Thus O. far, U./ar : 
L. far from *fars (cf. Gen. Sg,f arris from *farsis^ Goth, bariz- 
eins 'of barley') ; — likewise in the case of rs arising from syn- 
cope, U. ager : L. ager from *agers^ *agros (91, 2) ; — Nom. PI. 
O. censtur ^QQii^OTQ^^ from *censtdr(e)s^ U. frater, /ra^eer 'fratres' 
from *f rater {e)s (90, l). The spelling /ra^eer points to compensa- 
tive lengthening. See 76, 3. 

a. In 0. usurs, Ace. PI., -^s is from -r(e)s8. 

b. Before an enclitic beginning with a vowel U. ra is preserved, like 
medial rs. Cf. 113, a. Thus U. jjars-esf* par erit'. 

78 Phonology [118 


118. A change of sr to /r, whence in Latin initial /r, 
medial hr (funebris from ^funes-ris)^ belongs doubtless to the 
Italic period, and in Oscan-Umbrian we should expect fr in all 
positions (as, from 6A, 0.-U./= L. /, b), A probable example 
is O. tefdrdm 'bumt-offering',^ U. tefrv^to'ex rogo', tefra'carnes 
cremandas', from Hesro-^ Heps-ro : L. tepor^ Skt. tdpas^ etc. 


119. 1. Of original intervocalic Z«, which becomes II in 
Latin, and which we should expect to find unchanged in 
Umbrian (like r«), there is no certain example. For the Is is 
probably secondary in U. pelsatu etc. (see 262, 1, a). 

2. Final Is (from -Z(i)«, -?(o)«) becomes 4. Thus O. aidil 
'aedilis', O.famel 'famulus', U. katd 'catulus', O. Mutil 'Mutilus', 
Paakul'Paculus', etc. O. Upfals and Upils have -Is from -Us (cf. 
Gen. Sg. Upfalleis). 


120. p remains, as in Latin. Examples : O. paterd, U. patre 

'patri' ; — O. prai, U. pre 'prae' ; — O. supruis 'superis', U. super 
'guper' ; — U. dupla 'duplas'. For br from pr^ see 167, 1. 


121. pt becomes /iC, just as kt becomes ht (142), and this 
remains in Oscan. In Umbrian this /if, together with the ft in 
which / comes from dh (186, a), becomes ht^ and this has the 
same further history as the ht from kt — that is, the h was almost 
or wholly lost in pronunciation (76, 142). Examples: O. serif tas 
' scrip tae', U. screhto, screihtor: L. scriptus ; — O. ufteis' volun- 
tatis', uhftis, from *dpti-: L. optio ; — so probably, with the same 
change of secondary pt^ U. hahtu, hatu, hatu 'capito' (also subahtu 
'deponito', subator ^omissV) from *haftddy *haptdd^ *hapit6d (cf. 
O. hipid ; see 218). 

Note. The peculiar spelling of O. uhftis perhaps indicates the beginning 
of a development like that in Umbrian. 


126] Oonaonanta 79 


122. 1. Before consonants j?« becomes «, as in Latin. Thus 
U. ostendu ^ostendito' : L. ostendo from ^ops-tendo. 

2. Original intervocalic ps is assimilated to 88. Thus 
O. om[n« 'adsint': L. ob-sint; — so perhaps O. essuf, e8uf^ 
U. esuf 'ipse', as if L. *ip86 (197, 5). 

3. Secondary intervocalic p8 remains unchanged in Oscan, 
but is assimilated in Umbrian. Thus O. upsed' fecit', tipsannam, 
etc., but U. 08atu^ o8eto^ from ^opesd-: L. operor. 


123. ( remains, as in Latin. So O. triibiiin 'domum', tribarak- 
kluf 'aedificatio', U. treheit ' versatur' (16, 14) ; — U. kebu : L. cihus. 


124. 6A, which appears in Latin initially as/, medially as 6, 
is always/. Examples: O. fust, U. fust'erit', O. fusid'esset', 
U./w^i^'esto', etc.: h.fui^forem^ Grk. €<f>v^ Skt. hhu-\ — U./er^w, 
ferest, ferar^ etc.: L. fero^ Grk. <f>epco^ Skt. bhar-; — O. fratrdm, 
U. fratrum'fratrum': h. frdter^ Skt. bhrdtar-; — U. alfu'alba', 
O. Alafatemum: L. albu8y Grk. aX^o?; — O. loufir'^YeY: L. libet^ 
Skt. lubhr ; — O. tfei, U. tefe : L. tibi^ Skt. tubhyam ; — Dat.-Abl. 
PI. ending ■/« seen in O. luisaiifs 'lusoriis' (?): L. -bu8 (cf. also 
Skt. -bhyas). 

a. This final -/s, except in the example cited, which is from one of the 
earliest Oscan inscriptions, is assimilated to -88, -8; e.g. 0. teremnlss ^ termini- 
bus', Ziflfi8 * legibus', U. avis *avibus'. 

6. For Umbrian mb from m/, see 161. 

Labials and Nasals 

125. 1. As in Latin, p or b followed by a nasal becomes m. 
So U. 8omo 'summum' from * sup-mo-'^ — U. j^eZmner 'pulmenti': 
L. pulmentum from *pulpmentum (pulpa); — U. tremnu ^taheT- 
naculo' from *treb-no- (cf. L. 8omnu8 from *8op'^no-^ ^suep-no-). 

a. But/n remains. Thus O. Safinim from ^Safniom (81): L. Samnium. 

1 For the development of sonant aspirates in general, see 160-161. 

80 Phonology [12^ 

2. mb becomes mm (cf. nn from nd \ 186). Thus U. lunen 
'unguen' from *omben^ with b from g^ (I6l). Cf. L. commurat 
= comiurat (Orelli-Henzen 6404), commuratur = comburatur 
(CIL. VI 19267). 

a. U. menes * venies^ might have arisen in a compound *kommenes from 
*A:om-&e7ies (O. kdmbened with recomposition), but as all other forms show b 
{penust^ benurent) the m may be merely a graver's errw. 


126. In general, t remains unchanged, as in Latin. Thus 
O. tris, U. trif : L. tre8 ; — O. estud 'esto', U. etu 'ito'; — O. serif- 
tas 'scriptae', U. screihtor 'scripti', etc. 

a. At Bantia ti becomes s, as in J^ansae *Bantiae'. See 100, 3, c, 

b. For change otnt to nd and tr to dr in Umbrian, see 156, 157, 2. 

Final t 

127. 1. Original final f, as in the secondary ending of the 

Third Singular, became d in the Italic period (eariy L. feced^ 

aiedy etc.); and this d, Uke original d, remains in Oscan but is 

regulariy dropped in Umbrian. Thus O. deded, U. dede^dedit' ; 

— O. fakiiad, U. fafia 'faciat', etc. See also 138. 

a. In O. tadait *■ censeat* the t is due to an error, as in pocapit beside 
pjocopid, pdkkapfd (201, 4). 

2. But final t from earlier -ti (92), as in the corresponding 
primary ending, remains t in both Oscan and Umbrian, though 
in Umbrian it was not fully sounded, and, in a few instances, is 
omitted in the writing. Thus O. faamat 'tendit', U. ticit 'decet', 
U. trebeit'YeTSB,tur\ U. habe, Aa6e 'habet', heri'vult'. 

3. The t of final -st and -rt is also frequently omitted in 
Umbrian. Thus fus^ heries, etc. for usual fust^ herieat ; — trio- 
per 'ter' (cf. also L. sem-per) : O. petiro-pert 'quater'; — U. pia-her 
'quilibet' from *-hert, this probably from ^-herit (216). 

Final nt 

128. 1. The history of original final nt is a matter of 
dispute. The secondary ending of the Third Plural in 

128] Consonants 81 

Oscan-Umbrian is -w«, e.g. O. deicans ' dicant', U. dirsans^ dirsas 
'dent' (for omission of n see 108, l), O. fufens'fuerunt', U. eitipes 
'decrevenint', etc. (also Pael. coisatens 'curaverunt'). It has been 
.held that this comes by regular phonetic change from the original 
ending -w^, and that the same change is seen in Latin in the 
numeral adverbs like quotiens etc. coming from -ient^ 4nt (Skt. 
Myat^ etc.). But the Latin forms admit of another explanation, 
and for Oscan-Umbrian the fact that the -ns is retained and does 
not appear as O. -««, or even as -f^ indicates that it is of compara- 
tively late origin and could not have come from -nt in the Italic 
period. See 110 with note. 

A more probable view is the following. As original -t 
changed to -d (127» l), so original -nt to -nc?, and this became -w. 
In Latin this was mostly replaced by the primary ending, -w^, 
as was -d in the Third Singular by -t ; but a trace of it remains 
in the old forms like danunt^ explenunt^ etc., in which -unt is 
added after the analogy of legunt etc. In the Oscan-Umbrian 
period the forms in -n were remodeled in another way, namely 
by the addition of «, under the influence of the plural endings 
of nouns, or perhaps more specifically of the Nom. PI. of w-stems 
like O. humuns 'homines' etc.^ 

2. Final nt from earlier -nti (92), as in the corresponding 
primary ending, remains unchanged. Thus O. stahint 'stant', 
O. set (for omission of n see 108, 2), U. «en^'sunt', U. furent 
'erunt', etc. 

o. In Umbrian there are three examples of omission of final nt, namely 
awrwr-o'ltem' (VI b 48) beside the usual surur-ord^ eru-hu * eodem' (II b 22) 
beside usual -hunt, and fefare *fuerint' (II a 4) for *fefurent (cf. benurent). The 
latter form is more commonly taken as 8d Sg. Perf. Indie. *turbavit' from a 
root /wr-, but against this view is the obvious parallelism of the passage with 
VI a 26. In staheren * stabunt' the omission of t is due merely to the fact that 
the following word begins with t. 

1 The above explanation combines a suggestion of Ehrlich, I.F. XI, 299 ff., 
who thinks that the whole ending -ns was adopted from nouns, with Johansson's 
assumption of a secondary ending -nd, -n, preserved in L. danunt etc. 


82 Phonology [129 


129. 1. Initial tl^ which becomes I in Latin, as in Idtus 
from Hldto9^ is seen in U. Tlatie^ perhaps connected in form 
with L. Latium, 

2. Medial tl becomes kl except after «, as in Latin ; and 
the change may well belong to the Italic period. Thus, with 
the suffix which was once 'tlo- (248, 3), O. sakarakltim 'templum', 
U. pihaclu^^mQ\\\.o\ etc.: L. pidculum, poculum^ etc.; — but 
O. pestltim ^templum' (for pee88l[tim see 139,2). U. persclo'^Te- 
cationem' is probably persc-lo with suffix -Zo-, not -tlo-. 

Note. Cf . the Paelignian change of trio kr in sacaraciriXf pristafalaciriz, 
as if L. *aacratnx, *praesUbuldtrix. 


130. d remains in Oscan in all positions, and initially in 
Umbrian. Examples: O. deikum, deicum 'dicere^ U. teitu, deitu 
'dicito'; — O. destrst 'dextra est', U. destranire 'in dextram'; — 

U. tuves, duir 'duobus'. O. edum 'edere'; — O. deded, SeBer 

'dedit'; — O. pid 'quid', pod 'quod', etc. 

Umbrian f , rs, from d 

131. In Umbrian an intervocalic d regularly appears as r, 
rs. For the pronunciation and origin of the character tran- 
scribed f see 25, 27. Examples: tefa, dirsa 'deV: O. didest 
'dabit' from a Reduplicated Present as if L. *didd^ *didere ; — 
a-td^afust, an-dirsafust 'circumdederit' ; — peft, persi ^pede\petur' 
pursus 'quadrupedibus' ; — z«ref, serse 'sedens'. 

a. In a few words intervocalic d remains. Except for a single form of 
doubtful meaning and origin {tesedi, tenzitim), these contain an r, so that the 
failure to change to f, rs, seems due to the dissimilatory influence of this r. 
Thus Coredier, Kureties*Coredii'; — utur*aquam*: Grk. vd(ap; — iwdcr *finem', 
tuderato *finitum% etc. This last is from an original s-stem Hudes-, and where 
the 8 is preserved the change of the d takes place, as shown by etafstamii, 
eturatahmu *exterminato', from *tur(e)sta^, denominative from Hudes-to- (cf. 
L. mode94u8). 

132] Consonants 83 

&. The occasional omission of r from rs, as in Acesoniam beside Acersoniem 
(Akefnnie), is parallel to the omission in the case of original rs. See 76, 1. 

c. A few of the minor inscriptions antedate the change of intervocalic d, 
and show the sign S with its original value of d (27), as in dunum dede ^donum 

132. The occasional presence of f, r«, before and after con- 
sonants is due to syncope of an intervening vowel or to transfer 
from the intervocalic position. So afpes beside afepes 'adipibus'; 

— tribficu'ternio' from Hri-pie^drikidnr (? see 106, a); — af-fertor, 
arS'fertur^ af-peltu, afveitu, etc., with the prefix af-, ar«-'ad-', 
which gained this form before words beginning with a vowel ; 

— mdrs, mer^'ius' from *med(p)%^ with f from other forms (not 
extant) in which the vowel was not lost; — tdrtu, dir«^wdato', 
tdrte 'datur', with f from forms like tora (l8l). 

Note. In the last two examples we cannot explain the i as hav- 
ing arisen in the unsyncopated forms *medo8 and *didetdd, since the 
syncope here took place in all probability in the Oscan-Umbrian 
period. The normal development of *did{e)tddj namely *dUt6d, is 
probably to be recognized in titu, ditu^ which interchange with tefto 
etc., although these can also be regarded as standing for *dUdd and 
connected with dia^faciat'. 

a. We find r, r, in place of f, rs, in mersus, Dat.-Abl. Fl. of mefs, and 
mersuva, derivative of the same {*medes-uo-) ; — tertu beside teftu ; — annama 
beside arsmahamo * ordinamini' ; — tribrisine beside tribfi^u ; — ar-veita, ar-ueitu 
(once even a-veita) beside af-veitu, ars-ueitu ; — arfertur beside ars-fertur. 

The difference between mersus, mersuva, and mefs is probably only one of 
spelling. In the Latin alphabet we have regnlarly rs for rss, as in mers = mefs 
(and even mersi * ius sit' for merss-si). The sound of f was not far from rs, 
and we may assume that when followed by s it was still nearer rs, so that the 
combination might be written either f s (mef s, etufstamu, in I b) or rss, whence rs 
(mersus, mersuva, in III). Perhaps tertu, armamu, are mere mistakes in spelling 
(a for S ; cf. fanu corrected by graver to ranu). The r for rs in tribrisine may 
be due to the following «. 

But the resemblance of ar-veitu, ar-fertur, etc. to early Latin ar-vorsum^ 
ar-fuerunt, etc. suggests that ar- is the form which the prefix regularly assumed 
before v, f, and does not come from af-, ars-, which in af-veitu etc. is analogical 
(see above), as is the ad- of L. ad-ful. 

b. According to the most probable explanation of dersua, desua^'proB- 
peram' (*ded(e)«-MO-* giving, granting', from *dedo«*gift'), tesvam would stand 
for *tersvam, this to be explained precisely like mersuva (a). 

84 Phonology [188 

Final d 

133. Final (Z, including the d from earlier t (127, l), remains 
in Oscan, but is dropped in Umbrian, in both cases without 
regard to the quantity of the preceding vowel. Examples: 
O. jt?oc? 'quod', pid'quid', but U. svepu'sive' (= O. suae pod); — 
O. deded'dedit', but U. dede; — Abl. Sg. O. toutad^ dolud^ skagid, 
but U. tota^ poplu^ mani ; — Imperat. O. estud, actud^ but U. futu, 
aitu ; — 3d Sg. Subj. O. fakiiad, hipid^ but U. fa^ia, combifiansi. 

a. In Oscan there are two examples of h for d, both on the Curse of Vibia, 
indicating a weakening of the final d in the Capuan dialect. These are : svai 
pah^sive' = suae pod of the Tabula Bantina ; — soluh ^omnino', an Ablative 
used adverbially. 

6. By combination with an enclitic beginning with a vowel, an original 
final d becomes intervocalic and so is preserved in Umbrian as f , rs. Thus pii^i, 
pirs4 : O. pid, L. quid ; — puf-e, pors-i : O. pod^ L. quod ; — ef-^k : O. idr^ic. 

Similarly U. -af *ad' in the only examples (two) where the next word 
begins with a vowel , and twice also even when it begins with a consonant. In 
all other examples the form is -a. 

Initial di 

134. The history of initial dj, is the same as in Latin. It 

is preserved in a few Oscan inscriptions of early date, as in early 

Latin Diovis, but elsewhere the d is lost. So O. Didvei, AtovfCL^ 

diuvilam, but Itiveis, luvei, iiivilam, U. luve, loui. 

a. It is doubtful if the *diekolom to which Bantian zicolom ^diem' points 
contains original di. It may be from die-, like L. di^s, with dialectic change 
of i to j. See note to 100, 3, c. 

ndf dn 

135. nd becomes nn^ usually written n in Umbrian (25, 26). 
So the Gerundives O. lipsannam ^operandam,' sakrannas, eehiiana- 
stim, JJ.pihaner, anferener^ etc. ; — O.pan^pam 'quam' : L. quam- 
de; — U. ponne^ pone, O. ptin, jt?on'cum', from *pomde as if 
L. *quomde like quamde ; — U. ostendu, ustentu from *08tennetdd : 
L. ostendito (see also ise) ; similarly ampentu *impendito', endendu 
*intendito', etc. 

In the case of m?Z the change to wwZ, wZ, with the further 
change of nl to II (107, 3), led to such forms as U. apelust 'impen- 
dent', entelust 'intenderit', which are based upon -pendAo-^ 
'tendrlo' (226). 

a. U. one is probably from *udne^ Abl. Sg. of utur, i.e. *u6^ : Grk. vbap. 
The relation of O. Perkens to Gen. Perkedne[i8 is not clear. Svj^ i>^^ir^« 

136. dhj which appears in Latin initially as/, but medially N^^y^A 

Bs d OT b according to the surrounding sounds, is / in both'^^ll^y^ 

positions. Examples: O. faidmd^ faetud^ U. facia, fakust, etc. :Kj^-*<a,^ 

Jj.facio^ Grk. riOrffiiy Skt. dhd- (root dhe-) ; — O. fiisnti *fanum', /ttJC/»tfl^^ 

U. fesnaf-e: h, fdnum, festus^ etc. (probably from the same root^a^ ^ 

as the preceding); — O. feihtiss 'muros': L. finffOy Grk. relxo^j 

Skt. dih' (root dheigh-) ; — U. furu : L. forum^ Grk. 6vpa^ Eng. 

door, O. mefiai 'in media': L. medius^ Skt. mddhyor; — 

O. Ailfineis : L. Aedmius, aedes^ Grk. aIdo9, Skt. Sdhor ; — U. com- ' 

6i/?afw 'nuntiato' : h. fido, Grk. Treti^o), or: Grk. irwddvofiai 

(86, a ; in either case the / represents dh). U. rufru 'rubros': 

L. ruber ^ Grk. ipvdpo^^ Skt. rudhird-; — O. Liivfreis 'Liberi' : 

L. llber^ Grk. iXevdepo^ ; — O. staflatas 'statutae', U. staflarem 

'*stabularem': L. stabulum, stabilis, with suffix -flo-, Grk. -^\o-, 

orig. -dhlo-; — U. w^r/ii^e 'templum' : L. verbdlis, verbum, Goth. 

waurdSy^ng. word, 

a. Here belong also U. Ace. PI. Me/*portiones' from ^ueif-f, and U. vetu 
*dividito' from *^eif{e)tod: L. dl-vidd, Skt. vindhMe, etc. In vetu the / has 
passed through the same development as that of ft from pt (121). 

Dental + s 

137. 1. A dental is assimilated to a following «, as in 
Latin, and the change to 88 doubtless belongs to the Italic 
period.' Thus U. revestu'revisito': L. vi8d from *ueidr86 1 — 
U. -Fi«o'deo Fidio', O. Fiisiais '*Fisiis': L. fi8U8 from *f%d-8-^ 
(cf. f\du8-tu8), 

1 For the development of sonant aspirates in general, see 160-161, 

86 Phonology [137 

2. But secondary ts^ due to the syncope of an intervening 
vowel or to a late combination, remains under the designation z 
in the native alphabets, appearing as % in the Latin alphabet. 
Thus O. hiirz 'hortus' from *horto8 (90, 1); — U. ta9ez, tases^tSLci' 
tus' from *taketo8 ; — O. az'ad' from *ad-8 (cf. L. ab-a etc.); — 
O. puz, pou8 'ut', U. puze, puae^ from *put'% (202, 6). O. aserum 
*adserere' is ambiguous, since it is not found in the native alpha- 
bet, but probably belpngs here rather than under 1; here also 
U. ostensendi 'ostendentur' from *08tend{e)8enter. 

Note. It is uncertain whether the 8 of the Latin alphabet also denoted 
tSf or whether the sound had actually become 8. It has been suggested that 
U. zefef *sedens' with z for s is an indication that even before the native alpha- 
bet was abandoned, a change had taken place so that the sound of z was prac- 
tically 8. But there are no examples of s in place of z in the native alphabet, 
and U. zefef has also been explained as arising in a compound like *anzefef (cf. 
anzeriatu, 110, 1). Still, if the analysis of U. pruzofe as *prd^ode (94) were 
more certain, it would add weight to the first suggestion. 

Dental + Dental 

138. The combination of the final dental of a root with 
the f of a suffix shows the same treatment as in Latin, and had 
doubtless become ««, or 8t before r, in the Italic period. Exam- 
ples : O. Fepaopei '*Versori' (U. trahuorfi 'transverse' with rf 
from r88 ; see 116, 3): L. ver8U8^ earlier *ver88U8^ from *vert'to-^; 
— U. 8e8U8t 'sederit', probably based on a participial stem *«e««a-: 
L. 8e88U8 (*8ed-to-'^); — O. usurs probably: L. d8or (*dd'tdr^); — 
\],fro8etom 'fraudatum': early Ij.frau88U8 (^fraud'to-'^). O. luisa- 
lifs probably as if L. Hu8drihu8 from lu8U8 {Hoidrto-^) ; — O. ca«- 
trou8^ U. ca8truo : L. ca8trum (^cat-tro-^ ; cf. ca«m from *cattir). 

a. In the case of dh + t^ the normal phonetic development is different, 
the combination becoming ddh in Indo-European, and resulting in st in Italic, 
e.g. L. custos : Grk. ic6<r0os^ Goth, huzd * hoard*, from *kudh4o-'^ (for root cf. 
KeOdu)^ Eng. hide). So L. kasta, U. ^os^a^u *hastatos', from *g?iadhrtd^ (cf. 
Goth, grands* sting'); — probably U. ufestne *operculatis'(?) from *op-/e«i(i)7M>-, 
an extension of *festo- from *b?iendh-to-^ (root bhendh-^ Eng. bind, seen also in 
It. offendix^'knoV). ^ 

1 So written for convenience in showing the root. These combinations were 
partially transformed even in the parent speech. 


140] The Gutturals 87 

But in most cases this development has been interrupted by an analogical 
restoration in prehistoric times of the t of the suffix, so that ddh was replaced 
by dt (tt), which then became 88 in Italic, as usual. Thus L. iu88iL8, not Hiistii8, 
though from a root ending in dh. There is, then, no difficulty in the assump- 
tion (189, 1) that O. messimass ^medioximas'(?) comes from *medh-tmmO' 
(Skt. mddJirya-), and O.-U. ne8simo- *proximus' (cf. O.Ir. nes8am *next') from 
*nedhr4;mmo- (Skt. nah- *tie% Partic. naddhdr-), though the latter may also come 
from n^, a by-form of nedft-, seen in Skt. n^distJia- * next', A v. nazdista-, O. nis- 
trus *propinquos' is also, probably, from ^'hnedhrtero- {*neddhero-)y either through 
*ne8terO' with the same development as in L. custd8, or through *nettro- with 
restored suffix and syncope,. and subsequent development as in L. castrum (in 
the latter assumption there is a chronological difficulty, though not an insur- 
mountable one). 

Other Combinations of Dentals 

139. 1. A dental is assimilated to a following A, p^ or/, as 

in Latin. Thus O. ptikkapid, pocapit *quandoque', a compound 

of pod^ probably * pod-kdd-pid ; — O. perek., U. percam^ from 

*pertkd : L. pertica ; — O. akkatus 'advocati' (89, 3, 102, 3); — 

U. appei^ ope 'ubi' probably from *ad-pe (202, 8); — U. Ace. 

PI. capif 'capides' from ^kapid-f (kapif is a mistake due to f in 

other case-forms); — O. aflukad from ^ad-flok- (? see 97, a). 

a. A remarkable assimilation of d to a preceding k or 8 must be assumed 
for O. ekkum^tem' and O. iussu^iidem^ if these contain the enclitic dom. 
But see 201, 5. 

2. A loss of t in the combinations stm^ stn^ and stly subject 
to special local or chronological conditions, is seen in O. posmom 
*postremum' beside pu8tm[a8 ; — U. pusnaes beside pustnaiaf 'posti- 
cas'; — O. pee88l[tim (for ««, see 162,2) beside pestltim'templum'. 
So in Latin, with subsequent loss of «, pomerium from *po9tr 
moiriom^ pone from *po8t-ne (U. postne), Us from slis, stlis. Cf. 
also U. pusveres beside post uerir^ post portam'. 

The Gutturals 

140. It is necessary to distinguish between the two series of 
gutturals known as the palatals and the labiovelars. The palatals 
appear as simple Ansounds in the western languages (Greeks 

88 Phonology [140 

Latin, Celtic, Germanic), conveniently known as the centum- 
languages, while in the eastern group (Indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic, 
Armenian, Albanian), known as the «atem-languages (Avestan 
9atdm = L. centum)^ they develop into sibilants (like L. <?, g^ before 
e, i, in the Romance languages). The labiovelars, which were 
pronounced well back on the soft palate and with an accom- 
panying rounding of the lips, appear as simple Ansounds in the 
satem-languages, while in the centum-languages the rounding 
of the lips has resulted in a distinct wnsound closely follow- 
ing the guttural, giving what may be called ArJMounds. This 
w-element may remain distinct, as in Latin qu^ or may unite with 
the guttural to form a labial, as in the Oscan-Umbrian p. It 
is one of the chief characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian as compared 
with Latin that the labiovelars appear regularly as labials. 

There is still a third series of gutturals, called the pure 
velars, which remain simple Ansounds in both groups^ showing 
neither the i^lement in the centum-languages nor the develop- 
ment to sibilants in the satem-languages. But since within either 
group this series is identical with one of the other two, it will 
be necessary here, where we are for the most part only comparing 
Oscan-Umbrian with Latin, to distinguish only two series, the 
one which shows the i^^lement and the one which does not. 

We shall treat, then, the A-sounds, which include the Indo- 
European palatals (Jc etc.) and the pure velars {q etc.), and the 
A^sounds, which represent the labiovelars (5^ etc.). 

141. k appears as k, c, as in Latin. Examples : O. censaumy 
keenzstur : L. censed^ censor^ etc. ; — U. kanetu, procanurent : 
L. cano ; — O. deikum, deicum^ dicust^ U. dersicust (from *dedir 
cust): L. died ; — O. Dekmannitiis '*Decumaniis', U. tekories, dequr 
rier 'decuriis': L. decern, 

a. It is uncertain whether ku (i.e. I.E. £ + u) remained unchanged or 
became p like kU (I.E. qU). Cf. L. equus from ekuo- and sequor from seqM", 
For the former would speak U. ekvine, if connected with L. equlnus, — for the 

144] The Ghitturcds 89 

latter, thet gentiles Epidiua etc., found in Latin inscriptions from Oscan- 
Umbrian territory, if they belong with L. Equitius etc. and are genuine 
O.-U. forms. 

h. In Umbrian a final k is often omitted in the writing, e.g. ere, ere, beside 
erek, erec: O. izic. See 201, 1. 


142. But before t o. k became a spirant and then simply A, 

so that the combination kt appears as ht in both Oscan and 

Umbrian. In Umbrian, however, the h was weakly sounded 

or wholly lost, as is evident from its frequent omission in the 

writing, and the preceding vowel was lengthened. See 76. 

Examples : O. ehtrad, U. ap-ehtre, from *ek'trO' : L. extrd^ etc. ; — 

O. tfhtavis : L. Octdvius ; — U. rehte : L. recte; — O. saahttim, 

U. sahta, satam, sahatam : L. sdnetus ; — U. uhtur : L. auctor ; 

U. spetore : L. (in')8pector. 

a. It is possible that the same change from A; to ^ should be recognized 
before p, examples of which would be O. ehpeflatas *erectae', and ehprefyld, of 
uncertain meaning, on a fragmentary inscription. But the eh may be due to 
extension from compounds of words beginning with t 

143. Secondary kt^ resulting from the syncope of an inter- • ^ -^-^ 
vening vowel, has an entirely different history. It remains - 
unchanged in Oscan, while in Umbrian it appears as it^ the k /'^' 
having passed through the same development as in French fait 

from L. factum. Examples : O. factud : L. facito ; — O. actud : 
L. agito ; — O. uincter : L. vincitur ; — U. aitu, aitu : O. actud ; 
— U. teito, deitu 'dicito' from *deik{e)tdd (the original diphthong 
is represented by the e only; see 66); — U. ieitaj feitu^ fetu, 
feetu 'facito' from *fek{e)tod (219). Here belongs also U. -veita 
(afveita, araueitu 'advehito', kuveitu 'convehito') from *uekt6d^ this 
from original *we^Ae^c? (160). ,. jl, ; p. ^ '(. ; - . ico-'"' ' dj. ^ f i 

Umbrian palatalization of k 

144. In Umbrian a k before the vowels e and t, and before 
consonantal i, becomes a sibilant, written 5, «, or often simply «. 
This recalls the development of Latin c before palatal vowels 
in the Romance languages, as in French cent etc. The precise 

90 Phonology [144 

pronunciation of the Umbrian sound, the difference between it 
and the ordinary «, is of course uncertain. It may have been i 
(i.e. Eng. %h) or % (palatal %), As regards the use of b for i, it 
is comparatively rare initially, but between vowels vastly more 
common than h Examples: ^e^na^cenam', ^ersnatur ^cenati': 
L. cena^ O. kersnu ; — sihitu^ sihitu : L. cinctria ; — pose (16 times, 
always s) : L. pace ; — ta^ez^ tases (14 times, always s): L. tad- 
tu8 ; — desenduf: L. decern ; — tigit : L. decet ; — anjif : L. ancu9^ 
uncus ; — skal^e-ta, scahe-to : L. calice ; — cumase * cornice' (Ace. 
Sg. curnaeo). Observe also pesetom 'peccatum' from *peccet(h: 
L. pecco from *petcd. Further, with consonantal t, which is 
frequently omitted in the writing, fa^a, fa^iu, fagu : L. facto ; — 
Saniie, Sansie^ Sage: L. *Sancius (Sancus); trilMrigu *temio' beside 
Abl. Sg. tribrisine (-ik-idn-, -ik-in^ 181); — j9wr(iin^M«**porrexerit', 
purdimust^ purtingus, etc. (wAr^-Perfect, 229). 

We find also 9I, «Z, in a number of words, but in these the 
palatalization of the k is due to a following e which has been 
lost by syncope after having affected the k. Thus ti§lu *dedica- 
tionem' from *dik'elo- ; — preuiUatu (also preuilatu by engraver's 
error) '*praevinculato', denominative from ^uink-elo- : L. vincur 
lum; — strohgla, «f rw«Za '*struiculam' from *8truuikeld-. But 
when k is preceded by 8 it is not affected, e.g. vesUes, ueBclir 
*vasculis' from ^ues-kelo-. The instrumental suflSx -ftZo- remains 
unchanged, since this does not come from -kelo- like the diminu- 
tive suffix. So pihaklu, pihaclu 'piaculum', etc. 

a. In several words we find k unchanged before e or t. In some this is 
due to the analogical influence of other cases in which the k is followed by 
another vowel, as Gen. Sg. Naharcer after Naharcom. So probably also forms 
of the Dat. Sg. and Dat.-Abl. Pi. like fratrecl^ todceir, etc. though in these e, i, 
comes from earlier oi. Cf . also Pupftke beside Pupfige etc. A few forms occur- 
ring in the oldest tables may be regarded as survivals from a period antedating 
the process of palatalization, e.g. kebu : L. cibus. The origin of Akehmie, Acerao- 
niem, and its relation to O. Akudunniad are obscure. For ceJiefi ^accensum sit'(?), 
ku-kehes, there is no satisfactory etymology (connection with Grk. icaUa from 
*Kaf-i(i) impossible). 

b. For original ki^ which regularly appears as qi, «i, or 9, ^, 8 (fagiu, fa^u, 
etc., above), we find simply i in asaie beside asa^e, and in peiii, peiu, from 

146] The Gutturals 91 

*pik'io- (for e for i see 45) : L. piceus. The reason for this is not apparent, and 
some prefer to assume an error in usaie and to reject the comparison of peiu with 
L. piceus. But peiu denotes some color, contrasted with nifru 'rubros^ and the 
meaning 'piceos^ is so strikingly suitable that in spite of the difficulty in the 
form, we prefer to accept the connection. Cf. also feia 'faciat* i^^^)- ' 


145. 1. Before consonants Jcb becomes %, Thus O. destrst 


'dextra est', U. destram-e 'in dextram'; — U. sestentasiaru 'sextan- 

tariarum'; — *per8k', ^porsk-, etc. (97) from *perk'8k' (cf. h.posco^ 

*por8cd from ^pork-sk-^ beside precor)^ in U. persclo *precati- 

onem', ^er«mAiwWprecator' (see 146), etc;, beside pepurkurent 

'poposcerint', and in O. comparascuster 'consulta erit' beside 


Note. The reduction to a in the examples given belongs to different 
periods. In ^persk- it is probably Indo-European, in sestentasiaru Italic, in 
destrst Oscan-Umbrian. 

2. Final ks, both original and secondary, becomes ««, 8. 
Thus O. meddiss, meddi% 'meddix' (Gen. Sg. medikeis); also Nom. 
PL meddiss from *meddik(e)8 (90, l); — U. wa« 'vitium' from 
*uak{o)8 (cf. L. vaco). But sometimes the k is restored under 
the influence of the oblique cases, e.g. O. Nom. PI. fjLcSSei^ = 
meddiss, O. tdvtfks 'publicus', U. fratreks, /ra^rea;^ ' *fratricus'. 

3. Intervocalic k8 is seen in O. eksuk'hoc', ea;ac 'hac', etc., 
to which corresponds U. esu, esu, e88u 'hoc', e8a 'hac', etc. It is 
uncertain whether this ks is original or secondary. If the latter, 
compare O. dpsannam : U. osatu (122, 3). 

Loss of k between consonants 

146. Loss of k (in part from kV' by 168) between consonants 
is seen in O. molta, U. muta : L. multa, mulcta {muled) ; — 
O. /or^is 'potius': h. fortis, forctis; — U. Umasier '*Umariis': 
L. urna from *urcnd (urceus); — O. turumiiad 'torqueatur', denom- 
inative from HorkmO', Hork^-mo-i L. tormentum (torqueo); — 
U. persnihimu ' precator', denominative from ^persk-ni- {^persk- 
from '^perk'Sk', 146); — U. perstu 'ponito'(?) from *per8k(e)tdd 

92 Phonohgy [146 

(cf. peperacuat); — O. Piintiis, U. pontes ^pentads', from ^pank-t-^ 
*ponkff^'t- (168), beside O. TLofiTrrie: ajid pomtis 'quinquiens' from 
*pompti8y with p after * pompe ^quinque* (cf. L. QulnttiSj Qulnc- 
tua); — similarly, where the combination is due to syncope, 
U. anstintu'distinguito' from ^-atinktod, *'%tinkU'tdd (168), but 
ninctu 'ninguito' with the guttural restored from unsyncopated 
forms prior to the labialization in the latter (or were n and nc 
two spellings for the same sound, namely the guttural nasal?). 

a. In the examples of nt from nkt the k of the latter is 
from kU' (163). In the case of original nkt (i.e. with I.E. k) the 
nasal was lost and the kt became ht^ as elsewhere. See 78, 142. 

h. U. konikaz, conegoa 'conixus' shows the same reduction of 
nkn to n as L. conlveo (root kneig^h-^ Goth, hneiwan). 


147. 1. Original g is for the most part unchanged. Exam- 
ples: O. Genetai'Genitae'; — O. aragetud 'argento' ; — O. ligud 
'lege'; — O. tangintid^sententia': L. tongitio \ — U. a^er'ager'. 

2. Initial gn remains in Oscan, but appears as n in 
Umbrian. Thus O. Gnaivs 'Gnaeus'; — U. natine : L. ndtio from 
*gndtid {gem) ; — naiatu, naraklum : L. ndrro^ gndrua. 

3. An Italic change is that of intervocalic gi to ^ the first % 
then forming a diphthong with the preceding vowel. For to 
L. maior from *mag%d% (magia, magnua)^ maiua, Maiua, etc. belong 
O. Maiitii 'Maio' (see 100, 2), with Nom. Sg. Mais, and maia^ *magis, 
plus', from *maij,oa (91, 1). Cf. also U. aiu 'agitationes, disturb- 
ances' (?), probably from agjfl. 

a. In *maist€ro- (whence U. mestm * maior') and *mai8emo- (whence 
O. maimcM *maximae', 114, 6), the *mais- may also be from *majges (cf. 
L. maieatas), but more probably has replaced mdgis (cf. L. mcLgister) under the 
influence of forms like O. maiaA O. Maesius ^ mensis Mains' (Festus) seems 
also, in contrast to L. MaiuSj O. Maiitii, to be formed directly from maia, 

4. Assimilation of ^ to a following / is seen in U. Ace. PI. 
/rif 'fruges' from ^frug-f (69). 

1 According to another view, once held by the author also, these words are not 
cognate with L. magiSt maior, etc. but with Goth, mais (Eng. more etc.). 

149] The ChiUureUs 93 

Umbrian palatalization of g 

148. Corresponding to the palatalization of h before e and 
i is the Umbrian change of ^ to a sound which is represented 
by L Thus wwfe^o 'muttitum' beside 7ww^a^i**muttito* (cf. pru- 
segeto, ^r(?«g«eto *prosecta' beside prusekatu'prosecato'); — eveietu 
*voveto' from ^e-uegetod^ *e-ueigetdd (L. victima^ Germ, weihen).^ 

a. An apparent example of palatalization of ^ by a preceding i is seen in 
liaviiia, liouinur^ louinur, etc. beside Dcayins ^Iguvinns'. But the mediseval and 
modem forms of the name preserve the g, and it has been suggested that the 
spelling cited is due to a "pious fraud " of the priests who wished to connect 
the name of the city with that of the divinity. Cf. lave, lauie, HouiCt etc. 


149. gh appears as A, as in Latin. Examples: O. htirz, htir- 
tfim : L. hortuSj Grk. 'xppro^ ; — O. humuns 'homines', U. homonus 
'hominibus': L. homo ; — O. hu[n]trui8 'inferis', U. hondra 'infra', 
AcmdoTwi* *infimo': L. humu% etc. (16, 5); — O. here%t ^Yo\di\ 
U. heriest 'volet', etc.: L. horior etc. (16, 1); — O. heriiad 'capiat', 
hjcrrins 'caperent': L. herea^ Grk. X€^/>, Skt. Arfrawi 'hold'; — 
O. fefhtiss 'muros' : Grk. ret;^©? (L. Jingo with g for gh after n) ; — 
O. kahad 'capiat' : L. incoho ; — O. Veiehasitii ' Versori'(?), perhaps : 
L. vergo (g for gh after a consonant); — O. eehiianastim 'emitten- 
darum', U. ehiato 'emissos' (used of the victims 'let out' for the 
sacrificial hunt): L. hid (occasionally transitive 'emit'), Lith. 
zi(^'u 'gape'. For U. -veita 'vehito', see 148. 

a, Umbrian h was so weakly sounded that, as in Latin, the letter is some- 
times omitted, or, vice versa, employed where it has no etymological value. 
Thus eretu beside usual heritu 'optato' (: heriest ^Yo\eV etc., above); — anr4)statu 
beside anrhostatu, Jiostatu ^hastatos': L. hasta; — enclitic -ont after consonants 
beside -hont after vowels (er-ont, eri-hont Mdem' etc., 196); eitipes from *eitom 
hipeva (84,264,2); — ^e^f-e beside e^roLf-e * in exitus' from ^S-baitrd (L. baetd) ; 
— fiahina ^agnas\ L. agntis (? or: Skt. chdgot ^goat% in which case the h is 
etymological); — Hole, holtu ^aboleto^?), perhaps from a root ol- (Grk. SWvfu 

In O. Henikinai ^ Erycinae' the h is due to the influence of Herentatef, 
of which it is an epithet. 

1 Osthoff, I.F. 6, 39 ff. 

94 Phonology [149 

6. The substitution of / for A, in folus for TijoIub and other forms cited by 
Latin writers, and in Faliscan foied ^hodie% seems to have been characteristic 
of rustic Latin and some of the neighboring minor dialects. It is possible that 
U. felsva is a borrowed technical term originating in regions where this change 
was made. For, certainly, the comparison with L. holus is more attractive 
than any other explanation offered. 

For U. erorfoTd beside erorhuid ^eadem% see 201, 6. 

150. M'^ L. qn^ appears as p. Examples: O. pdd, pod^ 

U. puf-€ : L. quod ; — O. pid, U. pif-e : L. quid ; — U. panta : 

L. quanta; — O. petiro-pert^qyi2i\/&T\ U. petur-pursus^(\U3i,Ai\Xr 

pedibus': L. quattuor^ — *pompe (O. ptimperiais, U. pumperias): 

L. quinque. 

a. Both O.-U. *pompe and L. qulnque are from an Italic *kf^enJ(3i'ej 
though this comes by consonant-assimilation from an earlier *penk3i'e (cf. 
Grk. ir4vT€f Skt. pdfica). 

151. gV', Latin v or (after n) gu, appears as b. Examples : 
O. kiimbened 'convenit,' U. benust 'venerit' : L. venio (Eng. come); 
— O. bivus'vivi': L. vivuB (Eng. quick); — U. berus 'veribus': 
L. veru ; — U. bum 'bovem' (Eng. cow ; L. bos is borrowed from 
some O.-U. dialect); — U. umen 'unguen' from *omben (126, 2): 
L. unguen ; — U. habina : L. agnua (? see 149, a). 


152. ^hj Latin / (initially), v (between vowels), or gu 
(after n), appears as/.. Thus U. vufru 'votivum', vufetes'voti- 
vis': L. *uoueto- (whence votus^ like motus from ^moueto-)^ voveo 
(cf. Skt. i^o^MiC- *sacrificer', Grk. evxofiai^ root ue0hr and eugV^h-), 
Unquestionable examples of initial / from 0h are wanting. 

a. U. uouse is commonly translated * voto' and regarded as corresponding 
in form to a L. *vovicio-. But there is no adequate explanation of the uour- in 
its relation to the vuf- of the other forms. 

1 For the developmeot of sonant aspirates in general, see 160-161. 

164] The Gutturals 96 

Loss of U in kU etc. 

153. The u of k'H etc. is lost before another consonant, as 
in Latin cactus beside coquo^ qulntus beside quinque, etc. Thus 
O. Pdntiis, U. puntes 'pentads', from *ponk't- (146), *ponkf^'t-, 
beside *pompe with the usual development of k^ (160), while 
in O. HofjLTTTie: and pomtis the labial is analogical. See also 
146. The same loss occurs in combinations resulting from syn- 
cope, showing that the latter process antedates the change of 
ku etc. to p etc. Thus U. fiktu 'figito' from ^flk^^tod, *fx0et6dh 
L. flgo^ earlier flvo ; — O. fruktatiuf 'fructus' from '^fruk^tr^ fru- 
ff^'etdtiorir^ : L. *fruitdti6y fruitio; — U. anstintu 'distinguito' 
from *'Stinkt6d (146), *'Stinky'tddy *-stin0etdd ^ ; — U. ninctu 'nin- 
guito' from *ninkf^tdd, *nin0etdd (originally g'^h; see I6l). 

a. U. tuntu * unguito* instead of *iuita or *anktu is an analogical form 
like O. pomtis^ m in this case coming from forms like *ummd, ^nibd (cf . mnen 
from *<mU)€n : L. unguen ; 161). 

6. U. »M6ocau 'invoco' agrees with L. vocd, the k probably originating in 
Nom. Sg. ♦wdfcs (L. vdx) from *udkUs (Grk. ciros, 6\f/). In U. kunikaz, conegos 
*genu nixus* (as if L. *conigatus for *cdmvatus): L. conlveo, Goth, hneiwan 
'kneeP (root kneig^'hr)^ the simple guttural might be attributed to the influence 
of forms such as L. nixtts, nlcto, but in that case it is not clear why we have 
not *coneco8. 

154. Loss of the u before a following u^ as seen in L. quln- 
cuplex beside quinque^ etc., is perhaps to be recognized for Oscan- 
Umbrian also, and so attributed to the Italic period. But the 
material is meagre and indecisive. Examples would be U. pru- 
sikurent'pronuntiaverint': L. inseque (but it is fully as likely 
that the k in this, as in the probably related U. sukatu and in 
L. iT^ece beside inseque, is due to the influence of forms like 
L. Insectio, in which the u was lost before the following conso- 
nant); — U. *arkel(h, whence arjlataf'arculatas' (144), instead of 
*arpelo-, perhaps due to the analogy of *arkur as L. arcitenens 
for arquitenens is due to arcvr. 

1 We are justified in assuming that the Oscan-Umbrian forms go with the 
Latin, even though the g"^ in these forms is not Indo-European. See Brugmann, 
Grd. P, p. 603. 

96 Phonology [l64 

The p in O. puf, U. pufe'ubi' and O. puz, U. puze'iit' must 
then be attributed to the influence of forms Hke O. piid, pid, etc. 

a. L. uhi, ut, etc. are variously explained, but there are no serious 
objections to the view that they represent the regular Latin development of 
initial kUu. 

Change of Surd Mutes to Sonants 

155. The change of nkl to ngl^ seen in L. angulus from 
*anklo- (ancus), doubtless belongs to the Italic period. Thus 
O. ungulus 'anulus' (Festus): L. uncus ; — U. anglom-e 'ad angu- 
lum' ; — U. a/i^Zo/* 'oscines' {g 6 times, but twice c) from ^an-kld- 
(L. cldmo; cf. oscen from cano). 

166. In Umbrian, nk^ ntj except when final, become rtg, nd. 
Thus iuengar : L. iuvenca ; — ander : O. anter, L. inter ; — Pas- 
sives tursianduj ostensendi^ with endings -tor (L. -tur), -ter (U. her- 
ter, O. uincter); — ostendu ^ostendito^ from ^os-tentu, this from 
*08'tennet6d (136), similarly andendu, endendu ^intendito* from 
*anrtentUj *en-tentu ; — hondra 'infra': O. hu[n]trui8 'inferis' ; — 
hondomu 'infimo': L. -tumo-. 

Note. This change is later than the palatalization of A:, as is shown by 
anfif and preuUlatu (144). 

167. 1. A change of medial pr to br is regular in Umbrian. 
Thus subra^ subra 'supra', kabru 'caprum', cabriner 'caprini', abrof 
'apros', abrunu 'aprum'. In supru, kaprum etc., apruf, the p prob- 
ably stands for b, as not infrequently elsewhere (30, 6). In Oscan 
also we find embratur 'imperator' and Abella- (Abellaniis) probably 
from *AprO'ld' (91, 2), but usually pr remains (supruis etc.). 

2. A similar change of tr to dr is seen in a few words, 
though usually tr remains (JJ.fratromj O. fratrdm, etc.). Thus 
v. podruh'pei^ utroque*: O. piitiinis-pid from ^po-tro- (81); — 
O. Sadiriis 'Satrius' (81) ; — U. adro 'atra', O. Aderl. ' Atella' from 
Atro-ld (see 91, 2, and note ; but it is possible that dr in this case 
is original, becoming tr in Latin, as in taeter from Haed-ro-). 

Note. The reasons for the variation in the representation of tr and (in 
Oscan) of pr are obscure. 

160] The Grutturah 97 

168. Other, more isolated examples are U. Padellar from 
*Patno-ld' (91, 2, a), with which may be compared L. scabellum 
from *scajhn<hlo' (scdpus)^ dignus from ^dec-no-^ etc. ; — O. dege- 
tasis, degetasiiis, beside deketasiiii, from ^dekentdsio-, the explana- 
tion of the g being doubtful (cf. L. viginti?); — U. todcowre 
'in urbicum', todceir, beside totcor (cf. O. touticom)^ the d being 
probably a graphic vagary due to the following tuder. 

Change of Sonant Mutes to Surds 

159. The change of sonant to surd before a following surd 
mute is an Indo-European process, but repeats itself in the case 
of combinations arising through syncope in the Oscan-Umbrian 
period. Thus O. ac^i^ci'agito' from *ag(e)tddy U. fiktu 'figito' 
from *jigu{e)tdd (163), etc. 

a. O. akenei, U. acnu, peracni-, etc. , if the frequently assumed connection 
with L. ago is correct, indicate that ok- in place of ag- was generalized from 
such forms as L. actiLa, actio (cf. U. ahtim), reinforced in the Oscan-Umbrian 
period by forms like O. dctud. With this view would agree O. acum on the 
Tabula Bantina, though no great weight can be attached to this on account of 
the frequent misspellings (e.g. licud for ligud). •' 


The words in question have also been connected with L. annus from *atno- j d IfVaJt 
(Goth. aj>n)^ and on the side of meaning this is most attractive, especially for it^.*-***^ 
the fairly certain acunum VJ nesimum of the Tabula Bantina and the akun. 
CXn of no. 13. Moreover the resemblance of the compounds U. per-acnU and./ ' '/ '~^ 
«CM-acwi- (cf. U. seuom * totum', O. siuom * omnino') to L. per-ennis and soll-ennis « / " / C. ■; 
(the by-form aollemnis contains a different word, perhaps one related to O. amntid 
*circuitu') is too striking to be ignored, though peracni- is not ^perennis' in 
meaning, but is used, like seuacni-, in the same sense as L. aollennia. Now an 
Oscan-Umbrian change of medial tn to kn is not sufficiently paralleled by the 
change of tl to kl, which is Italic (129, 2); and it i^ moreover, opposed by 
O. Patanal 'Pandae' from *Pat-nd- (of earlier/*Pa^ena[?)[ But there may be an 
indirect connection; that is, the 6.-U. *akno- may represent a contamination 
of *atnO' with some other form, perhaps an *agno- or *akno- coming from a{i- 
and meaning * ceremony' (occurring at fixed periods). 

Changes of the original Sonant Aspirates 

160. In the Italic period the Indo-European sonant aspirates 
became first surd aspirates, as likewise in Greek, and then the 
corresponding spirants. That is, bJi, dh, gh, gUh, became first 

98' Phonology [160 

phy thj khy kfthf then/, p (= Eng. th in thin)^ x (= Germ. cA), ;^^. 
The further changes of /> to /, of ^ to A, and of ;j^ to /, even 
where common to Oscan-Umbrian and Latin, probably took 
place independently in each branch. The d of L. medius 
(O. mefial) must come directly from p (cf. also \iTpd borrowed 
from Hiprd^ whence L. libra) ; and since in this position Italic / 
is impossible, it is improbable in the others. Intervocalic % 
appears as h in all dialects, but U. -veitu 'vehito' makes it 
unlikely that it had reached this stage at the time of the Oscan- 
Umbrian syncope, for this implies *uekt6d (see 143), which can 
come from *uexetdd, but hardly from *ueh(e)tdd. 

161. In Latin we find regularly a sonant mute after a nasal ; 
that is, not only mb and nd (in which the sonant would not neces- 
sarily be due to the nasal), but also ng and ngu^ e.g. lingo (Xe/xo)), 
ninguit {yei<\>ei). The same holds true for Umbrian. Thus : 

mb from mfi ambr- (ambr-etuto ' ambiunto') beside O. a]nfr-(am- 
fret * ambiunt'), from *amfer, which is formed from *amf(iy (L. amb-^ 
Grk. afjL(l>{) after the analogy of anter^ super^ etc. (i.e. *amfer-ed 
after ^anter-eo, L. inter-eo; cf. L. comb-uro after amb-uro); — 
here probably also a/wft-oZ^w *ambulato' (Grk. aXdofjLai?); — com- 
bifiatu 'nuntiato' from ^com-fif-i h./ido^ Grk. irelOo)^ root bheidhr 
(or Grk. irvvOdvofiai^ root bheudh- ; see 86, 7). For the operation 
of the process even in composition, see 164, a. 

ngiTomnx* mw^/a^ro 'cinctum': O.Eng.An7igr'ring',O.Bulg. 
hrqgu 'circle', root krengh-. 

For nd from n^ and for ngV' from nxr there are no certain examples. 
It would be attractive to derive -uendu {ahauendu *avertito\ preuendu 
*advertito') from *uen/>etdd (Germ, winden, wenden, root uevdhr) 
through the medium of *u€vdetdd (like ostendu from ^ostendetdd^ 156)» 
and ninctu from *ninxVetdd (Grk. v€l(f>€t etc.) through *ningU€tdd (like 
fiktu from ^flgUetod, 163). But the vowel-syncope belongs in all prob- 
ability to the Oscan-Umbrian period, whereas the change to sonant 
seems to be Umbrian only, not Oscan (see a with footnote). It is 
better, then, to assume the development *uen/t{e)tdd, *uentddj uendu, 
and *ninx- (e)tod, *ninkUtdd (cf. *uexetdd, *uektdd, 160), ninctu, 
a. O. ampt * circum* is obviously connected with *amf(iy, L. amh-, etc., 
being formed by the addition of the same -t(i) seen in po84^ per-t, etc. But 

162] Doubling of ConsonanU in Oacan ' 99 

we cannot well derive it from ^amf-t with a change of ft to pt, since Oscan 
shows, rather, the opposite change of pt to ft (121). Nor can we start from 
*amh4, since amh- from ^amf- is confined to Latin and Umbrian (O. amfr- ; see 
above)!. The explanation is as follows : In the Italic period *amf- became 
♦am- before certain consonants, e.g. before / (cf . U. an-feren£r). This ''^am- was 
extended to other forms, and became a regular by-form of *amf- as in L. am-icio 
etc. Oscan-Umbrian examples are O. am-yiannud * vico' (cf. Grk. AfupoSov); — 
O. amntid *circuitu' (16, 2); — probably 0. ampu[l]uliun *ministrum'(?), diminu- 
tive from *am~polO' (p from kU) : L. an^idua, Grk. dfu/>i-^o\os ; — U. an-ferener 
* circumferendi' ; — U. an-dirso^si *circumtulerit'; — U. aplenia'impleta, full 
on both' sides' ; — possibly U. am-peiia (see Glossary). 

From this by-form am- was formed *am4y which became ampt with the 
same secondary p which is seen in L. Sm-p4u8, aUm-p^us, etc. (cf. also ampter- 
mini in Festus). 

Doubling of Consonants in Oscan 

162. 1. Doubling of consonants is to be observed in Oscan 
frequently before consonantal i, and occasionally before r and v. 
Examples : Mamerttiais 'Martiis' ; — liittiuf 'usus' from *oitidnr ; 

— ajittidm 'portionum', Gen. PL beside Gen. Sg. aeteia (i instead 
of i is due to the influence of other case-forms, as -im, -iss, etc.); 

— meddikkiai 'in *meddicia' from *meddik'id' ; — tribarakkiuf *aedi- 
ficatio' from Hrebark-ion-; — DekMeis ' Decii' (Nom. Dekis) ; — kdm- 
bennieis'conventus' from *kowrben-io- ; — teremenniii 'termina' as 
if L. Herminia; — Dekmanniiiis '*Decumaniis'; — Vitelliii* Italia', 

etc. alttram 'alteram', alttrei 'alteri'; — pdnttram *pontem'. 

Dekkviarim 'Decurialem'. 

2. Doubling of s before t is seen in kvaisstur 'quaestor' (once 
kvaizstur; influence of keenzstur?); — keenzstur 'censor' (nz = wte, 
XlO, 1) ; — pdsstist 'positum est' (? see 84, a), passtata 'porticum' (2l). 
Probably kerssnais 'cenis' and kerssnasias are also examples of simi- 
lar doubling, in spite of the fact that they once had etymological 
88 (116, 2); also peessl[iim (189, 2). 

8. Appelluneis 'ApoUinis', KirireWowqi^ remind us of L. Ap- 
puleius beside Apuleius^ etc., and the spelling is perhaps due to 

1 The possibility of separating the / of O. amfret from that of *awv^(t)-, as 
adyocated by some, and assuming an Italic change of sonant aspirate to sonant after 
a nasal, has been considered, but given up as improbable. Cf. also O. Verehasitii: 
L. rerflFd(?149). 

100 Phonology [162 

the influence of compounds like L. appello etc. Helleviis for 
usual Heleviis is simply a mistake. 

Note. Even for words falling under 1 and 2, the doubling is by no 
means universal, the spelling sometimes varying for the same word. It is 
probably an attempt to indicate that the consonant was sounded both at the 
end of one syllable and at the beginning of the next. Cf. L. quaUuor^ and the 
occasional iuscriptional spellings such as froMre, aggro^ mattrona^ asstantej 
iiLSsta, Vessta, etc. In Greek, <r<rT for trr is especially common, and doubling 
before t and p is foimd in dialectic inscriptions. 

Simplification of Double Consonants 

163. In Oscan, which in general, apart from the oldest 
inscriptions and the Tabula Bantina, faithfully represents double 
consonants in the writing, there are some examples of single in 
place of double consonants. But even in these cases it is not 
clear how far we have to do with anything more than irregular- 
ity in spelling. Examples: dadikatted 'dedicavit' from ^dad-dik- 
(cf. dat 'de') ; — eehiianasiim 'emittendarum' beside lipsannam etc.; 
amvianud 'vico' beside amviannud ; — medikeis, medikei, beside 
meddiss 'meddix' ; medikkiai beside meddikiai; — further, on the 
Tabula Bantina, medidm, medicatinom, medicatud^ beside meddisy 

Changes in Sentence-Combination. Sandhi. 

164. The history of initial and final sounds has been included 
in the general treatment. For crasis etc., see 84. Following is 
a r6sum6 of the changes of finals. 

1. Final short vowels are sometimes lost (92). 

2. Final a is changed in the direction of o (34). 

3. Final r«, ?s, become r, I (ii7, 119, 2). 

4. Final fs, ks, become ss, 8 (124, a ; 145, 2). 

5. Final ns in certain cases becomes/ (no, 2, 4, 5). 

6. Final t becomes d (127, l). 

7. Final d, including preceding, is lost in Umbrian (188). 

8. Final 8 becomes r in later Umbrian (113). 

166] Accent 101 

9. Final consonants were weakly sounded in Umbrian, and, 
with more or less frequency, omitted in the spelling. This is 
true of all except r from r«, I from Is, and s from/s, k^. Thus 
m, n (109, 1), r (103, 4; lis, 6), / (110, 2, a), t (127, 2), k (141, 6), 
« (113, 6). Omission of final nt is rare (128, 2, a). 

a. Changes in Compounds. Noteworthy is the extent to which phonetic 
changes affecting the initial of the second member of a compound take place in 
Oscan-Umbrian without interference from the analogical influence of the sim- 
plex, if such still existed. Cf. U. subocau from ^suh-uok- (102, 2), O. akkatus 
from *ad-uok' (102, 3), U. endendu from *en-tend- (156), U. comhifiatu from 
*coni-fif' (161), U. anzeriatu from *an-8€r- (110, 1). A possible, but uncertain, 
example of such a change even reacting on the simplex is U. menes (125, 2, a). 

But the influence of the simplex is sometimes seen, e.g. U. an-ferener (not 
mh by 161), U. an-dirsafust (not nn by 136), O. kiim-bened (not mm by 125, 2). 



166. 1. Word-Accent. The Latin accentual system, based 
on the quantity of the penult, is comparatively late, having been 
preceded by a system, dating from the Italic period, according to 
which the accent stood always on the first syllable. Whether 
this initial accent was preserved in Oscan-Umbrian or replaced 
by some such system as arose in Latin, cannot be determined. 

a. There are certain phonetic changes, such as the simplification of double 
consonants (163), which with added material may prove to be connected with 
an accentual system like the Latin, but at present the evidence is far from 

2. Sentence-Accent. There is substantial agreement 
with the Latin. For pronominal enclitics, see 201 ; for enclisis 
of personal pronouns, see 86, 3 ; for that of the indefinite pronouns 
cf. O. suaepis (usually so written), U. svepis, etc. ; — for that of 
the verb ' to be ', cf. O. teremnatust, destrst (84), piisstist (84, a), and 
also O. prdftiiset, staflatasset, ehpellatasset, U. peretomest, ortoest^ 
parsest (117, J), mersest, mersi (132, a), etc. (the writing as two 
words is also found, but less frequently). With L. quilihet com- 
pare U. pisher (90, 2). The enclitic use of prepositions is far 
more common than in Latin (209 ff.). 

102 Phonology [166 


166. OSCAN 



a, written a, a, 

= orig. a, e.g. ant 'ante'. 82. 

= anaptyctic a, e.g. aragetud 'argento'. 80, 81. 


a, written a, aa, a, 

= orig. a, e.g. aasas «arae' (Gen. Sg.). 88. 
= orig. a with secondary lengthening, e.g. saahtiiin 'sanc- 
tum'. 78. 

^, written e, e, 

= orig. e, e.g. estud, estud *esto'. 36. 

= anaptyctic e^ e.g. Herekleis'Herculis'. 80, 81. 

in er = ro or n, e.g. Aderl. 'Atella'. 91, 2. 

- •.. ^ 

§, written e, ee, e, 

= orig. e with secondary lengthening, e.g. keeiustor, censtur 
'censor'. 41, 6, 73, 76, 77, 1. 


|, written I, i, 

= orig. i, e.g. pis, pis 'quis'. 44. 
= orig. e in hiatus, e.g. Iiik, ioc 'ea'. 38, 1. 
= anaptyctic i, e.g. amiricatud '\ 80, 81. 
= orig. e in medial syllables before labials, e.g. nesimois 
'proximis'. 86. 

1 A survey of the Oscan and Umbrian sotinds, with their normal si>elling8» and 
their various regular sources. No account is taken here of the spelling of Old Oscan, 
or of that in the Greek alphabet, for which see 24 ; and no attempt is made to cover 
all the details of the preceding sections. Attention is called by means of asterisks to 
some of the most important differences between Oscan and Latin. Open and close 
vowels are distinguished by a hook or a dot placed beneath the letter, e.g. e = open e, 
6 = close e. 

X66] Syatem of Sounds 103 

|, written i, fi, i, 

= orig. e^ e.g. ligatliis 'legatis', ligud 'lege', fiisnii 'tem- 

plum'. 41. 

= e from contraction, e.g. tris 'ties'. 41, a, 82. 



i, written i, i, 

= orig. % by samprasarana, e.g. pdstiris 'posterius'. 44, 6, 91, 1. 
= orig. i before i, e.g. fakiiad 'faciat'. 44, a. 
Note. Or is the difference from 1 only graphic ? 



1, written i, ii, i, 

= orig. I, e.g. Abl. Sg. slaagid, liimitii[m 'limitum', scriftas 
'scriptae'. 47. 
? = orig. u in final syllables, e.g. castrid. 69. 


Q, written 11, 0, 

= orig. 0, e.g. pdd, ^orf 'quod'. 49. 

= orig. e, in *pompe 'quinque'. 87. 

= anapiyctic o, e.g. tefdniin 'burnt-offering'. 80, 81. 

Q, written ti, o, 

= orig. final a, e.g. viii 'via', alio 'alia'. 84. 

u, written u, u, 

= orig. Uy e.g. puf ubi'. 55. 
= anaptyctic u^ e.g. Mulukiis 'Mulcius'. 80, 81. 
= orig. before final w, e.g. ezum 'esse'. 60. 
= orig. OjCjOT in medial syllables before (or after) labials, 
e.g. praefucus 'praefectus', pertumum 'perimere'. 86. 
= orig. u by samprasarana, e.g.facus 'factus'. 91, i. 

104 Pho7iology [166 

JU {precise sound uncertain) 

iu, written iu, w, 

= u after dentals, e.g. eitiuvam, eituam 'pecuniam'. 56. 


u, written u, uu, (li), u, 

= orig. w, e.g. Puutrel 'Genetrici'. 68. 

= orig. 0, e.g. estud, estud 'esto\ Fluusal 'Florae'. 63. 

ai, written ai, ae (ai)^ 

= orig. ai (or ai), e.g. svai, suae 'si'. 62 (60), (61, 3). 


ei, written ei, eij 

= orig. ei (or ei), e.g. deikum, deicum 'dicere'. 64 (60), (61, 3). 


oi, written tii, oi, 

= orig. oi (or J/), e.g. ligattiis 'legatis', nesimois 'proximis'. 

66 (60), (61, 3). 

au, written av, au, au, 

= orig. au, e.g. avt, auti 'aut'. 68, 61, 2. 

eu occura only in the borrowed Evkliii. 70. 

OU, written liv, on, 

= orig. ott or eu, e.g. ttivtlks'publicus', ^oi*io 'civitas'. 71, 

61, 2. 

166] System of Sounds 105 

1 (consonantal i) 
i, written i, i, 

= orig. z, e.g. kdmbennieis 'conventus'. 100. 

= initial di, e.g. Itivel 'lovi'. 134. 

U (consonantal u) 
U, written v, w, 

= orig. u^ e.g. svai, suae 'si'. 101, 102. 

Note. But when j, and u are merely glides following a vowel i ox u they 
are written in the native alphabet, but not in the ^atin. 31. 


r = orig. r, e.g. Regaturei'Rectori'. 103. 

= intervocalic rs^ e.g. tenim'territorium'. 116, 1. 
= final r8, e.g. cens^t^r 'censores'. 117. 
rr = intervocalic rs, e.g. hjerrins'caperent'. 115, 2. 
= r% at Bantia, e.g. Aere«^ 'volet', loo, 3, c. 


1 = orig. Z, e.g. %wrf'lege'. 104, 105. 
= final ?«, e.g. aidil'aedilis'. 119, 2. 
11 = orig. rZ, e.g. AbeUanam ' Abellanam'. .103, 3. 

= orig. I by secondary doubling, e.g. Vitelliii' Italia'. 162, 1. 

= orig. nZ, e.g. VesuUials'Vesulliais'. 107, 3. 

n = orig. w, e.g. m 'ne'. 107. 

nn = orig. nd^ e.g. lipsannam 'operandam'. 136. 

= orig. n by secondary doubling, e.g. kdmbennieis 'con- 
ventus'. 162, 1. 

For omission of n before consonants, see 108, 2, 3. 

m = orig. w, e.g. Maatreis^Matris'. 107. 
For rare omission of final m, see 109, 2. 

106 Phonology [166 

8 = orig. 8, e.g. e8tud^QBto\ ill, 114. 

= ks before consonants, e.g. destrst'dextra'st'. 146, 1. 
= t% at Bantia, e.g. Bansae *Bantiae\ 100, 3, c. 
8(8)= final ka^ e.g. meddiss, meddis 'meddix'. 145, 2. 

= final fs from -6A(o)8, e.g. teremniss 'terminibus', liffis 
'legibus'. 124, a. ^ 

= final nSy e.g. Ace. PI. vlass, eituas. no, 2. 

= p»^ e.g. om\n9 'adsint'. 122, 2. 

= dental + «, e*g. Ili8iai8'*Fisiis'. 187, l. 

= dental + dental, e.g. Fepo-opet'^Versori'. 188. 

= «by secondary doubling,e.g.kvai88tur*quaestor'. 162,2. 
ks, written ks, x^ 

= intervocalic *«, e.g. eksuk 'hoc', exac 'hac'. 146, 3. 

= ki at Bantia, e.g. meddixud 'magisterio'. lOO, 3, c. 
ts, written z, 8, 

= secondary t8, e.g. puz, pons *ut'. 187, 2. 

nts = orig. ns, e.g. keenzstur, censtur ^ censoT\ no, 1. 
ns = secondary W8, e.g. Bantins 'Bantinus'. 110, 6, 128, 1. 

Z (as in Eng. zero) 
z, written s, 2, 

= intervocalic «, e.g. Gen. PI. -Astim, -azum. 112. 

= djj at Bantia, e.g. zicolom *diem'. 100, 3, c. 


p = orig. j9, e.g. ^08^ 'post'. 120. 
= orig. kfli'^ e.g. pod 'quod'. 160. 


b = orig. 6, e.g. triibiim'domum'. 123. 
= orig. ^, e.g. kdmbened'convenit'. 161. 
br = orig. pr, e.g. embratur 'imperator'. 167, 1. 


t = orig. ^, e.g. tris'tres'. 126, 

167] System of Sounds 107 


d = orig. d, e.g. deicum^diGeTe'. 180, 188. 
= final ty e.g. deded 'dedit'. 127, 1. 
dr = orig. tr^ e.g. Sadiriis 'Satiius'. 167, 2. 


k, written k, c, 

= orig. i, e.g. deikum, deicum *dicere'. 141. 

= orig. kH' (^^), e.g. fruktatiuf' fructus'. 168, 164. 

kl = orig. t2, e.g. sakarakldm ^sacellum'. 129, 2. 


g = orig. ^, e.g. aragetud 'argento'. 147, 1. 
ngl = orig. wH, e.g. ungulus *anulus'. 155. 

f = orig. bh (L./, J), e.g. fratnSm 'fratrum', sifei'sibi'. 124. 
= orig. dh (L,fj 6, d), e.g. fakiiad'faciat', Ldvfrels 'Liberi', 

mefial 'mediae'. 186. 
= orig. gl^h (L.f, v, gu). 162. 

= final ns of secondary origin, e.g. liittiuf 'usus'. lio, 5. 
fr = orig. 8r, e.g. teMrdm 'burnt-offering'. 118. 
ft = orig. pt^ e.g. acriftas 'scriptae'. 121. 

h = orig. gh (L. A), e.g. humuns 'homines'. 149. 
= k before ^, e.g. ehtrad 'extra'. 142. 


a, written a, a, 

= orig. a, e.g. patre 'patri'. 82. 


a, written a, ah, a, ah, aha^ 

= orig. a, e.g. fratrum 'fratrum'. 88. 

= orig. a with secondary lengthening, e.g. sahta, sahatam 
'sanctam'. 78. 

108 Phonology [167 





(long rounded a), written a, u, o, 

= orig. final a, e.g. vatuva, vatuvu, uatuo. 84. 


e, written e, e (rarely i, i), 

= orig. e, e.g. fertu 'ferto'. 86. 
= final i, e.g. ote 'aut'. 43. 

^, written e, eh, e, ee^ eh^ ehe (very rarely i, i), 
= orig. ai (or ai), e.g. pre, pre 'prae'. 63 (60). 
= orig. ei (or ei)^ e.g. etu, eetu 'ito'. 65 (60). 
= orig. e with secondary lengthening, e.g. e-, eh-, e-, ehe- 
'ex'. 76-77. 

e, written e, e, i, z, ei (rare), ei, 

= orig. <f, e.g. habetu, habitu 'habeto'. 42. 
= orig. oi (or Ji) in final syllables, e.g. Dat.-Abl. PL -es, -zV, 
-eir. 67, 2 (60). 

|, written i, i, and, in the case of orig. i, frequently e, e, 
= orig. i, e.g. pife, pore, j^im, etc. 'quid'. 45. 
= orig. e in medial syllables before labials, e.g. nesimei 
'proxime'. 86. 


1, written i, ih, i, ihij ei (rarely e, e), 

= orig. I, e.g. persnimu, persnihimu, etc. 'precator'. 48. 
? = orig. u in monosyllables etc., e.g. pir 'ignis', 59. 

Note. For the five preceding sounds both the letters e and i are employed, 
but with different relative frequency, as indicated. 

167 j System of Sounds 109 

Q, written u, o, 

= orig. 0, e.g. post 'post'. 49. 

= orig. u before w, e.g. somo 'summum'. 67. 

= secondary u before tw, from g, e.g. hondomu 'infimo'. 86. 


6, written u, o, 

= orig. aw, e.g. ute, ote 'aut'. 69. 

= orig. ou (eu)^ e.g. tuta, totam : O. ^(>ii^(?. 72. 

= orig. oi, e.g. joora 'qua': O. poizad. 67, 1. 

0, written u, o, w, 

= orig. 0, e.g. /lowe 'nomen', Abl. Sg. -u, 54. 

u, written u, u^ 

= orig. 1^, e.g. pufe 'ubi'. 66. 

= orig. a or e in medial syllables before labials, e.g. prehubia 

'praehibeat'. 86. 

= orig. before >, e.g. curnaco 'cornicem'. 61. 

U, written u, uh, w, 

= orig. w, e.g. mugatu''muiiito\ 68. 

ai, written ai, ai, 

= orig. ak before ^, e.g. aitu, aitu 'agito'. 143. 

= orig. ai before ^*, e.g. pemaiaf' anticas'. 61, 3. 


ei, written ei, e% 

= orig. eh^ or ek with e from ei or ai, e.g. teitu, c?ei<?* 

'dicito'. 148. 
= orig. ei before ^ e.g. Teteie8(?). 61, 3. 

For the spelling ei, see 29 with a. 

110 • Phonology [167 


1, written i, i, 

= orig. i, e.g. iouies ' iuvenibus'. 100. 
= initial di, e.g. luve, loui, 184. 


^, written v, u, 

= orig. ?i, e.g. via, uia 'via'.. 101, 102. 
= initial I, e.g. vutu 'lavato'. 104. 

But when i and u are merely glides following a vowel i or w, they are 
.written in the native alphabet, but not in the Latin. 81. 


r = orig. r, e.g. rehte 'recte'. 108. 

= intervocalic (and sometiriies final) «, e.g. Gen. PI. -arum, 

112, 118. 

= final r«, e.g. o^^r 'ager'. 117. 

For omission of r,.see 115, 116. 


1 = orig. Z, e.g. plener 'plenis'. 106, 1. 

For omission of I, see 105, 2. 

11 = orig. nl, e.g. PadeZZar 'Patellae'. 107, 3. 

n = orig. n, e.g. nome 'nomen'. 107. 

For omission of n, see 108, 1, 109, 1. 
= initial gn^ e.g. natine'natione'. 147, 2. 
nn, written n, w, rarely wn, 

= orig. ndj dn^ e.g. jt?iAa/i«r 'piandi'. 185. 


m = orig. 7w, e.g. Matrer'Matris'. 107. 
For omission of final m, see 109, 1. 

167] SyBtem of Sounds 111 

s = orig. «, e.g. ^«^'est'. ill, lis ff. 

= ks before consonants, e.g. destrawre 'in dextram'. 146, l. 

= ps before consonants, e.g. o«^ewc?Wostendito'. 122, i. 

= final A«, e.g. ua% 'vitium'. 146, 2. 

= final f% from 'hh{o)s^ e.g. avis 'avibus'. 124, a. 

8(8) = intervocalic k%^ e.g. essu^ esu 'hoc'. 146, 3. 

= intervocalic ps^ e.g. osatu 'facito'. 122, 2, 3. 

= dental + «, e.g. ^iso 'deo Fidio'. 137, l. 

= dental + dental, e.g. 8«8i^«^'6ederit'. 138. 
ts, written z, «, 

= secondary ^«, e.g. tagez, tases 'tacitus'. 137, 2. 

nts = orig. w«, e.g. antermenzaru 'intermenstrium'. no, 1. 
ns = secondary W8, e.g. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus'. 110, 6, 128, l. 

5, 5 (^precise sound uncertain) 
The sibilant written 9, «, «, 
= orig. k before e, i, etc., e.g. tagez, ^a8«8 'tacitus'. 144. 

f, TS (^precise sound uncertain) 
The sound written f, rs (sometimes r, r, «), 
= intervocalic d, e.g. peri, joem 'pede'. 131, 132. 
= (rarely) intervocalic Z, e.g. kafetu, cam^w 'calato'. 106. 


p = orig. Pj e.g. jore 'prae'. 120. 

= orig. k^^ e.g. pif-€'quidquid'. 160. 


b, written b (sometimes p), 6, 

= orig. 6, e.g. kebu 'cibo'. 128. 
= orig. ^, e.g. henust 'venerit'. 161. 
mb = orig. mhh^ e.g. awiJr- 'amb-'. 161. 
br = orig. jor, e.g. suhra 'supra'. 167> 1. 


t = orig. ty e.g. etu 'ito'. 126. 

For omission of final t, see 127, 2. 


112 Phonology [ie7 


d, written t, c?, 

= orig. d, e.g. tuves, duir 'duobus'. 180. 
= orig. du^ e.g. di-fue 'bifidum'. 102, 3. 
dr = orig. tr^ e.g. jt^odrwApei 'utroque'. 167, 2. 
nd = orig. nf, e.g. ander 'inter'. 166. 

= orig. ndhy e.g. ahauendu 'avertito'. 161. 


k, written k, c (rarely 9), 

= orig.A, e.g.kanetu'canito',joro(?ant^r^w^'*procinuennt'. 141. 
= orig. fe^ {0j0h), e.g. fiktu 'figito'. 168, 164. 
kl = orig. tl, e.g. pihaclu 'piaclo'. 129, 2. 


g, written k, ^, 

= orig. ^, e.g. ager 'ager'. 147, l. 

ng = orig. TiA, e.g. iuengar 'iuvencae'. 156. 

= orig. ngh^ ng^h^ e.g. cringatro 'cinctum'. 161. 


f = orig. hh (L./, 6), e.g. fratrum 'fratrum', alfu 'alba'. 124. 
= orig. dh (L. /, 6, d), e.g. fagiu 'facere', rufru 'rubros'. 186. 
= orig. gj^h (L./, v, ^i^), e.g. vufetes 'votis'. 152. 
= nsy e.g. vitluf ' vitulos'. 110, 2, 3, 4, 6. 

For omission of final /, see 110, 2, a. 

fr = orig. 8r, e.g. tefrvrto 'ex rogo'. 118. 

ri = rs (from r(e)8, r«8), e.g. ^raAwor/? 'transverse'. 115, 2, 3. 


h = orig. gh (L. A), e.g. homonus 'hominibus'. 149. 

(h)t = orig. kty e.g. rehte 'recte'. 142. 

=ft hompt, e.g. screhto ^scTiptuin\ 121. 

=/it from dA^, e.g. vetu 'dividito'. 186, a. 

As the h in ht was almost or wholly lost in pronunciation (75, 121, etc.), 
it does not properly belong under the sound h, but is placed here for convenieDce. 
For the use of the letter A as a sign of hiatus, see 88. 
For the omission of initial A, see 149, a. 





On the general system of declension, see 12. 

168. Examples of Declension. 





Vld, tOUtOj TOD f TO 

yereias, eituaa 


muta, mutu 
tutas, totar 



tute, tote 


yiam, toutam 

tuta, totarn 


eitiuvad, toutad 
vlai, Bansae 

tuta, tota 
tafle, tote 



aasas, scriftaa 

eehiiaiiastim, egmazum 


vlass, eituas 

urtas, iuengar 
urnasiaru, pracatarum 
tekuries, dequrier 
vitlaf, uitla 

Remarks on the Case-Forms 

169. 1. NoM. So. The original ending -a is not shortened 
as in Latin, but is changed in quality. See 34. 

2. Gen. Sg. The original ending -as, preserved in Latin 
only in the phrases pater familids etc., remains unchanged, 
except for the rhotacism in the later Umbrian. See 118. 

^ As tlie declension of adjectives is like that of nouns (see 187), some adjective 
forms are included in the paradigms. 

In the Plural, the case which is called simply the Dative- Ablative is of course in 
reality the Dative-Ablative-Locative. 


114 Inflection [169 

3. Dat. Sg. The original ending -di was shortened to -ai, 
which remained in Oscan, but became -e in Umbrian. See eo, 

68, 68. 

4. Ace. Sg. The original ending -dm retains the long 
vowel. See 78, i. For the omission of final w, see 109. 

5. Voc. Sg. This is found only in the Umbrian proper 
names Tursa^ louia^ PreBtota^ Serfia, These forms certainly 
represent the old Voc. in -a, not the Nom. in -a, since in all the 
occurrences, nearly fifty in number, the spelling is uniformly a, 
never o. 

6. Abl. Sg. The ending is -dd, which arose in the Italic 
period after the analogy of -od. In Oscan the d is retained, 
as in early Latin aententidd etc., but is lost in Umbrian. See 


7. Log. Sg. The ending is identical with that of the 
Dative. But in Umbrian, in this and other declensions, the 
postpositive en 'in' is frequently employed, either separately as 
in tafle e, or with contraction, jdelding a form in -en, as arven, or 
oftener in -em, as Acersoniem (see 109, 1). And since a final 
nasal is oftener omitted than written, many, perhaps all, of the 
noun-forms in -e are to be regarded as compounded with -ew, 
rather than as simple Locatives. 

a. Noteworthy are the phrases ocrem Fisiem beside ocre Fisie^ and toteme 
louinem, toteme louine, beside tote louine. The extension of m to the adjective 
forms, as if it were a part of the real case-ending (cf. O. htirtfn Kerrfiin, 171, 7), 
was probably favored by the parallelism between Locatives with and without 
m and Accusatives with and without m, where the m of course appears in the 
adjective also. That is, the Loc. ocre(m) Fisie became ocre{m) Fisie(m) after 
Ace. ocre{m) Fisi(m). In toteme with e(n) added again to the already com- 
pounded totem the influence of Ace. forms like totam-e (cf. deatram-e etc.) is 
also probable. 

8. NoM. Pl. The ending is the original -a«, which is seen 
in Sanskrit and Gothic, but which in Latin and Greek has been 
supplanted by -ai modeled after the -oi of the Second Declen- 
sion. The only change is the rhotacism in the later Umbrian 


l«9] First Declension 116 

9. Gen. Pl. The ending is -dsom, seen in Homeric -atov 
and belonging originally to the Pronouns (Skt. tdsdm). The 
Umbrian shows rhotacism like the Lat. -drum, while in Oscan 
only the intermediate stage z has been reached. See 112. The 
of the last syllable was probably still long (78, 4, note). 

10. Dat.-Abl. Pl. The ending is -ais like the Greek -at?, 
both modeled after the -ois of the Second Declension. The 
at remains in Oscan, but changes to e in Umbrian, as in Latin 
to I. See 62, 68. Rhotacism occurs in later Umbrian,^ and also 
in Old Umbrian before the postpositive ew, e.g. fesner-e 'in fano'. 
See 118 with a, 

11. Ace. Pl. All forms of Italic (as well as of Greek) go 
back to an ending -ans^ which, modeled after the -ons of the 
Second Declension, has replaced an older -as. The n«, which 
in Latin loses the n with lengthening of the preceding vowel, 
becomes O. -««, -«, U. -f, the latter being very frequently omitted. 
See 110, 2. 

12. Masculine S-Stbms. There are several examples of 
the Nom. Sg. of Masculine proper names belonging to this 
declension. Some are borrowed from the Greek, but are with- 
out the final s ; e.g. Santia, ArMia — Sav6{a^,'Apx(cL^' But there 
are also some which seem to represent a genuine Italic forma- 
tion in -as ; e.g. Tanas, Markas, Maras, Ma/oa?. For the oblique 
cases there is little material. An Ace. form is seen in Velliam. 
The Gen. Sg. Maraheis, if not simply a mistake for ^Marahieis from 
Nom. Marahis (176, 4), stands for *Mard-ei8, with the same adop- 
tion of the o-stem ending that is seen in Grk. -do, and also in 
L. -«i, except that in the latter it is not restricted to Masculines. 

1 The term later Umbrian is used instead of the specific New Umbrian, so as to 
include V a-V b 7, which is Old Umbrian, but later than I-IV, and in the rhotacism 
of final 8 goes with the New Umbrian (see 118), e.g. plenasier umasier (Va 2). Simi- 
larly in 2 and 8, above, though there happen to be no examples of the Qen. Sg. or 
Nom. Pl. of this declension in Va-Vb 7. The -r forms of 171, 2, 8, 10, are all from 
this passage. 





170. Examples of Declension. 





hdrz, Bantins 

Ikuvins, ager 



katles, popler 



kunmakle, pople 


Mrtdm, dolom 

puplu(m), poplo(7n) 


Serfe^ Tefre 


sakarakliid, dolud 

puplu, poplu 


terei, comenei 


kumne, on%e 



Xkuvinus, louinur 


Ntivlantim, zicolom 

pihaklu, pihaclo 


Ntivlantiis, zicolois 

veskles, uesclir 



vitluf, uitlu 

Nom,-Acc, Neuter 

Sg. sakarakltim, touticom persklum, persclo 

Pl. prdftii, comono iuku, iuka, uatuo 

Remarks on the Case-Forms 

171. 1. NoM. Sg. The o of the origmal -08 (so in the earliest 
Latin inscriptions) is everywhere dropped (90, 91). For forms 
like O. htirz, U. ta^ez, ta9e%^ see 187, 2; — U. ager from *agro%^ 
91, 2, 117 ; — O.famel, U. katel (Ace. katlu), ti9el (Ace. ti9lu), from 
-elos^ 86, 2, 88, 4, 119, 2; — similarly O. Aukil, Mutil, from -ilos, 
Paakul from -ulo8 (cf . gentiles Muttillieis, Pakulliis, with doubling of 
Z), 119, 2 ; — O. Mitl, Fiml, probably for *Mitel, *Fimel (like famel), 
91, 2, a ; — O. Upfals, Upils, from -llos (cf . Gen. Sg. Upfalleis), 119, 2 ; 
— O.facus^ praefucus^ from -uos, 91, 1. For p-stems, see 178, 1. 

2. Gen. Sg. The ending is -ei«, borrowed from the Third 
Declension, where it represents the original ending of z-stems, 
as vice versa the Ace. Sg. of consonant- stems follows that of 

171] Second Declension 117 

the (Hstems. In Umbrian the -^U appears as -es, -er, -er (66, lis), 
rarely -e, -e (lis, h). For O. HaKp'qt^ etc., see 24. 

3. Dat. Sg. The original ending -oi has been shortened 
to -oi, which remains unchanged in Oscan and becomes a monoph- 
thong in Umbrian. The only corresponding form in Latin is 
Numasioi^ the usual ending -6 coming from -oi by a different 
process. See 60, 66, 67, 2. The Umbrian forms usually show 
e, e, but occasionally i, i or ei, e.g. Tefri, fratrec% Tefrei. 

a. U. 7Ve6o, Fiso^ for earlier Trebe, Fise, show a transfer to the Fourth 
Declension. In 0. Pakia and Verehasi^ the omission of i is simply a mistake. 

4. Acc. Sq. The original ending was -om^ as in the earliest 
Latin inscriptions. In Oscan it is usually written -tim, -otw, 
occasionally -um, -^m (60). In Umbrian the vowel is always o 
in the Latin alphabet. For omission of the final tw, see 109. 

6. Voc. Sg. The original ending -e is preserved as in 
Latin. The only examples are from the Umbrian. With 
Tefre compare puere in Plautus. 

6. Abl. Sg. The d of the original -od is retained in Oscan, 
as in early Latin preivdtod etc., but dropped in Umbrian. See 
188. The vowel is written ti or u in the Oscan native alphabet, 
but always u in the Latin, and in Umbrian also nearly always u. 
See 58, 54. 

a. On the Iguvinian Tables, among over 100 occurrences, there is only one 
certain instance of an Ablative in -o (aomOy YI a 10), apart from adverbs like eao 
(see 54, note, 190, 2, note). But as there seems to be something artificial in 
this uniformity of spelling (see 1. c), there is no objection on this score to taking 
maronaJto (no.' 83) as Abl. Sg. of an o-stem (cf. Loc. Sg. maronatei, no. 84), 
though some assume that it is Loc. Sg. of a u-stem. See 802. 

7. Loc. Sg. The original -ei from which comes the Lat. -i 
is retained in Oscan, becoming an -e" in Umbrian. See 64, 66. 
A fusion of this Locative with the postpositive -ew is to be seen 
in O. hdrtin Eerriiin, where the apparent ending -in (from -^w, 
-ei-^n ; 41, a, 88, 1) is extended to the adjective. Otherwise Oscan 
has the simple Locative. In Umbrian the combination with -en 
is frequent, perhaps even universal. See 169, 7. 

118 Inflection [171 

8. NoM. Pl. In Latin, as in Greek, the pronominal ending 
-oi has completely displaced the old noun-ending -o«, but in 
Oscan-Umbrian the leveling has been in the opposite direction, 
and both nouns and pronouns show -09. This appears in Oscan 
as -tis, -^8 (iuS'C 'ii'), in Umbrian as -us, -u, -ur, -ur. See 53, 64, 118. 

9. Gen. Pl. The ending is -dm, which in Latin becomes 
-om, -urn (deum etc.), so far as it is not replaced by the second- 
ary -drum. It appears in Oscan as -lim, ^m, once -ow, -ou/x, or 
-o/x, in Umbrian as -u, -o(m). See 58, 54, 78, 4, 109, 1. 

10. Dat.-Abl. Pl. The ending is -oia (Grk. -049, -oiai; 
see 60, a), which becomes L. -la. It appears in Oscan as -liis, 
-018, in Umbrian as -es (-er-e), -e, -er (once -is), -ir (-is-co), -er, -eir, 
the usual forms being -es and -ir (over 100 examples of -ir includ- 
ing -iaco, 7 of -eir, 6 of -er). See 66, 67, 2, 113 with a, 6. 

11. Ace. Pl. The ending is -one (or -ona; see 74, note), 
whence L. -os by loss of n and vowel-lengthening. For the 
change of -na to O. -88, U. -f, and the frequent omission of the 
latter, see 110, 2. For the long vowel in Umbrian, usually 
written u, rarely 0, see 74, 54. 

a. Several Umbrian forms with which were once taken as Masc. are 
more probably Neuter (see below, 13), and the existence of any Masc. forms 
with is denied by some. But there is nothing incredible in the appearance of 
U. for (see 54), and any other explanation than as Ace. Pl. Masc. is too 
forced in the case of uiro, weiro *viros% and peaondro *figmenta'(?) in VI b 37 
(Masc, as shown by pesondro sorsalem VIb 39; PL, as shown by sufuf in the 
parallel passage la 33). Probable examples also are ehiato ^emissos^ YUb 2, 
agreeing with p\fi *quos' (other explanations less likely), and aJbrof, aprof *apros' 
(regarded by some as for *abronf; cf. abnina, dbrons, 181, 6). 

12. NoM.-Acc. Sg. Neuter. This has exactly the same 
history as the Ace. Sg. Masc. 

13. NoM.-Acc. Pl. Neuter. The ending is -a, and in the 
Italic period this was extended to the Neuters of the Third and 
Fourth Declensions. This -a, which thus became the ending 
of all Neuters, has the same history as that of the Nom. Sg. of 
the First Declension, being shortened in Latin, and appearing 
in Oscan as -ti, -0, in Umbrian as -«, -u, -0. See 84. 

172] Second Deelermon 119 

But in Umbrian there are also some Nom. PI. forms in -or 
and some Ace. PI. forms in -u(f), -o{f), which seem to be Neuters 
(of various declensions) with r and / added after the analogy 
of the corresponding cases of Masc. o-stems. This extension 
probably started with the Ace, where it was favored by the 
existence of Masc. forms with and without/, and spread to the 
Nom. Examples are: Nom. uasor (stem uda-, Abl. PI. vasus); 
— tuderor (stem tuder-^ Ace. Sg. tuder^ Abl. PI. tuderus)^ with 
the adjectives in agreement totcor and screihtor: — so probably 
arimor with dersecor mbator in agreement ; — Ace. krematruf 
beside krematru, krematra : — kastruvuf beside kastruvu, castruo 
(^^•stem, O. Gen. Sg. caatrous); — uerof-e, veruf-e (O. vera Ace. 
PL Neut., rather than Ace. Sg. Masc. ; cf. verais).^ 

14. Gender. An example of a Fem. (Hstem is O. Eidtiis 
'Idibus' (Eidiiis Mamerttials), the Latin cognate being a Fem. 
t^stem. O. triibdm is also Fem. (triibiim ekak), but as only 
the Ace. Sg. and Abl. Sg. (tribud) occur, it may be taken as a 



172. Examples of Declension. 





Pakis, degetasis 



Dekkieis, kdmbennieis 

Marties, Fisier 



luvie, Fisi 











1 1 have adopted Thurneysen's view (K.Z. 32, 554 ff. ; cf. also I.F. Anz. 9, 185), 
but am more thoroughly convinced of its truth for the Ace. forms cited than for the 
Nom. forms, for which the older explanation is by no means impossible (-or graphic 
variant of -ur\ for vasor^ ivderor^ metaplasm as in L. va«, vdsaj vdsdrum, and in 
terminus, terminos, terminal which occur side by side in the Sententia Minuciorum). 
I do not follow Thurneysen in assuming that all Ace. forms in -o(/) must be Neuter. 
See above, 11, a. 

120 Inflection [172 



NoM. degetasitis Atiidriur, Atiersiur 

Gen. Tirentium Atiieriu, Atterm 

D.-A. Dekmannitiis Atiidries, Atiersier, Atiersir 

Acc. fdiuf, filiu 

Nom.-Acc. Neuter 

Sg. medidm, memnim, Safinim afkani, tertim 
Pl. arvia, arviu 

Remarks on the Case-Forms 

173. 1. NoM. and Acc. Sg. M. and Nom.-Acc. Sg. N. 
The forms come from -ioa, -iom by samprasarana (91, 1). For 
the quality of the resulting i (O. i, not i, U. -i(m), not e{m)), 
see 44, 46, a. U. Fiaei, which occurs once, is one of the few 
examples of ei for short i (29). Like O. Mais from *Maiio8 (Dat. 
Sg. Maiiiii) are U. pdraem (Acc. Sg. M.), pefae, peraae (Nom.-Acc. 
Sg. N.), from *pedaiiom (Acc. PI. F. pdraia, persaea)^ but with 
-e(m) for 4{m) after the preceding vowel ; here perhaps U. difue 
'bifidum' (Acc. Sg. N.) from *dui-fuiom (or i-stem?). 

2. Dat. Sg. In Umbrian, uncontracted and contracted 
forms are found side by side (82, 2), about evenly divided in Old 
Umbrian, but with a great preponderance of contracted forms in 
New Umbrian. Thus Fisie (1), Fiat (12), Fisei (1). Once Sansii 
beside Sansie, SansL 

3. Dat.-Abl. Pl. Contracted forms (82, 2) are found only 
in New Umbrian, as Atiersir^ Clauerni, Variations of the final 
are the same as in other o-stems (171, 10, lis with a, 5), e.g. 
Atiidries, Atiidrier (V), Atiidrie, Klavemiie, etc. jBut Clauemi is the 
only case of omitted -r in a noun-form (see lis, 5). ); v « . q - '-.:'\ 

4. The other cas^forms are like those of the ordinary 
cHstems, with the usual Umbrian variations in spelling, for which 
see 171. For the absence of contracted forms of the Gen., Voc, 
and Loc. Sg., see 82, 2, a. For O. meddixud from *meddikidd^ 
see 100, ^, e. 

174] Second Declension 121 

5. But there are some examples of transfer to the i-stem 
forms. Thus in the Abl. Sg., beside the forms given in the 
paradigms, we find O. serevkid, prupuMd, medikid (probable reading), 
probably from ^seruikio-^ *pr6'pak-io-^ *meddik-io'^ rather than 
from original i-stems. A similar transfer is probable in U. arvis, 
arves, Dat.-Abl. PI. to arvia '*arvia, frumenta', since a contracted 
form, even if such were otherwise known in Old Umbrian (see 3), 
would not have -es. As an i-stem form the -es would not be 
without parallel (aves, panes), though its relative frequency 
(arves 11, arvis 2) is surprising. 

Oscan Gentiles in -lis etc. 

174. Many of the examples of zcHstems are to be found 

among the proper names, for which Oscan furnishes copious 

material. Of forms like O. Palds, Dekis, etc., some are gentiles 

and some praenomina. But there is also in Oscan, with some 

few examples in Umbrian, a distinct class of names in -lis (-lis, 

-te«, -t€9). Gen. -iieis (-ileis). With the exception of a few forms 

on carelessly written inscriptions, these are all gentiles. The 

combination of praenomen in -is with gentile in -lis is frequent. 


Pakis Eluvatiis Vibis Smintiis 

Pakim Eluvatiium Vibis Urufiis 

Dekis Rahiis Stenis Kalaviis 

Dekkieis Rahiieis Dekis Seppiis 

Sepis Helevi(is) 27r€St9 Mafiepe/cie^ 

Sepieis ^ Heleviieis Tpe^i^ Scarier 

Note also praen. Sepis : gent. Seppiis ; — praen. T/oeySt? : gent. 

Further examples from the oblique cases of -iis are Gen. Sg. 
Aadiieis, Saidiieis, Virriieis (also U. Kluviier, Kastruciie, the only 
Umbrian examples of the type): — Gen. PI. Kluvatiium, Magiium, 
Viriium. The only Ace. Sg. form is Kluvatiium. 

1 The first f is simply a mistake. The word occurs on one of the iovilae inscrip- 
tions, which are notoriously inexact in the use of i. 

122 Inflection [174 

Examples of forms in -lis are Aadiriis (also Aadiriis, probably 
a mistake), Atiniis, Kiipiis, Sjpuriis, Viinikiis; Gen. Sg. Spuriiefs, 
Kastrlkiieis ; — Dat. Sg. Itivkifiii, Vestirikiitii. 

In the Greek alphabet we find -t€9, as Hofiime; = Pdntiis, 
Ma/xe/06^te9, etc. ; also A/rSete? = Avdiis. The few examples in 
the Latin alphabet have -ies, as Afariea, and 'such forms are 
common also in Paelignian, as Ponties^ Loudes^ etc. The spell- 
ing -ies in the native alphabet is very rare. 

175. As is well known, the Latin gentiles are in origin 
patronymic adjectives formed with the io- suflBx from indi- 
vidual names (that is, in terms of the fully developed system 
the praenomina), just as in certain Greek dialects patronymics 
in -A09 are regularly used in place of the usual Genitives of the 
father's name. So MdrciuB from Marcus^ Tullius from Tullus^ 
etc. To such forms correspond the Oscan gentiles in -is. But 
there are also in Latin praenomina in -iw«, as Lucius, Servius^ 
etc., and in Oscan the praenomina in -is are very numerous. 
From such praenomina, it is clear, are formed the Oscan gentiles 
in -iis etc. That is, the gentile Trebiis stands in the same relar 
tion to the praenomen T/0€y8t9, as gent. Heirennis to praen. Heirens, 
or as Latin gent. Mdrcius to praen. Marcus. The only uncer- 
tainty is as to the precise form of the suflSx and the actual 

There are three possibilities for the suffix, namely 1) -ijo-, 2) -ijo-, 3) both 
-ijo- and -lio-, the latter in the case of forms in -ils. The probability is in favor 
of the first. Not only is -iio- the suffix most natural to assume, whether as the 
inherited by-form of -io- thus turned to special account, or as actually formed 
from -jo- in the Italic ^ or Oscan-Umbrian period, but it is also the one which 
best harmonizes with the usual spelling of the oblique cases. That is, in Dekkieis 
Rahiieis we have the same relation between i = i and ii = ij that is elsewhere 
observed (31). 

1 Any such differentiation between -jo- and -ieo-stems would necessarily be 
lost in Latin in most cases, since postconsonantal i becomes vocalic (e.g. medius from 
*medhio-). A possible trace is the difference between praen. Gdiiis (from *Gauio8 
before the change of % to i) and gent. Gdviua, but even this is uncertain, as Odvitis 
might be regarded simply as the older form retained in use in the gentile. 

176] Second Declension 123 

The Nominative in -lis from -iios is best explained by the assumption of 
samprasarana in the last syllable. That is, as *Pdk-j.o8 became Pakis (178, 1), 
so *Kluvati'io8 became Kluvatiis. Against this it may be urged that we should 
then expect also Ace. *Kluyatiim«like Pakim, but it is possible that Klayatiiam, if 
this single occurrence is representative of the usual form, involves a restoration 
under the influence of htirt^m etc. 

But in the Nom. forms, owing probably to dissimilation, the second vowel 
differed somewhat in quality from the first, and this is brought out in the spelling 
-ies, -ies. The same thing is indicated by the spelling -lis, and wherever this 
was in vogue the il in place of ii was extended to the oblique cases. The forms 
in -ils, -ilels, then, which are preferred in the Cippus Abellanus and many of 
the Pompeian inscriptions, but are not foimd elsewhere, represent simply a 
graphic variation of the usual type and not an independent formation. 

176. 1. Although the interchange of -iis with -is reflects in general an 
earlier interchange of 'iioa with jos, yet in many instances the Nom. in -iis may 
be formed, at a comparatively late date, directly from the Nom. in -is, after the 
analogy of the usual relation between the two. Thus Mahii[8 is formed from 
Mais, Mais, or rather from ^Mahis with the spelling implied by the abbreviation 
Mh. For Mais comes through *Maiios (Dat. Sg. Maii6f), from *Mag-j,os (147, 3), 
and an inherited by-form *Mag-ij,08 would yield 0. ^Magiis, which is actually 
represented by Gen. PI. Hagiium. So probably lelis from praen. *Iel8 (like 
Mais) from *Ieiios^ *Iegio8, the original by-form *Ieg-iios surviving in L. legius. 

2. Similar examples are Rahiis ^Raius' (Gen. Rahiieis) from praen. ^Rahis, 
*Raiio8, and Stails ' Stains' from praen. *Stal8, ^Staiios, except that in these ij 
does not come from gi, 

3. The spelling 1 instead of i (44, b) in '•'Stais, Stalls, ^lefs, lefis, as in Mais 
beside Mais, and in Vesulliais, is due to the influence of the many words con- 
taining the diphthongs af, ef. 

4. The relation of gent. Maraies, Gen. Sg. Maraiiels to praen. Marahis, 
Gen. Sg. Marahieis is probably the same as that of Mahii[8 to Mais, ^Mahis (Mh.), 
except in the matter of spelling, the examples being from different localities 
and showing an extension of the h, which belongs to the Nom. Sg. as a mark of 
hiatus, to the oblique cases of the praenomen rather than to those of the gentile. 
The forms then go back to *Mar alios, related to Fal. Mareio and L. Marius. 
For the praen. Maras, Mapas (with Gen. Maraheis ?), from the simpler stem Mard^, 
see 169, 12. 

6. In Dekis Hereiis, Gen. Dekkieis Heriieis (no. 40), either Hereiis is a mis- 
take for *Herii8, or Heriieis for *Hereiieis (with suffix -eijo-, 253, 2). The former 
is more probable. Vlrrliis (no. 20) beside Vlrriis, Virriiels, etc., is simply a care- 
less spelling, rather than a different form with suffix -eiio- (263, 3). For 
U. Teteies (II a 44), probably *Tetteius', see 61, 3, 268, 2. 

124 Inflection [177 


177. The Latin Third Declension represents a partial fusion 
of consonant-stems and i-stems. In Oscan-Umbrian too there 
is a fusion in certain cases, but the distinction between the two 
classes is more faithfully preserved than in Latin. In the Ace. 
and Abl. Sg. there is no encroachment of the consonantal forms 
upon the i-stems, as in L. -em, -e, beside -im, -i ; and in the Nom. 
PL the forms are as distinct as in the Gen. PL In the Dat.-AbL 
PL the fusion exists in Oscan as in Latin, while in Umbrian 
consonant stems follow the t^-stems. The relation of the two 
types may be seen from the following : 

A. Consonant-Stems B, /-Stems 


NoM. O. meddiss O. aidil, U. fons 

Gen. O. medikeis (U. -es, -er) O. aeteis (U. -es, -er) 

DAT. O. medikei (U. -e, -e) O. Fuutrei (U. -e, -e) 

Acc. O. tanginom (U. -u, -o) O. slagim (U. -e(m), eirn)) 

Abl. O. ligud (but U. kapife) O. slaagid (U. -i, -i) 

Log. U. ferine, /myie(?) V.ocre 


NoM. O. meddiss, humuns O. Iris, aidilis (U. -es, -er) 

Gen. O. fratrdm (U. -u(m), -o{m)) O. ajittiiim, U. peracnio 

D.-A. O. ligia (but U. fratrus) O. luisarifs, Anafriss (U. -is, -is) 

Acc. O. malaks, usurs, U. nerf U. trif, trif^ auif 

Nom,' Acc, Neuter 
Sg. U. tuplak, pir^ nome U. uerfale^ sehemeniar 

Pl. (see 178, 12) U. triia, triiu-per, trio-per 

Remarks on the Case-Forms 

178. 1. Nom. Sg. Owing to the syncope of i in the -is of 
^-stems, the ending becomes identical with that of most consonant- 
stems. For the loss of s in aidil, see 119, 2. For peculiarities in 
the different classes of consonant-stems, see 179-182. 

i*^*] Third Beclermon 125 

2. Gen. Sg. The -eis^ representing the normal formation 
for t-stems as seen in various languages, has been extended to 
consonant-stems. In Latin, vice versa, the -is from -e«, which 
belongs properly to the consonant-stems, has been extended to 
t-stems. For U. -es, -er, see 65. 

3. Dat. Sg. The -ei belongs properly to the i-stems, of 
which it is an old Loc. The Latin -i, early -ei, may be the same, 
or may stand for -ai, the old Dat. of consonant-stems, or may 
represent both. For U. -e, -e, see 65. 

4. Ace. Sg. The 4m of i-stems, only partially preserved 
in Latin, remains undisturbed. In Umbrian the spelling -m 
occurs in a few instances, but nearly always we find -e(m), -e(m), 
indicating the open quality of the i before final m (45, a). Thus 
spantim, ahtim-em, but uve(m), perakne(m), Tafinate, ocre{m)^ stafla- 
re{m)^ Tarsinatem^ etc. This -em has of course no connection 
with the Latin -em, which is not from 4m but represents the 
ending of consonant^tems. 

In consonant-stems the original -em (from -m) has wholly 
disappeared in favor of -om, which is borrowed from the -(Hstems. 

5. Abl. Sg. The ending of i-stems is -ic?, identical with 
L. -I, early -Id. In Umbrian the spelling is usually -i, 4 (-ei), 
rarely -e (cf. 48); e.g. puni (22 times), poni (12), pone (1), ukri- 
pe(r) (9), ocri'per (16), ocre-per (3). 

In consonant-stems there is a difference between Oscan and 
Umbrian. In Oscan we find the ending of (Hstems, as in the 
Ace. ; e.g. tanginiid, tanginud, tanginud. But in Umbrian it is -e 
as in Latin, e.g. kapife, kame, curnaae, frite (from *fret- : h.fretvr ; 
Abl. more likely than Loc, see 294), etc. This is probably a Loc. 
in origin, with -e for original -i. 

a. O. praesentid shows the form of an i-stem, just as in Latin the Present 
Participles show -ia, -iwrn, regularly, and often -i beside -c in the Abl. U. pefi, 
peraij persei-co (aes persti-co)^ is also an example of the encroachment of the 
i-stem ending, as in early Latin airid etc. 

6. Loc. Sg. The proper endings are -ei (from -ei or -eit) 
for wtems, and 4 for consonant^stems. Owing to the absence 

126 Inflection \ij% 

of Oscan examples and the ambiguity of the Umbrian -e, which 
may come from -ei (65) or 4 (4d), the history of the case is not 
altogether certain, but there is no objection to supposing that ' 
acre contains the ending -ei (for ocrem see 169, 7), and that in 
ferine the -e comes from -i. This last is favored by sccUsie^ 
apparently for Bcalsi-ein) (cf. seahe-to 'ex patera') with the origi- 
nal i retained before the enclitic. 

Note. U. ferine is obviously a consonant-stem as if L. *fer0ne (see 181), 
but the phrase in which it occurs is so obscure that it is uncertain whether it is a Loc. 
' in feretro' (L. ferd) or Abl. * cultro' (L. /end), though the former is more probable. 

7. NoM. Pl. The ending of consonant-stems is -es (Grk. -€9, 
Skt. -a«, etc.), which in Latin is completely displaced by the -es 
of i-stems. With syncope of the e it appears in O. humuns etc. 
See 90, 1. For i-stems the ending is -ejes (Skt. -ayas)^ whence -es 
which appears in Latin and in O. tris and in U. puntes, paerer^foner. 
See 82, 1, 41, a. But O. aidilis (also fertalis, if Nom. PI.), with i 
instead of i, points to a different formation, probably -*«, following 
the analogy of -a«, -J«, in the First and Second Declensions. 

8. Gen. Pl. The endings are -om and -(i)pm. For 
O. ajittitim, see 162, 1. 

9. D AT.- Abl. Pl. The ending of i-stems is -i/b«, from -ihhos^ 
whence comes the Latin -ibus. This becomes by syncope -(/«, 
which is found in a single Oscan form of very early date, loisarif s. 
All other examples show assimilation of the fs (124, a). Thus 
O. Anafriss, sakriss, U. avis, puntis, sacris^ etc., also aves, panes, with 
e for i (45), and once sevakne with omission of the s such as 
occurs elsewhere only in the case of original final 8 (lis, 6). The 
single occurrence of ei in aueis is not sufficient ground for sup- 
posing that the simplification of fs was accompanied by vowel- 
lengthening. See 29. 

Consonant-stems show the i-stem form in Oscan as in Latin, 
but in Umbrian follow the t^stems. Thus O. liffis^ but U. fro- 
tru8^ homonuB^ kamus, etc. 

10. Acc. Pl. The ending of ^-stems is -in« (or -t/w ; see 
74, note), whence L. -Is by loss of n and vowel-lengthening. 

178] Third Declension 127 

This would give O. -fas, like -ass, -tiss, of the First and Second 
Declensions, but examples are wanting. Umbrian examples are 
trif, tref, tre, trif^ treif^ avif, auif^ aueif^ auuei, etc. For the change 
of final ns to f and the frequent omission of the latter, see no, 2. 
For the long vowel indicated by the spelling ei^ see 74. 

For consonant-stems the ending is -ens (from -w«), whence 
L. '68 by the same process as -Is from -ins. This would give 
O. -essj U. -e/, for which, however, we find O. -«, U. -f. The 
Oscan form might be the result of syncope, but this could not 
be assumed for Umbrian, if the vowel in -ef was long (74). The 
change may be due to the analogy of the Nom. PI. in -s (from 
-e«), since in the other declensions the -f stands in the same rela- 
tion to the stem as the -s of the Nom. PI. But see 74, note. 

The probable Oscan examples are usurs 'osores'(?) and malaks 
'malevolos'(?). In Umbrian we have nerf (ner-^ 180, 2), manf 
(man-^ otherwise manitr), capifj kapi (also kapif by mistake) from 
*kapid'f (189, 1), uapef-e from *uaped'f, uef from *ueif-f (186, a), 
/nffrom *fTug'f (147, 4). For U. abrons^ see 181, b. 

11. NoM.-Acc. Sg. Neuter. The -i of i-stems may remain 
as U. -e (48), or be dropped (92), just as in Latin we have sedile^ 
but animal etc. Thus U. sacre, uerfale^ etc., but sehemeniar. 
Examples of consonant-stems are U. tuplak (192, i), pir (180, d), 
nome (l8i), etc. 

12. NoM.-Acc. Pl. Neuter. The ending -a, belonging 
properly to o-stems, has been generalized, giving '{i)id for i-stems 
and -a for consonant-stems, which then undergo the usual change 
of final a. See 84, 171, 13. Examples from i-stems are U. triia, 
triiu-per, trio-per (192, 2), sakreu, perakneu (e for i, 46). From 
consonant-stems the only Umbrian examples are of the secondary 
type in -or, as tuderor from tuder- etc. See 171, 13. O. teremenniti 
beside teremniss 'terminibus' is either an example of the encroach- 
ment of the i-stem ending, or else comes from a stem termenio-^ an 
extension of termen-. An original i-stem termeni- is less probable. 
For O. ^^^ora'quattuor' (Festus), which may possibly contain 
the old ending of consonant-stems, -a, I.E. -^, see 191, 4. 

128 Inflection [179 

Types of Consonant-Stems 

179. Mute-Stems 



NoM. meddiss, meddis zefef, serse 

Gen. medikeis 

Dat. medikef kapife, eapirse 

Ace. capirsOj erietu, cumaco 

Abl. ligud kapife, curnaae 

NoM.-Acc. Neut. tuplak, huntak 


NoM. meddiss, fieBSei^ 

Gen. liimitd[m 

D.-A. ligis kapirus, uaperBUS 

Ago. malaks capif^ uapef-e^ uef^ frif 

a. For the consonant-changes in Nom. Sg. meddiss and Nom. PI. meddiss, 
see 146, 2; for U. zefef, 110, 4; for U. Ace. PI. cop^ etc., 178, 10. 

Liquid Stems 

180. 1. Agent-nouns in -tor-^ like Latin victor^ victoris. 



Nom. censtur, keenzstur, kvais- drfertur, arsfertur, kvestur, uhtur 

stur, embratur 

Dat. kvaisturei, Regaturei arferture, speture 

Acc. arsferturo^ uhturu 



Nom. kenzsur, censtur, kvaizstur 

Acc. usurs 

180] Third Dedermon 129 

2. Nouns of Relationship, like Latin pater^ patris 


Singular ' 

NoM. patir, niir 

Gen. Maatreis Matrer 

Dat. Paterei luvepatre 


Voc. lupater 


NoM. frater, frateer^ f rater 

Gen. fratrfim, nerum fratru(m), /ratrom 

D.-A. fratrus, /ra^rw«, nerus 

Acc. nerf 

a. The Nominative Singular preserves the original long vowel (Grk. -17/), 
-iap^ Skt. -d, etc.), which is shortened in Latin. See 78, 2. In the other cases 
we have, as in Latin, -tOr- in agent-nouns, but -tr- in nouns of relationship, 
except in the Vocative Singular. See 97. 

O. Ftttttrei, FtttreP Grenetrici^ Gen. Ftttre[i8, apparently follows the declen- 
sion of nouns of relationship, but the existing case-forms may belong equally 
well to an i-stem, and the word is perhaps a relic of the old Feminine formation 
of agent-nouns (Skt. -ir-l), which in Latin nearly always appears in an extended 
form (flrene-<r-l-ic etc.).i 

6. For the Nom. PI. in -r from -r(e)8, see 117; for U. fraleer^ see 76, 3; 
for O. -rs in the Acc. PI., see 117, a. 

c. O. niir, nerwm^ U. nerf^ nerus, etc., correspond to Grk. dirfjp, Skt. nar-, 
Nom. Sg. nd *man'. Gen. PI. nardm (Vedic). 

d. Neuter r-stems are : U. utur *aquam' (Grk. vdwp), with Abl. Sg. une 
{*vd,ne; see 185, a) from an n-stem (cf. L. femur, feminis); — U. Nom. -Acc. 
pir, ptr * ignis' from ♦pur (Grk. irCp ; see 59), with Abl. Sg. pure, pure-^o, from a 
stem pur-. From pure-to arose, after the analogy of the Masculines, Acc. Sg. 
purom-e beside the regular pir. 

1 The history of the word would be simplified, could we accept the suggestion 
of De Saussure and Thumeysen (I.F. Anz. 9, 1S4) that it is not, as commonly supposed, 
a derivative of fu- with causative meaning 'cause to be, create', but the equivalent of 
Grk. Ovydrrip, Skt. duhita, etc. But, without attempting to discuss here the compli- 
cated phonetics of this group of words, it is safe to say that we should expect in 
Oscan either *Faktrei or *Fahtrei. That the latter should appear three times without 
h would do for Umbrian, but not for Oscan (142). 





Nasal Stems 








Masculines and Feminines 


O. fruktatiuf, tiittiuf, trlbarak- 
kiuf, U. trilnrigu, karn 

O. tangineia^ kdjmparakineis, 

O. leginei, svennnei, U. kame 
O. leginum, tanginom^ medica- 
tinom^ U. abrunu 

O. tangintid, tanginud, tangi- 
nud^ U. natine, tribruine^ 

U. ferine, /<grm^ (?) 


U. numem, nome^ umen 

U. nomner^ pelmner 

U. norrme 

U. numem, nome 

U. nomne^ unine, tikamne 


O. humuns 


U. homonus, karaus 
U. manf 

[O. teremenniti] 

O. teremniss 

a. Most of the Masc. and Fern, forms belong to the type of L. legid, -idnis, 
but in the oblique cases show the sufl&x in the reduced grade -In- (96 ; the vowel- 
length is shown by the Oscan spelling i, not i; see 47). In O. statff ^statua' 
(in form L. statid) the reduced grade appears also in the Nom., but the f is 
strange (hardly -in- beside -In-). ( ■ 

6. The type of L. aermo, -onis is represented by O. sverrun^i, humans (cf . 
early Latin hemonem), U. homonus^ abrunu (as if L. *aprdnem). U. abrons, Vila 
43, used as Ace. PI., is probably the Nom. form written by mistake for ^aJbronf. 

c. U. karu, Gen. Sg. O. cameis^ etc., agree with L. card, camis in showing 
the reduced grade of the suffix in the oblique cases. 

d. The Oscan Nom. Sg. in -f represents -ns, with n introduced from the 
oblique cases, and s added after the analogy of other Nominatives. The Umbrian 
forms probably represent the same type with the final / omitted, rather than 
the formation in -d like the Latin. See 110, 5. 


182. Examples of ^-sterns are: U. mdrs, Twer^'ius', Dat.- 
Abl. PI. mersus (182, a); — O. Dat.- Abl. PI. aisusis 'saciificiis'; — 

184] Third Declension 131 

U. Dat.-Abl. PLvasus'vasibus' (cf. L.m«), Nom. PI. uasor (171,13); 
— O. far, U./ar 'far' (from *fars ; see 117), Gen. Sg./arer (instead 
of ^farser^ under the influence of the Nom.); — U. Ace. Sg. tuder 
'finem' (see 181, a), Dat.-Abl. PI. tuderus, Nom. PI. tuderor (171, 
13), Ace. PI. tuder ; — U. ose 'opere'(?). U. pars in pars-est 'par 
est' seems to be like *far8i far, with rs preserved before the 
enclitic (ll7, J), but the relation to L. par, parts is not wholly- 

Irregular Nouns 

183. The nouns corresponding to L. luppiter, has, and sus 
show the following forms : 

1. Gen. Sg. O. Iiiveis; Dat. Sg. O. Ditivei, Aiovfei, luvei, 
U. luve, luue ; Ace. Sg. U. Dei ; Voc. Sg. U. lupater, Dij Dei, 

2. Ace. Sg. U. bum; Abl. Sg. U. hue; Gen. PI. U. 6t^; 
Ace: PI. U. buf, buf. 

3. Ace. Sg. U. Sim, si; Ace. PI. U. sif, sif, si. 

a. The relation between O. Iiivefs and Didvei is the same as between 
L. lovis and early Diovis (see 184). For O. Aiovfci see 24, a. U. luue for 
*Ioue is due to the influence of the Old Umbrian spelling. U. lupater, like 
L. lupiter {luppiter), is from ^Dieu-pater (Grk. ZcO Trdrep). U. Di, Dei, are prob- 
ably from the stem seen in L. dies, Diea-piter, with contraction (82, 2). 

b. U. bum, buf, are from bo- (cf. Grk. Dor. pQv, /8ws), and this form of the* 
stem has spread to the other cases, replacing bou- of L. bove etc. 

c. For U. Sim, sif, etc., see 59. 


184. Examples of Declension. 




Gen. eastrous trifor 

Dat. trifo, Ahtu 

Ace. [manirnl trifu, trifo 

Abl. [castrid] [mani, mani, trefi, afputrati] 

Log. manuv-e 

132 Inflection [184 



N.-A. Nbut. benra, castruo^ kastruvuf 

Gen. pequo{?) 

D.-A. berus 

Remarks on the Case-Forms 

185. 1. Gen. Sg. Oscan shows the original ending -ous 
(Skt. -os^ Goth, -aus^ etc.), whence U. -or (72, lis), and L. -us. 

2. Dat. Sg. U. trifo (also FIbo^ Trebo^ with transfer from 
the o-stems; see 171, 3, a) may be combined with the Latm 
Dative in -u on the basis of a form in -on. This is probably an 
old Locative, seen in U. manuv-e with the diphthong preserved 
before the enclitic, the -ou coming from -eu (70), this from -eu 
(60; cf. Skt. -aw). 

3. Ace. Sg. For U. -o from -wtw, see 57. O. mdnim cannot 
be reasonably explained from *manum and must be an i-stem 
form, due perhaps to the Ablatives in -id. 

4. Abl. Sg. See 59 with note. 

5. Log. Sg. For U. manuv-e, see above, 2. 

6. NoM.-Acc. Pl. Neuter. The ending is -ud with -a from 
o-stems (171, 13), showing the usual change of final -a (84). For 
U. kastruvuf beside caatruo, see 171, 13. 

7. Dat.- Abl. Pl. The ending -us is from -ufs^ -ufos^ -vihos 
(L. -ubus), and this has been extended to consonant-stems (178, 9). 

8. Gender. As in Latin, tenstems are regularly Fem. (cf. 
U. trefiper liuvina) or Neuter. But U. mani, in contrast to 
L. manus, is Masc. (mani nertru). 


186. The Fifth Declension is represented by only a few 
scattering forms, namely: 

Dat. Sg. O. KerrI ' Cereri' ; — U. ri 'rei' ; — U. ante 'augu- 
rio' (stem auie- more probable than auid- or auio-^ on account of 
aviekate, auiecld). 

187] Adjectives 133 

Abl. Sg. U. li're'. 
Ace. Pl. U. iouie. 
Dat.-Abl. Pl. U. iouie%, 

a. The ending of the Dat. Sg. is -g, from -5i, like L. -5 from -oi in the 
Second Declension (60). Cf. L. foijcie etc. quoted by grammarians. 

h. O. Kerri represents a transfer from an original «-stem. Nom. Sg. 
*Ker^ (L. Cer^) became *Kerre8 under the influence of Gen. Sg. *Kerreis from 
*K€r{e)seis etc., and this was drawn into the analogy of forms of the Fifth 
Declension, just as was in part L. plebes. 


187. As in Latin, adjectives are declined according to the 
First and Second Declensions or according to the Third. 

1. A large proportion of the existing forms follow the First 
and Second Declensions. Examples : 

O. tdytlks 'publicus', Nom. Sg. F. toutieo^ Ace. Sg. N. 
touticom ; — U. todcom (Ace. Sg. M.), Nom. Pl. N. totcor (171, 13), 
Dat.-Abl. Pl. todceir. 

O. mtiinfkd 'communis' (Nom. Sg. F.), AcC. Sg. F. muinikam, 
Abl. Sg. F. mtiinlkad, Loc. Sg. N. mtiinikei. 

U. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus', Gen. Sg. F. liuvinas, Dat. Sg. F. 
Ikuvine, Ace. Sg. F. Eouinam^ Abl. Sg. F. Ikuvina, Loc. Sg. F. 
liouine^ louinem (169, 7, a), Nom. Pl. M. Ikuvinus. 

a, Jnst as the pronominal adjectives in Latin show pronominal forms in 
the Gen. Sg. and Dat. Sg., so in Oscan we find Dat. Sg. altrei *alteri\ not 
*aUroi. See 196, c. 

But in the Gen. Sg. there is no special pronominal ending, and Masc. and 
Fem. forms are kept distinct (195, b). Hence it is useless to assume pronominal 
declension for O. minstreis to account for its use with aeteis (minstreis aeteis 
* minoris partis'), a word which is elsewhere Fem. (cf. a]ittliim alttram * portionum 
alteram'). We must rather assume local variation in the gender of the noun. 

2. Adjectives of the Third Declension are mostly i-stems. 
Thus O.-U. sakri- beside sakro- (cf . early L. sacres porei etc. ; 
the Oscan and some of the Umbrian examples are used substan- 
tively, while the forms of sakro- are all adjectives), e.g. O. sakrim 

134 Inflection [187 

(Ace. Sg. M.F.), U. sakre, Bacre (Ace. Sg. N.), O. sakrid (Abl. Sg.), 
tj. sakreu (Aee. PI. N.), O. sakriss, U. sacris (Abl. PI.). Cf. also 
the forms of U. pacri-^ peracni-^ seuacni-^ peracrt-^ etc. Consonant 
stems are seen in U. tuplak (192, l) and O. malaks 'malevolos'(?). 

a. Observe that U. pacer (Nom. Sg.) is both Masc. and Fein., like many 
early Latin forms in -er. 

The Comparative ^ 

188. 1. Corresponding to the Latin Comparative in -ior 
(suffix 4e%) are found only a few adverbial forms in -u from -%ob 
(L. -ius) ; e.g. O. ptistiris : L. po%teriu% ; — O. fortis : h, fortius ; — 
O. mais 'magis': L. mains. See 91, 1. 

2. The suffixes -ero- and -tero-^ regular Comparative suffixes 
in Greek and Sanskrit, are used, as in Latin, in adjectives of 
time and place, but without the force of Comparatives in the 
grammatical sense ; and, as O. ptistiris shows, a regular Comparar 
tive could be formed from such adjectives, as in Latin. Exam- 
ples, i^cluding some adverbial forms, are : O. supruis 'superis', 
U. «MJra 'supra'; — O. ptistrei 'in postero', U. ^o«^ra 'posteras, 
posteriores' ; — O. ehtrad 'extra', U. ap-ehtre 'ab extra' ; — O. covr 
trud 'contra' ; — O. Entrai '*Interae'; — U. pretra 'priores' from 
*prai'terO' (for the form cf. L. praeter) ; — O. pruter {pan) 
'prius(quam)' from *prd-ter formed from pro like Grk. irpore- 
po<; from irpo (cf. also Slut, prdtdr) ; — O. destrst 'dextra est', 
U. destram-e etc. ; — O. hu[n]truis 'inferis', U. hondra 'infra', 
from ^JiowrterO' or *homi-terO' (cf . L. humus, humilis) ; — U. nertru 
'sinistro' : Grk. eveprepo^, viprepo^ (cf. evepoi) ; — O. nistrus 'pro- 
pinquos' from *nedh-terO'^ (188, a; cf. nessimo-, 189). 

1 Others derive O. nistrus from *nedh-is-terO' (cf. 188, 3) and O.-U. nessimo- 
from *nedh-is-mmo- (cf. 189, 3) ; also O. messimass from *inedh-is-mmo-. But it is 
better not to separate these from the other adjectives of similar use. It is true of 
course that -tero- and -tmmo- are not suffixes of primary derivation; but by the 
assumed *ned{h)-tero-y *ned{h)-tinmo-t we do not imply derivatives from the verbal 
root but from an adverbial form, similar to Grk. wr-repos, Skt. ut-taron, ut-tamd-, 
from *ud-terO', *ud-tmmo-. With the assumed *medhrtmmo- compare Ooth. miduma, 
Av. madamor, from *medh-minO'. 

■' I f. '- ^' 

° . ' . . . . . 

189] CompariBon 136 

a. The suffix -iero- is also frequent, as in Latin and elsewhere, in pronom- 
inal adjectives. Thus O.-U. *potro- (O. pdtfirtis-pid etc.): L. uterque, Grk. t6t€- 
poj, etc. (200, 2); — O. alttram ^ alteram^ aittrei, altrei, etc. : L. alter; — U. etru 
*altero', etre, etram-a, etc. from *e-tero-: O.Bulg. jeterU ^ some one' (contained 
also in L. cStero- from *cej.-et€ro-), 

3. A suffix 'iS'terO'^ a combination of -is-, the reduced form 
of the suffix -zes-, and the -tero- just mentioned, is seen in 
O. minstreis 'minoris' from ^min-is-tero-^ and U. mestru 'maior' 
from ^maiatero- (with regular monophthongization of the diph- 
thong) for *mag'i8'ter0' (see 147, 3, a). Cf. L. minister^ magiater, 
used substantively. 

The Superlative 

189. 1. Nearly all the forms occurring are from adjectives of 
time and place, corresponding to L. sum-muB^ prox-imus, ul-timus^ 
etc. with the suffixes -two-, -emo- (I.E. -mmo')^ and -temo- (I.E. 
'trg^mO'). Thus U. «omo'summum' (57, 125, 1); — O. imad-«n*ab 
imo' (derivation uncertain; see 114, d)\ — O. pu8tm[as 'postremae', 
powrmm (189, 2); — O. tiltiumam 'ultimam'; — U. hondomu 'infimo' 
(cf. U. hondraj 188, 2; for d, see 166); — O.-U. we««mo- 'proxi- 
mus' (O. nessimas etc., 16, 8), cognate with O.Ir. nessam 'next', 
from *nedhrt7gimo-^ (188, a); — O. messimass 'medioximas'(?) from 
*medh-t7p>m0'} For the vowel-changes in the suffix, see 86, 1. 

a. The same suffix -mo- appears in ordinals, as U. promom *primum' etc. 
(191, 1, 9, 10); — also in U. fimu, «imo 'retro' from a stem ^ki-mo-i L. ci4rd. 
(cf. also U. $ive 'citra', from a stem *ki-uo-). Under the influence of the adjec- 
tives in -7no- was formed *sBmo- (U. semu, sehemu ' medio' ; see 806) from an 
adverb *8Bmi (Skt. sd>mi, adv., L. sSmi-, Grk. ijfu-, in cpds.). 

2. O. waZaemom 'optimum' (also Valaimas) differs from the 
preceding in meaning and formation. It seems to contain -mo- 
added to a case-form (Dat.-Loc. Sg.), as perhaps also L. postre- 
mus. But neither this noi' any other explanation is certain. 

3. O. maimas 'maximae' from *mai8em(h (114, h) for *magi8- 
rg^mo- (147, 3, a) is parallel to O. minatreis, L. minister (188, 3). 

^ See footnote", p. 134. 

136 Inflection [190 


190. The most common adverbial endings represent stereo- 
typed case-forms. Formations of more obscure origin are seen 
in many of the Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions (see under 
Pronouns, 195 ff. passim, 202), and in Prepositions (299 ff.), which 
are, in origin, Adverbs of Place. 

1. Ablatives in -ed (L. -^, early -ed). Thus O. amprufid 
'improbe'; — U. prufe 'probe', rehte'recte', nuvime 'nonum', nesi- 
met ^pToxime\ preve 'singillatim', ^raAwor^' transverse', jive'citra' 
(189, 1, a), etc. 

2. Ablatives in -6d (L. -o, early -od in porod). Thus 
O. contrud ^'ContveL^ (cf. L. contro-versus), amiricatud 'HmmeTCSito* 
(see 294, a), suluh 'omnino' (188, a); — U. heritu 'consulto' (294, a, 
807), e8o(c) 'ita', tertio (postertio) 'tertium', ulo 'illuc', (imu, simo 
'retro' (189, 1, a), supru sese 'sursum', testru sese 'dextrorsum' 
(cf. dextro-vorsum etc.; for use of sese see 807), podruh-pei 
'utroque', etc. 

Note. Since the Instrumental was merged with the Ablative in prehistoric 
times, it is quite possible that this formation is of Instrumental origin. But 
that the old Instrumental form^ without the d, is to be recognized in the Umbrian 
adverbs, is unlikely, in view of the d in Oscan and Latin. We assume, e.g., that 
U. 8upru comes from *8uprdd, like O. cordrudy L. porod. See also 54, note. 

3. Ablatives in -dd (L. -a, early -dd). Thus O. ehtrad 
'extra', sjtillad 'ubique'; — U. Buhra * supra', hondra 'infra'. 

a. Here belongs also O. dat *de', da(d)-, U. da- (800, 3), while L. dS is from 
an o-stem (cf. O. contrud: L. contra)^ either Ablative (above, 1) or Instrumental.^ 
The final t in O. dat arose before words beginning with a surd and was general- 
ized (cf. the opposite process in L. oh), a contributory factor being the influence 
of ant, ampt, pert, post. A simple error, as in pocapit (127, 1, a), is unlikely, 
Bs the form occurs four times. 

4. Ablatives in -id (L. -i, mostly replaced by -iter), A 
probable example is O. akrid 'acriter'(?). 

1 In favor of taking L. de as an Instrumental form may be urged its appearance 
as de, not *d€df in the S. C. de Bacchanalibus, in which the retention of final cf, although 
archaistic, is absolutely consistent in the body of the inscription. 

191] Numerals 137 

6. Neuter Accusatives in -om (L. -t^w, e.g. multum)^ espe- 
cially frequent in adverbs of time. Thus O. siuom 'omnino', 
jc»(?«?7iom 'postremum', U. jororwow 'primum'; — similarly U. duti 
'iterum', tertim 'tertium', from *dutiomj Hertiom (172, 178, l). 
Here belong also the pronominal adverbs such as U. enom 
'turn' and O. pon 'cum', U. ponne, from ^pom-de. Cf. L. tum^ 
quonij cum. 

6. Neuter Accusatives are also the adverbs of the Compara- 
tives like O. pdstiris 'posterius' etc. (188, 1), and the conjunctions 
O. pod^ U. puf-«, pirs-e^ etc. (202, l, 2), U. efek, erse 'tum'. The 
Ace. Sg. F. in -am is seen only in pronominal forms, like O. pan 
*quam', U. pane, from ^pam-de. Cf. L. tarn, quam, 

a. A probable example of the Ace. PI. N. is U. postro, pustru * retro' 
(Vila 43, 44, lb 34, 36), since this is hardly to be separated from postrOj pustru, 
pustra, appearing elsewhere (Vlb 5, Vila 8, II a 32, II b 19) as an adjective used 
predicatively in the sense of ^retro\ See 306. 


191. 1. Cardinal, U. unu 'unum'. Ordinal, U. prrnxmrn, pro- 
mrnn 'primum' (adv.) from ^pro-mo- (cf. Grk. 7rp6-fio<; 'foremost'). 
The stem ^prlsmo-, whence L. primus, is seen in Pael. prismu 

2. The cardinal is declined like the Plural of an o-stem, the 
old Dual inflection being given up even in the Nom., where it 
is retained in Latin. The following forms occur in Umbrian : 
Nom. M.F. dur, Dat.-Abl. tuves, tuver-«, duir, Ace. M.F. tuf (cf. 
also desenrduf ^duodeoim'), Ace. N. tuva. For the contraction 
in dur^ tuf, see 54, 82, 2. 

For the ordinal the pronominal etram-a, etru, etc. (188, 2, a) 
is used in Umbriaa, like alter in Latin. The adverb *durtiom, 
U. di^^i'iterum' is formed after Her-tiom, U. tertim (3). 

a. The stem du- is also seen in U. du-pla^ tu-plak (192, 1), and U. du-pursus 
*bipedibus'; and ♦dui- (L. 6t-, Skt. dvU; see 102, 3) in U. di-fue *bifidum': Grk. 

138 Inflection [191 

3. The cardinal has the regular declension of an i-stem, as 
in Latin. Thus in Oscan Nom. M.F. tris (41, a, 82, 1), in Umbrian 
Dat.-Abl. tris, Ace. M.F. trif etc. (178, 10), Ace. N. triia (also 
trio'per, 192, 2). 

The ordinal appears in U. tertiam-a, tertiu^ etc., and in the 
adverb tertim from Hertiom. 

4. O. petora (Festus) is a Nom.-Acc. PI. N. from a stem 
*^etuor'. Cf. L. quattuor^ with a of doubtful explanation, and 
Dor. T€Topa. If exactly quoted, it retains the old ending of 
consonantHstems, -a (I.E. -9), escaping the usual substitution of 
-a (171, 13) from the fact that it was no longer felt as an inflected 
form (ef. L. quattuor). But it is also possible that it stands for 
*petoro with the usual -a, being quoted with Latinized ending. 
For O. petiro^erty see 192, 2. 

The ordinal is probably to be recognized in O. trutum^ 
though the translation 'quartum' is disputed. As such it can 
readily be explained as from ^ktrvrto- with a reduced form of 
I.E. '""(^etrvr (cf. L. quadrvr^ Av. 6a6rvr)^ just as Skt. tuAya- 
' fourth' is from *kturiyar (cf. A v. d'ytuirya- beside tuirya-). 

a. U. petur-pursus * quadrupedibus' shows another form of the stem, 
namely ^qUetur- (Skt. catur- in cpds. ; cf. also *qUetrU' above). 

5. The cardinal *pompe and the ordinal *pontO' are to be 
assumed from O. pdmperiais 'quincuriis', U. pumpefias, O. Pdntiis, 
no/xTTTte? 'Quintius', O. pomtis 'quinquiens', and U. puntes 'pen- 
tads.' See 87, 146, 150, 163. 

6. The ordinal *8e8to- (L. sextus ; cf . O.-U. destro- : L. dextro-) 
is to be assumed from U. sestentasiaru ' sextan tariarum'. 

8. The ordinal stem is seen in O. Uhtavis'Octavius'. 

9. An ordinal *nouemo-^ like Skt. navamd- but in contrast 
to L. nono- from *noueno-^ is seen in U. nuvime'nonum'. 

10. The cardinal is seen in U. desen-duf^ duodecim! (144). 
An ordinal corresponding to L. decimus is implied by 

O. Dekmannitiis '*Decumaniis' ; also a *dekento- (Grk. Se/caTo?) by 
O. deketasitii '*decentarius' according to one interpretation. 

198] Pronouns 189 

a. U. tekvias *decuriales' and O. Dekkviarlm *Decurialem' are formed with 
the suffix -jo- from a stem *d€iku- (cf. L. decussia and late decu-plex)^ which, like 
ceviJtU' in L. centu-plex etc., is due to the analogy of *qUetni (4). Cf. also 
U. degwrier, tekurie8*decuriis'. C^^x fe.^>iA4<2jKA^.^ 

12. U. de^enc^i^f'duodecim'. See 10. "^J*i>^'t>C'^ 


192. 1. Distributives are U. prever' singulis' (17, 10), tupler 
'binis', dupla^hm2is\ tripler 'trinis'. The last two agree with 
L. duplus, triplus, in form but not in meaning. The only mul- 
tiplicative is U. tuplak, Ace. Sg. N. used substantively ('furcam'?): 
L. dvrplexy Grk. ii-irXa^. 

2. Numeral Adverbs are U. triiu-per, trio-per Her', O. petiro- 
pert^ petiru-pert 'quater'; O. pomtis 'quinquiens', U. nuvis 
'noviens'. With -pert^ -per (127, 3) compare L. Bemrper etc. 
It is added to the Neuter Plural in U. triiu-per from Hrid-pert^ 
and after the analogy of this form arose *petrid'pert, whence 
O. petiro^ert (81, 100, 3, c). O. pomtis and U. nuvis cannot be 
connected with the Latin formation in -iens and are probably 
formed after the analogy of *duiB (L. his) and ^tris (L. ter). 
For the m of O. pomtisj see 146. 


193. The few occurring forms of the Personal Pronouns are : 
First Person. U. mehe 'mihi'. 

Second Person. O. tiium, titi'tu'; — O. tfei, U. tefe, tefe 
'tibi'; — U. tiu, tiomj tio^ teio^ 'te'. 

Reflexive. O. sifei ' sibi' ; — U. bcbo 'sibi' ; — O. Biom 'se'. 

a. The Dative forms mehe^ tefe^ sifel, correspond to L. mihi etc. and repre- 
sent *megJiei, HehJiei, ^sebJiei. The enclitic use of the forms explains the weak- 
ening of the vowel in the first syllable in Latin and in O. tfei, sifei. See 86, 3. 

b. U. seso is perhaps se-so, se being from *8{y)oi (Grk. ot) and so a particle 
of unknown connection. 

140 Inflection [193 

c. The Ace. forms U. tiom^ O. siom^ perhaps contain t^ and «g with the 
addition of the particle -om seen in O. pid-am etc. (201, 6). O. tiiam would 
then be the same form, used as a Nom., just as, vice versa, in some Doric 
dialects ri is used as an Ace. Another possibility is that the Nom.-Acc. Sg. 
Neuter of the Possessive *me(j()o- (L. meas) came to be used substantively for 
both *ego' and * me' and that after *meom arose Nom.-Acc. *teom, *8eom. For i 
from e, see 88, 1, 89, 1. 


194. The following forms are found : 

Second Person. O. tuvai 'tuae'; — U. touer^ tuer 'tui'; — 
tuua^ tua 'tua'; — U. uestra 'vestra'. 

Third Person. O. suveis 'sui' ; — suvam 'suam' ; — stivad 
'sua'; — U. «w««o*suo' (Loc). 

a. The contrast in spelling between U. touer and tuer and between 
O. stivad and suveis (suvam and tuvai, no. 19, are ambiguous) seems to point 
to the existence of both the stems which are found in other languages, namely 
*teuo-, *seuo- (early Latin tovos, sovos), and *^(u)wo-, *s(u)uo- (Skt. tvd-, svd-). 
Cf. Grk. tc6j, ids, beside <r6s, 6sA 

b. U. sueso is probably a Locative *suei + so (cf. sesOy 198, 6). 


195. The pronoun corresponding in use to the Latin is 
agrees with the latter in the Nominative and Accusative forms 
(stems z- and e(i)o-, ^(i)«- ; for the i in O. Mk, ioc, etc., see 88, 1), 
but the other cases show a stem ^eiso-, O. eizo-^ U. ero-. This 
perhaps has its origin in a Gen. PI. ^eisom (O. eisun-k), properly 
^ei'Som, with the regular pronominal ending -sdm (Skt. -sdm; 
al^o Italic in -d-sdm)^ but felt as *ei8-dm on account of the usual 
noun-ending. The enclitic -k is attached to many of the forms, 
as in L. hie. See 201, 1. 

For the sake of a more complete representation of the cases, the forms 
corresponding in use to L. Idem are included in the paradigm, but inclosed in 
brackets. On the enclitics used, see 201, 5, 6. 

1 The author is unable to accept the view of v. Planta and of Solmsen, Studien 
z. lat. Sprachgeschichte, 151 if., that oif. becomes u^ in unaccented syllables. See 
Verb-System, 175. 


Demonstrative Pronouns 



NoM. izic 

(esidum, 44, c)] 








idik iiuk, Mk, 

Gen. eiseis, eizeis 


ere(k), efek, 

ere{c) erse 


erer^ irer^ 


Acc. ionc idik, iak 

idic (108, 2, a) 

Abl. eistid, eizuc eisak, 





Log. eisei, eizeic 

NoM. iusc [i«88U, — 

Gen. eisunk 
Dat. eizois 
Acc. ioc 










eru, ero{m) 

[erer-unt^, erir-onf] 

eu, eo eaf, eaf 

a, U. erec and erse are certainly equivalent to O. izic and idic, but, although » t^ 

e for t is common enough in Umbrian (45), the consistency of the spelling e is. ,.v^' 
probably due to the influence of the other case-forms, erer etc. > ' a\1c 

6. The (Jen. Sg. U. erar, together with O. ulas 'illius' (197, 8), shows 
that, in contrast to Latin, the Feminine was kept distinct from the Masculine. 

c. The Dat. Sg. M. and N. of pronominal o-stems had the Locative ending 
-et, as is shown by the pronominal adjective O. altrei *alteri% thus agreeing 
with the Latin (illi etc.). Cf. also U. esmei *huic' (197, 1). The Feminine 
form was doubtless kept distinct, as in the Grenitive. Cf. Loc. Sg. O. e]lsal. l ^ 

d. U. iepi and iepru have been thought to contain case-forms of erec, but ^' c^/ 

II 5^' 

this is very uncertain. 

e. U. efek, erse, Acc. Sg. N., is sometimes used as an adverb Hum\ 
e.g. Via 6, where it is correlative with pirsi *cum'. 

/. The stem i- is seen also in the following adverbs : V. ife * ibi' with the 
same ending as pvfe (202, 6), to which belongs perhaps ef Via 4, with loss of 



1 See 63, a. 

^ Aes eizasc. 

8 Aes ererenmt. 




the final vowel (cf. also ^on< ♦ ibidem', 201, 6); — O. fp*ibi' (Pael. ip) probably 
from *i-pe with the same enclitic as rmp^ L. lieque-, — U. itek 4tem* from 
H4erk or H^'-iA: (cf. L. ito, iberriy Skt. iii^ etc., which however differ in the final 

196. The pronoun corresponding in use to the Latin hie is in 
Oscan formed in part from a stem eko-, in part from ekso-, in 
Umbrian wholly from the latter in the form eB{B)o- (145, 3). 
In most of the Oscan forms the enclitic -k (201, l) is used. 








O. ekik 

O. eksuk, 

U. cBsu^ esuy esu-ku 

O. exeic 

O. ek., U. 680 

O. ekak (108, 2, a) 
O. exac^ U. eaa 





U. esom-e^ e8um-ek(?) 

U. em-eo^ 
efdr^ iair 

O. ekas, ekask 

O. exaiso-^n 
O. ekass 

a. The Oscan Ace. Sg. N. ekik (Pael. ecic) is from *ekid4c formed after 
the analogy of Id-ik. Cf. also U. este (197, 4). 

b. The stem eko- or eHo- is seen also in O. ekss, ex *ita*, but the precise 
formation is uncertain {*ek(e)8 or *eks(e)s with the same -8 as in puz, or *ek8{e)?). 
For O. ekkum 4tem\ see 201, 6. 

c. The Umbrian stem €8(8)0- is also seen in eso, esoCy iso, issoc *ita' (adv. 
in -o; see 190, 2), isec, isek 4tem' (cf. itek, 196, /), and isunt *item' (201, 6). 
For the i in these forms and in Dat. -Abl. idir, see 39, 4. 

197. There are some scattering forms from other stems. 

1. U. e«7w«i'huic', esmik'ei'; Loc.Sg.esme. These, together 
with U. pusme 'cui', are the sole relics in Italic of a type of pro- 
nominal case-forms foimd in various languages, most clearly in 

198] Interrogative^ Melative, and Indefinite Pronouns 148 

Sanskrit, e.g. Dat. Sg. dsmdi^ tdsmdi, kdsmdiy Loc. Sg. dsmin^ 
etc. The i^m of esmei is e^ the same as in Skt. d-smdi^ the 
two forms being identical except that in esmei the Locative 
ending is used for the Dative, as usual (196, c). 

2. U. uru, uru 'illo'; Abl. Sg. F. ura-ku; Dat.-Abl. PI. ures; 
here also probably, as Gen. Sg. M., orer Via 26, etc., though 
there are various interpretations of the phrase. For u in uru 
see 61. The stem may be *oro-, *o«o-, or even ^oiso-^ cognate 
forms being unknown. 

3. U. ulu, ulo 'illo, illuc', adv.; here also probably, as Gen. 
Sg. F., O. ulas (no. 19). Stem olo- as in L. olim^ to which early 
L. olle is also related. 

4. U. estu 'istum'; Ace. Sg. N. este, este; Ace. PI. N. esto^ 
estu. Stem esto-^ whence L. iste with i under the influence of is. 
The neuter este is from *estid formed after the analogy of idy pid. 

6. O. essuf, esuf 'ipse', U. esuf. The meaning 'ipse' is 
reasonably certain (cf. T. B. 19, 21), so that it is difficult not 
to assume connection with L. ipse^ though inconsistent with the 
usual derivation of the latter from Hs-pse. The stem would 
then be *epsO' (for ss see 122, 2), and the -uf perhaps represent 
a transfer to the inflection of w-stems (O. liittiuf etc., I8I) as if 
we had in Latin *ipsd formed after agent-nouns in -0, -^nis. 
But the whole matter is problematical. 

6. U. «ttrwr * item' (whence sururont, suront, 201, 6) is of uncertain origin, 
but perhaps represents a reduplicated formation ^sd-sds or *«5-s5-r, sd being 
from the stem so- seen in L. aic, earlier sdrce. 



198. The use of the I.E. Interrogative-Indefinite Pronoun, 
stems *5^o- (*5^a-), *5^i-, and, in adverbs, *5^w-, for the Relative 
is characteristic of Italic. The Latin distinction between qui^ 
quod^ and quis^ quid^ is also common to the dialects. The o-stem 
forms are used for the ordinary Relative (with definite ante- 
cedent), the ^-stem forms for the Interrogative (only one example). 




Indefinite, and Indefinite Relative. For the distinction between 
the Definite and Indefinite Relative, cf. O. thesavrdm pdd esei 
terei ist . . . inim pid e[i8ei] thesavrei pdkkapid ee[8tit Hhesaurum 
qui in eo territorio est . . . et quidquid in eo thesauro quan- 
doque exstat'. In Latin, too, qui% was originally used for the 
Indefinite Relative (Neue, Formenlehre II ^ p. 430), and Cato's 
quesquomque is evidence for ^quisquomque (U. pisi-pumpe). Cf. 
also quisquis^ and quisque in its Relative use. 

How far there was any corresponding differentiation in the 
other case-forms cannot be determined from the limited number 
of occurrences. 

199. Examples of Declension. Some of the compound 
forms (200, i) and conjunctions (202) are included. 

Stem joo-, pa- (L 

1. quo-, qua-) 

Stem pi- (L. qui-) 





M. F. 



0. pui, 

0. pdd 

0. pai, pai. 

0. pis, pis. 

0. pfd, 


pae, paei 


U. pif-e 


U. pis-i, piS'i 





0. piiiieh 

0. pieis-um 


U. pusme 

0. piei 


0. pod^ 

0. paam. 

0. phim} 

0. pid, pid, 

(U. 8ue-po^ 






(U. pif-e, 






0. poizad^ 
U. pora 

1 Misspelling for pim^ probably due to the influence of Latin orthography with 
its not infrequent confusion of p and ph^ t and th^ etc. Cf . also O. Aphinis, Perkhen. 
(beside Perkens). 

20o] Interrogative^ Relative^ and Indefinite Pronouns 145 


M. N. F. M. F. N. 

NOM. O. ptis, O. pai O. pas, pa% 

U. pur-e, 

Acc. O. pai U. paf-e U. pif-i 

a. O. pui is from *q^oi^ whence L. qui^ while U. poi is to be explained as 
the same form {*pb from *poi) with the addition of the particle -i, seen in pur-i^ 
paf-e^ etc. O. paei beside pal is probably only a careless spelling for pae, since 
the particle -f is not found in the other Oscan forms. 

b. O. piUieh, for *piUiel8 (see 64, 6, 118, c), is in origin the Gen. 8g. of 
the Possessive Adjective, like L. nostril vestrl^ etc.^ The adjective is seen in 
O. p6iiu 'cuia': L. quoius^ Grk. irotbs, all from a stem *qTi'Oi-io- (263, note). 

c. U. pttsme is a form like esmei and so almost identical with Skt. kdsmai. 
See 197, 1. 

d. O. poizad, U. pora, are from a stem *poiso-, standing in the same rela- 
tion to pa- as *eisO' to i-, e(Jl)o-, and probably of similar origin. See 196. 
Nothing is gained by assuming a compound *pd-ei80-. 

e. O. pieis, piei^ instead of which we should expect *peis, *pei^ are due to the 
influence of pis, which as a monosyllable retained the i in contrast to other i-stem 
Nominatives. That is, we have *slag-s, Gen. *slag-€iSy butpi-s and so (Jen. pi-eis. 
The analogy of io-stems (Nom. -is. Gen. -ieis) may also have been a factor. 

/. A form porsi, porse, porsei, which occurs in place of certain case-forms, 
e.g. Nom. Sg. M. (Via 6, 9, etc.), Nom. PI. N. (VI a 15, 19), Acc. PI. N. (VIb 40), 
although usually explained in various other ways, is best taken as the conjunc- 
tion (cf. puf-e II a 26), used loosely as a sort of indeclinable Relative. 

200. 1. Indefinite and Indefinite Relative Pronouns com- 
pounded of pis are : 

U. pis'i (pif-e etc.). Indefinite and Indefinite Relative. But 
pif'i VII b 2 has a definite antecedent. 

O. *pi%'Um (pid-um, pid-um, pieis^m). Indefinite. 

O. pis-pis (pitrpit Festus). Indefinite Relative. Cf. 
X*. quis-quis. 

U. pis'her. Indefinite. Formed like L. qui-libet^ her being 
3d Sg. Pres. Indie, from A^r-'velle' (216). 

^ The suggestion of Sommer, Lat. Laut- und Formenlehre, 472, that ptiiieh is 
Nom. Sg. M. of the adjective, would be attractive if it could be shown that the order 
of the inscription (no. 39) might be ptiiieh sum | perkium, in which case we could 
translate * cuius sum ? Perkiomm' (cf . no. 55) . Yet on the analogy of Blais beside 
Blaii^ (178,1) one would expect Nom. Sg. M. ^puls. 

146 Inflection [800 

2. The pronoun corresponding to L. uterque is seen in 
O. Nom. PI. ptitiiilis-pid, Loc. Sg. pdterei-pid, etc., U. Gen. Sg. 
pati«o-pe9 adv. podruhrpei; also in U. sei-podruhpei ^seoisum 
utroque', with which compare h. sedr^traqiLe (Plautus, Stich. 
106). All these forms come through *potr(h (81, 88, 4) from 
*^oterO' (Grk. irSrepo^;^ Skt. katardr)^ that is, *g^o- with the 
suffix 'tero- (188, 2). L. uterque owes its u to the influence of 
adverbial forms containing the stem *j3ft«- (see 3). 

a. O. alttrel pdterefpld akenef, if akenef is *year* (1^9, a), must mean *iii 
/every other year\ where the Bomans said * in amio altero quoque' (Col. R.B. 5, 8). 

3. Besides the stems *q]tO' and *g^i-, a stem *5^if-, frequent 
in the adverbial forms of various languages (e.g. Skt. kHrtas 
*whence?', M-tra 'where?', etc., Cretan oirvi etc.), is to be recog- 
nized in O. puf ubi', U. pufe; — O. puz'ut', U. puze, puse^ etc. 
See 164 with a, 202, 6, 6. /. , ^ t^Xi^r^^ /^-/M-^>Mi' ^^^ x^h^tM 

201. The enclitic particles used with pronominal forms are 
as follows : 

1. -A;, like L. -ce, -c, in hic^ hunc, etc. In contrast to Latin, this is very 
common in forms of the pronoun corresponding to L. is (see 190); it occurs 
also in most of the Oscan forms of eko-, ekao- (see 196); further in U. esmik 
(197, 1), and various adverbs, as esoc, iaec, itek, inam-k, etc. In general it is 
more frequent in Oscan than in Umbrian. It has become an integral part of 
some of the forms, just as in L. hie, hunCy e.g. O. ItUc, ioc (but U. en, eo), while 
in others its use is optional, e.g. O. elsdd and eizuc. In Umbrian, however, the 
absence of -k, -c, is not always proof that the formation without the enclitic is 
intended. It is altogether unlikely that ere, ere, is to be separated from erek, erec 
(O. t«ic), or er«c from efek (O. idic), or eso from esoc. Probably the final fc, like 
other final consonants in Umbrian, was weakly sounded and so, frequently, 
omitted in the writing. 

2. -iky a combination of the preceding. This is seen in the forms just 
mentioned, O. iz-ic, id-Ik, id-ic, U. er-ec, etc., also in esum-ek, esom-e, and in the 
adverbs enum-ek etc. The particle to which the k is added probably stands for 
id (like pid). For the change of *id-k to -ifc, cf . Abl. Sg. elsak, ci^ac. 

3. -I, as in Grk. oirroa-t This is found in Umbrian in nearly all forms 
of the Relative-Indefinite Pronoun (199), including the adverbs puz-e, ptc«-ei, 

pa-e, etc. 

201] Pronominal Enclitics 147 

4. -pid, iised like the Latin generalizing -gt^e in guiagtie etc. This is seen in 
the forms corresponding to L. uberque (200, 2), and in the adverbs O. pdkkapid, 
pocorpit ^ q}jakTi&o(^%\ U. pante-pei ^quandoque\ U. pam-pe in pisi pumpe'qui- 
cumque\ It corresponds in form to L. quid and stands in the same relation to 
L. -que as Skt. -cid to -ca^ both of these being nsed as generalizing particles 
though in different combinations. The three occurrences of U. -pei (panupet, 
podruhpeiy seipodrUhpei) make it probable that in Umbrian, in the adverbs at 
least, the particle -I (above, 3) was added to -pi from -pid. 

6. -om (or -dom ?). This is found in Oscan, 1) as a particle of Identity, in 
isidum * idem* etc. (196), where Umbrian has -hxmt (6), and in the adverb ekkom 
*item'; — 2) as an Indefinite particle, in pld-um * quidquam' etc. (200, 1), where 
Umbrian has -I (3), and in the conjunction pun-um *quandoque'. It is probably 
the same element in O. per-um ^aine\ and perhaps in O. tiiam, U. tUmiy etc. 
(193, c). For O. -um from -om, see 60. 

There is a difference of opinion as to whether the particle is properly -om 
or -dom^ as it is also a matter of dispute whether in L. idem etc. the -dem is 
original or due to a wrong division of id-em, Abl. edd-em, etc. On general 
grounds there is no objection either to -dem, -dom, from the same stem do- that 
is seen in various enclitics, e.g. -de in L. quamde, U. pane, or to -em, -om, to be 
compared with Skt. -am in id-dm. The question is which suits better the actual 
forms. In the Indefinite forms there is no evidence for -dom, in fact it is very 
unlikely that pld-nm comes from *pidrdom. In isldom we may divide fs-id-um 
(as we have assumed *i8-id-k for izic) as well as fs-l-dom. The chief support for 
-dom is found in ekkom and lussu, but the changes involved (kd to kk and ad to 
88) are otherwise unknown (189, a), and it is quite possible that ekkom is for 
*ekk^-om with ekk^ for *ekke (L. ecce), and that of the two spellings fossa and 
ioso the latter is the more correct, the former being a slip due to the existence 
of an Ace. PI. form ^Kiss-o or else to annincertainty as to the syllabic division 
(ios-o with etymological, fo-so with phonetic syllabification). At any rate the 
derivation from *^-dom and *ed8'dom is not so obvious as to constitute proof of 
the particle -dom in Oscan. 

6. -(h)ont. This is found in Umbrian only, namely in eront, erihont * idem' 
etc. (196), and in the adverbs i/on< 'ibidem', isont *item', 8ururont 4tem' (whence 
also suront by haplology). It probably contains *hom, from the same stem as 
L. hie, with the -t of pos-t, per-t, etc. We find -hont after vowels, but -ont after 
consonants (149, a). For sururo and eroho, occurring once each, see 128, 2, a. 
The Abl. Sg. F. erafont which occurs twice beside erahoat owes its -font to a 
vn-ong division of other forms, e.g. if-ont (ife 'ibi') taken as i-font. 

7. Here may be mentioned the pronominal prefix e in O. e-tanto *tanta': 
L. tantus. Cf. L. e-quidem. 

8. For enclitics found only in adverbs, see the following. 

148 Ir^ection [808 


202. Many of the pronominal adverbs have been cited among the forms 
of the various pronominal stems (196-200), but it is desirable to treat separately 
the forms of the Relative (and Indefinite) Adverbs, most of which serve as Con- 
junctions ; and for the sake of convenience the Conjunctions not formed from 
the stems of Relative Pronouns are included. 

1. O. pod in 8uae pod 'sive', svai puh (133, a), with which is 
identical U. auepo^ svepu; also in O. pod — min[8 'quo minus'. 
This is Ace. Sg. N. like L. quod, not Abl. Sg. as in L. quo minus. 
The same form with the enclitic -i is seen in U. puf-e 'quod, 
cum, quomodo' (II a 26, III 5, V a 7), with which is identical 
porS'i etc. used in place of certain case-forms (199,/). Cf. also 
O. adptid, U. arnipo (below, 9, 10). 

2. U. pif-e, pirS'i^ etc. 'quod, si, cum', e.g. sersi pirsi sesust 
'sede cum sederit' (Via 5), persei pir orto est 'si ignis ortus est, 
in case fire has broken out' (Via 26 etc.; similarly pefe II a 3), 
persei mersei 'si ius sit, in so far as is right' (VI a 28 etc.), 
with which compare L. quod opus siet (Cato). In form this is 
the Ace. Sg. N. of pis-L It is not always to be distinguished 
with certainty from pif-e 'quidquid' (V a 5). 

3. O. pon^ ptin, U. ponne^ pone^ pune 'cum'; also O. panHim 
'quandoque'. From *pom-de: L. *quom-de (cf. quam-de). See 
92, 136. Another combination of pom (L. quom, cum) is to be 
recognized in U. (pisi)pumpe : L. (quijquomque^ (qui)cumque. See 
also 201, 4. 

4. O. pan 'quam', pruter pan 'priusquam' (cf. Grk. irpo- 
repov fj)^ U. pane in postertio pane 'postquam tertium'. From 
*pam'de : L. quam-de. See 92, 136. The simple *pam (L. quam) 
appears in U. pre-pa 'priusquam'. (In O. pruter pam beside 
pruter pan the pam probably stands for pan^ the next word 
beginning with m,) 

5. O. puf, U. pufe 'ubi'. From stem *5^i^ (200, 3) and an 
adverbial ending -dhe (cf. Skt. A^-Aa 'where?', O.Bulg. ku-de 
'where'), or -dhi (Grk. -hC), U. ife *ibi' has the same ending, 
the h in L. ibi being due to the analogy of uhi (b = dh after u). 

802] Relative Adverbs and Conjunctions 149 

In L. u&i, t5t, the final i is not the original short vowel, but is shortened 
from -I, this from -ei (cf. early L. ttftci), which arose under the influence of the 
adverbs in -ei representing Locatives of o-stems. U. pufe might also represent 
such a form, but it is far more likely that it preserves the original -d/ie, only 
without syncope as in Oscan (cf. O. pon : U. ponne). 

6. O. puz, pous (mistake for pus ; see footnote, p. 40), 

U. puz-e, puB-e^ pus-ei^ etc. 'ut' (in Umbrian also 'quasi'). This 

stands for ^pvrt-B (137, 2), in Umbrian with added -i, containing 

the stem *0^ (200, 8) and an adverbial ending -the (cf. Av. 

hurda 'how') or -ti (as in avAi etc.), with loss of the final vowel 

and addition of -« (as in L. a6-«, O. az, i.e. ad-s^ etc.). 

L. ut is the same form without the added s, the latter appearing in usquam 
etc. L. utei^ utl^ is like uhei etc. 

7. U. pue^ pue 'ubi, where'. From *pJ (L. quo) with 
enclitic -i. 

8. U. ape^ appeiy ape, api, ap'ubi, cum' (always temporal). 
From *ad-pe^ in form like L. atque, but with a different force of 
the particle (cf. Grk. dial, ecr-re, ev-re 'until'). In U. ap the 
final vowel is lost as in L. ac, while the other forms probably 
contain the enclitic -i, like pusei^ puz-e, etc. 

9. O. adptid 'quoad'. Formed like L. quo^d (rarely ad-quo)^ 
except that piid is probably the same as pod (above, l), and so 
cognate with L. quod rather than with quo. 

10. U. amipo 'donee, until'. From ar 'ad' (132, a) and-ne 
(as in per-ne etc., or negative ?) + *pom or *pod. Cf . L. donicum^ 

11. U. nersa 'donee, until', used after a negative clause. 
From ^ne-ddm ; cf . L. -dam in quon-dam etc., and dum, 

12. U. panupei 'quandoque'. From *panrdd'pid : L. quan- 
do-que. For -pei see 201, 4. 

13. O. ptikkapid, pocapit, p]ocapid 'quandoque'. From 
*podrkdd(l!)-pid^ the second element being perhaps Abl. Sg. F. of 
the stem seen in L. -ce^ like O. da^'de' from do- (190, 3, a). 

14. O. svai, fmae^ U. sve, sue 'si', no-sue 'nisi'. From *suai^ 
Loc. Sg. F. of suo-^ while L. ^ is from *«ei, Loc. Sg. N. of «a-. 
Cf. Grk. ai and el from stem so- or 0-. 

160 Inflection [202 

a. The relation of U. 8opiry Vlb 64, to svepis ^siquis' of the parallel pas- 
sage lb 18, is puzzling. That it cannot be regarded as a later form of the same 
word is obvious from sue beside sve. The first syllable may be sd from *soi^ and 
it is conceivable that this *8oi is from an earlier *8\^ei, though such a change is 
only imperfectly paralleled by that seen in sonitu (87, a). Another view is that 
sopir is not *siquis\ but an Indefinite Relative ^quisquis\ and contains a gen- 
eralizing particle *8od 6t *suod^ related to the so in Eng. whoso^ whosoeoer. 
But the chief support for this, the derivation of Grk. ^rts from *fffod^is, is not 
beyond question. ^ 

16. U. et'et': L. et^ Grk. ere, etc. 

16. O. inim, inim^ ecvecfi (44), abbr. in. 'et'; U. enem^ eine, 
ene, inen-ek (for *inem-ek), and ennom^ eno(m)^ enum-ek, inum-ek, 
etc. 'turn, deinde'. These forms, together with Pael. inom 'et', 
are obviously connected with L. enim (einom of the Duenos 
inscription is best left out of account) in some way, — exactly 
how is not so clear. 

The ending -im of L. enim is seen in the Oscan forms and in U. enem etc. , 
while U. enom etc. with Pael. inom show -om. The difficulty is with the initial 
vowel. The Oscan forms point to i or g, not e. Pael. inom also points to t or 
(possibly) e. The various Umbrian spellings are most easily combined on the 
basis of By but i is also possible. On the whole, in view of L. enim, the prob- 
ability is perhaps in favor of *Bnim and ^enom, but the matter is quite uncertain. 
The nn in ennom is very likely due to the influence of the correlative ponne. 

17. O. autij aut^ avt 'aut, at', U. ote^ ute 'aut': L. aut^ autem. 
From *au (Grk. av, athre), with the same -ti as in *eti (et)^ Hoti 
(L. tot)^ etc. The Oscan forms with and without apocope (92) 
were differentiated in meaning at Bantia, where auti is *aut', 
aut 'at'. Elsewhere we find only avt, usually 'at', once «aut'. 

i 18. O. loufir^YQW In form this is a 3d Sg. Pass, of the 

' root seen in L. libet (96, 288, 2), in the impersonal use (289). For 

the development of meaning, cf. L. reZ, Imperat. of volo^ and 

the following. 

19. U. heris . . . heris, Jieri , . . heri^ Jierie . . . herie^ etc. 

'vel . . . vel'. These are from *herid 'volo', partly 2d Sg. 

Pres. Indie, (heris, Jieri)^ partly 3d Sg. Perf. Subj. (herie^ heriei). 

1 See Delbriick, Vergl. Syntax, III, pp. 339 ff. 

208] Verbs 151 

20. The negatives. Oscan has (1) ne (L. ne-faSy nisi from 
^ne-seiy etc.), (2) ni (L. ne)^ (3) nei (L. m); and for each of these 
a corresponding form with the enclitic -p, corresponding to -c, 
-que^ in L. nee, neque, namely 1) nep, nep, 2) nip, 3) neip, neip. 
As regards use, ne occurs in ne pon 'nisi cum' and as a prohibi- 
tive with a pronoun in ne phim pruhipid 'ne quern prohibuerit', 
while ni is always prohibitive, and nei occurs in conditional 
clauses, suaepis nei, nei suae. But all three compounded forms 
have the prohibitive force, 'neve', though neip is also used like 
nei, e.g. svai neip. 

Umbrian has nei in neifhabas 'ne adhibeant' (84), otherwise 
neip, neip (once nep), both prohibitive and simple negative. 
Whether this corresponds to O. neip or nip or both is not clear, 
the spelling ei being remarkable in any case. See 29, b, 
U. no-sue 'nisi' probably contains *noi, a by-form of neL 


On the general system of conjugation, see 18. 


203. The personal endings of the Indicative and Subjunc- 
tive Active are : 

Primary Secondary Primary Secondary 

Singular Plural 

1. -0 -m 1. 

2. -« -s 2. 

3. 't 'd (lost in U.) 3. -nt -ns 

For the endings of the Imperative, see 286-287; for those 
of the Passive, see 288-289. 

Primary and secondary endings, which, in contrast to Latin, 
are clearly distinguished in the Third Singular and Third Plural, 
are used as follows : primary in the Present, Future, and Future 
Perfect Indicative, — secondary in the Imperfect and Perfect 
Indicative and in all tenses of the Subjunctive. 

152 Inflection [204 

Remarks on the Endings 

204. 1. The original endings of the Third Singular and 
Third Plural were primary -ti^ -nti^ secondary -t, -wt. By the 
loss of the final i (92) the former became -f, -nt^ but in the 
meantime the original -f, -nt, had undergone a change, as 
follows : 

The 't became -d, which is preserved in Oscan, and existed in 
early Latin (feced etc.) until the primary ending was generalized. 
In Umbrian this, like eyery final d, was lost; but since even 
final t is sometimes omitted in the writing, the distinction is 
less clear in Umbrian than in Oscan. See 127, 1, 2, 133. 

The -nt probably became first -wcZ, then -w (cf . L. darirunt etc.), 
and to this an « was added under the influence of the plural 
ending of nouns. See 128, 1. 

2. In -nt the n is regularly written in Umbrian (the only 
exception is furfaO (26, a) beside furfant)^ while in Oscan it is 
omitted in the case of -ent (the only exception being one occur- 
rence of sent beside set), but written in stahint and eestint, the 
only forms occurring which do not end in -ent. In -ns the n is 
always written in Oscan but frequently omitted in Umbrian. 
See 108, 1, 2. For U. fefure and staheren, see 128, 2, a. 

3. The plural forms in -ent^ -ens^ represent the full endings, 
original -entij -ent, which belong properly to unthematic forma- 
tions like U. senty O. set (cf. Dor. ivrl for *€i/Tt, Skt. sdnti^ Goth. 
sind^ I.E. *senti). But they have been extended at the expense 
of thematic forms, just as in Latin, vice versa, -ant (-^nt) has 
completely driven out -ent Thus we have -ent in the Future 
and Future Perfect, which are thematic formations ; and -ens in 
the Perfect, which, while containing types of various origin, is 
always thematic in the Third Singular. 

a. It is probable that the same encroachment of -ent upon -ont is to be 
recognized in O. fiiet as compared with L. flunt, and likewise in O. staiet. But 
some believe that the original ending of verbs of this class was -ierUi or -i'gti. 
For the double formation in the Fourth Conjugation, represented by O. fliet, 
staiet, and O. stahint, eestint, see also 216, 2. 

804] Uxamples of Conjugation 153 

4. In the Second Singular in Umbrian the -« is some- 
times omitted or changed to -r. Thus seste 'sistis', heri, 
Aen*ver beside heris (see 202, 19), «z>, %ei^ «i 'sis'. See lis 
with h, 

6. The secondary ending of the First Singular occurs only 
in O. manafum 'mandavi', and in O. stim 'sum' (217, 1). 

6. The primary ending of the First Singular, -J, seen 
in U. sistu 'sisto', is not contracted with the preceding a of 
the First Conjugation as in Latin. Thus U. mbocauu^ sub- 
ocau 'invoco' from -did. Cf. also U. stahu 'sto' from *8tai6. 
See 88. 

7. The Latin shortening of vowels before final t is unknown. 
See 78, 3. So O. faamat is to be understood as fdmdt^ O. kasit 
*decet' as kasit (with i from e), etc. For the vowel-quantity 
before -nt, -w«, see 78, a. 

8. The short e of the Second and Third Singular Pres- 
ent Indicative of the Third Conjugation, and of the Third 
Singular Perfect Indicative, does not suffer syncope. See 



The following paradigms include all the verb-forms occurring in Oscan 
or Umbrian (barring some variations in spelling), except v^here an "etc." 
is added, that is in the 2d and 3d Sg. Imperat. Act., the 3d Sg. Fut. Ferf., 
and the Perf. Pass. Partic. (including the periphrastic Perf. Indie. Pass.). 
A few Paelignian (P.), Marrucinian (M.), and Vestinian (V.) forms are 

In the Perfect System there are given under the First and Fourth 
Conjugations only those types which are characteristic of these conjuga- 
tions, namely, in the following order, the /-, tt-, and nfci-Perfects (and, 
in the Fourth, U. portiias etc.). The other types, which are found vnth 
verbs of all conjugations, but mostly with those of the Third, are given 
under the Third only, namely, in the following order, the reduplicated Per- 
fect, the simple Perfect without vowel-change, the Perfect with lengthened 
vowel, and the Z-Perfect. 

Under the Fourth Conjugation are included the forms corresponding to 
the Latin type capio. See 216. 









1. Sg. U. mbocauu 

2. Sg. 

3. Sg. O. faamat 

8. Pl. U. furfant^ 




U. aseriaia 

U. kupifiaia(or3.Sg.?) 

O. deiuaid^ O. sakaxater 

U. portaia^ 


U. etaians^ O. karanter 


O. sakahiter, 

3. Sg. 


P. upsaseter 

3. Sg. O. deiuasty 
U. prupehast 

3. Pl. O. censazet 


3. Sg. O. aikdafed 

O. pnifatted, 


U. eombifianii 

O. sakrafir, 
U. pihafiy 

O. lamatir 

O. teremnatu-st, U. kuratu si 

U. stakazestetc. 

3. Pl. O. prdfattens, O. trfbarakattins 
P. coisatens 

O. staflatas-set etc. 

206] Fir%t Conjugation 15o 

Active - Passive 


Future Perfect 

3. Sg. U. andivBafuBt 
U. eombifianiiuBt 

U. pihosfuBt 

3. Pl. O. trfbarakattuset 

U. cersnatur furent 


Pres. 2, Sg. U. Btiplo, aserio 

FuT. 2. 3. Sg. O. deiuatud, O. censamur, 

U. pihatu, U. eturstahmu, Bpahamu 

portatUy etc. 

2, (3.) Pl. U. etato U. arsmahamo, caterahamo 


Pres. O. cenBaum, moltaum^ Perf. U. erom ehiato, kuxatu era 


Perf. O. staflatas etc., 

U. anzeriates, 
pihoBy etc. 

Gerundive O. saktannas, 

eehiianisum, - 
U. pihaner, 


U. auBeriato 









3. So. O. kasit, O. pdtlad, 

U. ticit, turumiiad, 

habe^hsXn^ U. habia 

3. Pl. O. ptitians 



O. loufir 

U. turgiandu 


3. Sg. U. hahiest 


FUT. 2. 3. Sg. O. licitud, likltud, 

U. habitu^ habetu, 
tursitUy tusetu, 
carsitu^ kafetu, karitu, 
sersitUy tenitu, 
ufetu, upetu, eveietu 
2. 3. Pl. U. habituto, habetutu, 

tursituto, tusetutu, 


Pres. O. fatium 


Pres. U. serae, zefef, kutef Perf. U. taaes, ta^ez, uirseto^ etc. 


Third Conjugation 



Active Passive 

indicative subjumctivb indicativb subjultctrvb 


1. Sg. U. sestu 

2. Sg. U. seste 

3. Sg. M. £,eTet, 

V. didet 

3. Pl. 

3. Pl. 

O. kahad, aflukad, O. uincter V.ferar 

U. diraa^ tefa U. tefte O. krustatar(?), 


O. deicans^ M.fer enter U. emantur, 

U. dirsans^dirsaSy terkantur 


O. patenslns 


2. Sg. U. menes, anpenes 

3. Sg. O. didesty pertemesty 

U. ferest 
3. Pl. 

1. Sg. O. manafum 
3. Sg. O. deded, 0.fefacid,6adid 

U. dede, 

O. pniffed, aamanafied 

O. kdmbened, 

O. upsed O. hipid 

3. Pl. U. eitipes, 
O. uupsens, 

U. 08te7i8endi 

U. screhto est etc. 

O. scriftas set^ 

IJ. acreihtor sent etc. 

158 Inflection [207 

Active Passive 


Future Perfect 

2. Sg. O. fifikus 

O. aflakusy 

U. benus, kuvurtus 

U. entelus, apelus 

3. Sg. O.fefacust^ U. dersicust etc. 

O. dicust^ eebnust, etc., O. comparascu^tery 

U. fakust, benust, habus^ etc. U. benuso^ couortuso 

U. enteluatj apelust 

3. Pl. U. deraicurent, pepurkurent 

O. angetuzetj 
V.facurenty benurenty 

haburentj procanurent^ 


U. prusikurent 


FuT. 2. 3. Sg. O. actud, 

U. fertu, ustentu, 

aitu, deitu, kanetu, etc. 

2. 3. Pl. U. fertuta, ustentuta, 

aituta, hatuto 


Pres. O. deikum, deicum^ acum^ edum, 
menvum, aBerum^ pertumum^ 
U. afenim, afero 


Pres. U. restef, reate Perf. O. serif tas^'j^Mi^cenBtom^ 

U. Bcrehto, sihitu, ortOj etc. 

Gerundive U. anferener 


Fourth Conjugation 



Active Passive 

mdicatiyb subjunctiyb indicative subjunctlvb 


1. Sg. U. stahu 

2, Sg. U. heris, heri, 

3. Sg. 0. flakruvit, 
U. heri, 
0. stalt, 
U. pis-her 

3. Pl. 0. fiiet, staiet 

0. fakiiad, 

U. fa^ia, 
f eia, fuia 


herter, herte, 
hertiy hertei 

0. stahlnt, 


3. Pl. 

0. hjenins 

2. Sg. U. heries, purtuvies 

3. Sg. O. sakrvist 

O. hafiest^ herest, 
U. heriesty heries^ 
fuiest, kukehes(?) 

3. Pl. U. staheren 


3. Sg. 


U. heriiei, 

herieiy herie 

2. Sg. U. purtiius 

U. purtingus 

3. Sg. U. purdinUuBt^ 


Future Perfect 

U. herifi, 

U. persnis fust, 
purtitu fust 

160 Inflection [208 

Active Passive 


FuT. 2. 3. Sg. O.factud, 

U. stahitu, aeritu, U. peranimu^ persnimu, 

purdouitu^ amparitu anouihimu^ amparihmtt 

2. 3. Pl, U. Btahituto U. permimumo 


Pbes. U. fa^iu, fa^u 


Perf. U. peranis, purditom^ 
heritu^ etc. 


The Verb ^to be' The Verb *to go' 

iitdicativb subjunctivb mdicative subjumctiyb 


1. Sg. O. Slim 

2. Sg. U. sir, «i, sei 

3. Sg. O. est, 1st U. 8i, si, sei 

U. estj est 
3. Pl. O. set, sent, set U. sins^ sis O. amfret 
U. sent O. osii[ns 


3. Sg. 

3. Pl. 0. fufans 

0. fusid 

3. Sg. O.fust, fust 
U. fust, fus, 
3. Pl. U. furent 


U. eest, est 


3. Sg. 

3. Pl. 0. fufens 

O.fuid (Passive) U. ier 

Future Perfect 

2. Sg. 

3. Sg. O.fust 
3. Pl. U. fefure 

U. amprefutts 

U. iust 

U. amhrefurent 

210] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 161 


FuT. 2. 3. Sg. O. estud, estud U. eetu^ etu^ etu 

\].futu^ futu 

2. 3, Pl. U. fututo U. etuto^ etutu, etuta 

O. eltuns(?) 


Pbbs. O. praesentid Perf. U. daetom, peretom 


Pres. O. ezum, U. erom^ eru 



Conjugation I — Present Stem in a 

210. 1. As in Latin, this conjugation is made up mainly of 
Denominatives. Thus O. TwoZtauTw'multare' from Twofto 'multa', 
U. koraia 'cnret', etc. See 262, i. 

2. The Frequentatives, also of denominative origin, are 
represented; e.g. U. etaians ' itent^ : L. ito. See 262, i. 

3. Primary Verbs like L. seco^ domo^ etc., are : U. prusekatu 
'prosecato', U. Tnt^^a^W muttito', O. dadikatted 'dedicavit', O. cen- 
saum 'censere' contrasted with L. censed of the Second Conjuga- 
tion ; here probably O. sakahiter 'sanciatur' from sakd- (cf. sah- in 
L. sacer etc.). 

a. The inflection of the Present is in the main that which belongs properly 
to the primary verbs, in which the endings were added directly to the a. The 
denominatives, which are formed from a-stems with the |o-suffix, furnish the First 
Singular (204, 6). In the other forms they would probably by regular contrac- 
tion show partly a, partly o, before the endings ; but under the influence of the 
primary verbs the a is generalized. However, whatever contraction took place 
here occurred in the Italic period, and the O.-U. forms throw no new light on the 
question. Note that *sta-id^ U. stahu ' sto' follows the Fourth Conjugation (215). 

6. The interchange of conjugation between O. dadikatted * dedicavit^ and 
deicum *dicere' is the same as between L. dicoy de-dico, etc., and died ; and with 
L. occupO beside capidy compare U. anzeriatu^observatum^ beside seritu 'servato'. 
Cf. also U. andirsafust ' circumtulerit' beside dirsans^deV (O. didest etc., 213, 4). 

162 Inflection [211 

211. As in Latin, the a is not confined to the Present Sys- 
tem, but normally runs through the whole conjugation. So 
U.kuratu, pihaxjpihafiy 9er8iiatur,0. c2^ma^t^n8,teremiiatu,tereinnatten8, 
prtifatted, etc. But there are also some forms of the Perf. and 
Perf. Pass. Part, without the a, as is the case with several of 
the Latin primary verbs, such as domo^ domuiy domitum^ seco^ 
secul^ Bectum^ etc. Thus U. ase^eta 'non secta', prusecetu, proseseto 
^prosecta', beside Imperat. prusekatu (in prusektu which occurs in 
the same line with prusekatu and in the same meaning, the a is 
omitted by mistake); — O. ancenato ^mcenssJ beside Infin. cen- 
aaum; — U. muieto ' muttitum' beside Imperat. mugatu ; — portuat 
'portaverit' beside Imperat. portatu; — O. upsed 'fecit', 3d PL 
uupsens, Partic. U. oseto (but O. upsatuh), beside Gerundive 
O. tipsannam, Imperat. U. osatu. So doubtless O. urust 'oraverit', 
V.froaetom ' f raudatum' (262,1), uahetom^ uasetom ' vitiatum' (L, vaco ; 
^, «, by 144), pesetom 'peccatum' (144), though Present forms are 

Conjugation 11 — Present Stem in e 

212. Verbs of this conjugation comprise the same classes 
as in Latin, namely : 

1. Denominatives like L. albeo from albus. So O. turumiiad 
'torqueatur' from Hormo- (cf. L. tormentum), O. fatium 'fan', 
O. pdtiad 'possit'. See 262, 2. 

2. Causatives like L. moneo. So U. tursitu 'terreto' with 
the regular o-grade (51, 97) as in L. moneo beside memini etc. 

3. Primary Verbs like L. liceo^ sedeo^ etc. So O. likitud, 
licitud ^]iceto\ kasit 'decet'; U. AaJe 'habet', ti9it 'decet', aersitu 
'sedeto', tenitu 'teiieto\ ufetu 'adoleto'. 

a. The relation of the inflection of the Present to that which belonged 
originally to the primary verbs in g on the one hand and the denominatives and 
causatives in -ej,0' on the other is similar to what is seen in the First Conjugation 
(see 210, a). For the i in O. piitiad, U. habia, etc., and in O. licitud, U. turaitu, 
etc., see 38, 1, 39, 1, and 41, 42. 

b. Ovmig to the ambiguity of the spelling (i = g or i, e = g or, rarely, t) 
there are several Umbrian forms, without precise cognates in Latin, of which it 
is impossible to say with certainty whether they belong to the Second or Fourth 

213] Formation of the Moods and Temes 163 

Conjugation. To the Second belong probably tremiiu (L. iremo)^ sonitu (L. sono), 
nepUu (cf. L. Neptdnus), which are used transitively ("overwhelm with tenpr, 
noise, and water") and may be modeled after the causative type (tursitu); per- 
haps also sauitu in the same passage, but of uncertain meaning and derivation 
(*sauciato'?). That sonitu is of the Third (early L. sonit etc.) is less likely, for, 
though the short vowel is not lost after n (88, 1), we should expect *8onetu. In 
trebeit 'versatur^ the ei points to i (48), but may also stand for B (42), and the 
meaning rather favors the Second Conjugation. To the Second belong also, 
without much doubt, eveietu^voveto^ 0-^^)'* carsitu, kafetu, kafitu * calato^ con- 
trasted with L. calo of the First ; upetu * optato, deligito^ with Perf. Pass. Partic. 
opeter ^\ecti, choice^ of which L. opto represents the iterative formation {optd 
from opetO',^ the same stem as in U. opeter, whence also L. optimus). 

Conjugation in — Present Stem in % 

213. 1. Most verbs of this conjugation, as in Latin, show 
the simple root with the thematic vowel. Thus O. acum 'agere', 
O. actudy U. aitu, from *agetdd (143); O. edum 'edere'; U. emantur 
'accipiantur'; O. jt?er^W7wi^m 'perimere'; O. deikum'dicere', dei- 
canSy U. deitu (143), etc. 

a. Here also, in contrast to their Latin cognates, O. kahad 4ncohet% 
U. amboltu *ambulato', and U. vutu *lavato' (but also L. lavit beside lavat), 

2. Presents in -no like L. cerno are represented by O. paten- 
sins 'aperirent' from *patn6 or *patend (as if L. *patind), 

3. Presents with inserted nasals like L. rumpo^ vinco^ are 
represented by O. mw(?^er'vincitur', U. mnc^w 'ninguito'. 

4. Reduplicated Presents like L. sisto^ gigno^ are represented 
by U. sestu 'sisto'; and by *didd^ seen in O. didest 'dabit', U. tefa, 
diraa ^det\ dirsana (I3l), teftu, dirstu^ titu, ditu'dsito^ (132 with 
note), tarte'datur' (also Vest. didet*'ddLt\ Pael. dida^def). 

a. Here also, with loss of reduplication in composition, O. da[da]d *dedat' 
from *dad-dido (cf. L. reddo from *r6-didd); and U. restef, res^ 4nstaurans, 
renewing' from *re-sistd. On account of the meaning this view of U. restef is 
far more probable than connection with U. stahu 'sto' etc. (215, 1). For the 
same reason U. restatu ' instaurato, offer' is also best taken as a reduplicated 
formation (cf. Volsc. sistiatiens^ Pael. 8estatiens(?) *statuerunt'), with transfer to 
the First Conjugation (see 210, 6), or, less probably, with retention of original 
*8i8td^ (Grk. tarrifii). 

1 Also recognized by Hempl, with great probability, in the Duenos inscription. 
See Trans. Am. Phil. Ass. 33, 157. 

164 Inflection [218 

5. There are no examples of Presents like L. cresco^ in 
which the termination is confined to the Present System. But 
there are some forms parallel to L. posed in which the original 
Present^uffix has become a part of the verl>stem. Thus U. perstu 
'ponito'(?) from *per8ketdd (146), to which belongs the Fut, Perf. 
peperseust; — O. comparaseuster'con&ulta, erit' (145); — U. eia- 
curent 'arcessierint' (29, a). 

6. For Presents like L. capio^ see 216. 

Conjugation IV — Present Stem in i 

214. The verbs of this conjugation comprise : 

1. Denominatives like h, finio. So U. persnihimu^^TecBr 
tor' from ^persni-. See 262, 3. 

2. Primary Verbs like L. venio. So O. heriiad 'capiat', 
faldiad 'faciat', U. fagia etc.; — U. heris'vel' (2d Sg. Pres. Indie, 
used as adverb ; see 202, 19), with Fut. heriest, Perf. Pass. Partic. 
hereitUy Perf. Subj. herifi. As appears from this last example, 
the I is not confined to the Present System as in most of the 
Latin primary verbs. 

3. Denominatives from i6-stems, which in Latin follow the 
Third Conjugation. So at least O. sakruvit 'sacrat', Fut. sakrvist, 
from *8akrvrid (cf. L. statuo from ^statu-io), 

215. 1. The inflection of the Present is that which be- 
longs properly to the primary verbs, and to a type of these, 
to be recognized in other languages also, in which the suflBx ^ 
-{1)10- interchanges with -i-. The length of the i is shown by 
the absence of syncope and in part by direct evidence of the 
spelling. Thus U. an-ouihimu 'induitor' (cf. Lith. aviil 'wear 
(shoes)'; L. induo^ exuo^ from Hnd-ono^ *ex-oud^ of Conj. Ill); — 
U. pur-douitu ''poTTicito^ (96); — U. am-paritu'conlocato', ampa- 
rihmu (L. pario^ -perio); — also, outside the Present System, 
U. hereitu^ herifi (214, 2). Likewise in U. stahitu ^stSito\ beside 
stahu 'sto' from *8tai6y the i is almost certainly long, and it is 

1 That the i and the ior iof -{i)iO' may belong ultimately to the root need not 
concern us here. 

216] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 165 

probably long also in O. stait 'stat' in spite of the I, which may be 
due to the influence of the regular spelling of the diphthong ai. 

2. The Third Plural shows two formations. O. fiiet'fiunt' 
and staiet 'stant' (ai perhaps due to stalt, above, l ; from *sta%ent 
would come regularly *staent) are like L. veniunt except for the 
usual substitution of unthematic -ent for -ont (204, 3, a); while 
O. stahint, eestint (89, 2) are as if we had in Latin *venint like 
amant^ monent^ and a trace of such a formation is probably to 
be seen in L. prodinunt etc. (128, l). This double formation is 
paralleled by that seen in the Future, where we find U. heriest 
(like ferest) and O. sakrvist (like deiuast), and also by the Latin 
Imperfects in -iebam and -Ibam, 

Note. It is uncertain which of the two formations is the earlier. The 
-int may represent original -inti with vowel-shortening before n<, or -inti (see 
216, note), or may be due to the analogy of -ant^ -ent (-ant, Snt), of the First 
and Second Conjugations. The corresponding Slavic verbs end in -ftU, which 
points to -inti or -inti, but here again it is uncertain whether this is original or 
due to an extension of i from the other forms. 

3. In U. fuia'fiat' (Fut. fuiest) from *furid (: L.fio from 
*fui%d) the retention of intervocal % is of course due to the 
analogy of forms like U. fa§ia etc. 

Forms of the type of L. capio 

216. In Latin many primary verbs in -iJ, like capio etc., 
have short i instead of T, and after the thematic vowel e of 
the Third Conjugation had become i, such verbs had so many 
forms in common with those of the Third Conjugation that they 
are commonly and conveniently grouped under it. In Oscan- 
Umbrian the great majority of the primary verbs have i. See 215. 

Nevertheless there are some few forms which point to a 
short i which has been lost by syncope, this bringing about 
identity with the forms of the Third Conjugation. Thus 
O. factud 'facito' from *fakitdd, beside O. faJdiad 'faciat' ; — 
O. hjerrins'caperent' beside O. heriiad 'capiat'; — U. better 'opor- 
tet', U. pis-her 'quilibet', probably from Aen-, beside U. heris, 

166 Inflection [216 

hereitu^ herifi (215, 1) with herl-; — U. hahtu, hatu^ probably from 

*hapit6d (218). Whether O. stalt, stahint, belong here is doubtful 

(see 215, 1, 2). 

Note. The short i in Latin has been recently explained as having arisen 
in capU, fugiSy etc. by iambic shortening (all the verbs of this type have the 
first syllable short), from which it spread to the other forms. That the iambic 
shortening has been a contributory factor is altogether probable. But there 
was already a nucleus of forms with inherited short i, for which there is evi- 
dence in other languages. Otherwise, since iambic shortening is a purely Latin 
phenomenon, we should have to separate O. factud from fakiiad and L. fcbcid 
and assume for it a different Present Stem. 

Irregular Verbs 

217. Irregiilar verbs, that is such as do not conform to 
any of the four regular types and are mainly characterized 
by the presence of the unthematic forms, are confined to the 
two verbs 'to be' and 'to go' given in the paradigm (209). For 
U. fertu is, in view of the Subj. ferar and Marruc, feret 'fert', 
fer enter 'feruntur', better taken as thematic, from *feret6d\ 
and U. veltu 'deligito', ehueltu^ are from *uelet6d (106, 2). The 
Perfect System of U. fertu is supplied, not by a form corre- 
sponding to L. tuliy but by a form belonging to *did6 'do', at 
least in andirsafust (210, 6), which belongs in use with U. anfe- 
rener 'circumferendi'. 

1. O. Slim points to *«om, whence also L, sum. This is 
apparently a thematic form with secondary ending, which as an 
Injunctive has come to be used in place of the original form 
of the Present Indicative. 

2. O. est, U. eBt^ agree with L. est (Grk. ea-ri etc.). But 
li ' ; O. Ist, which is the invariable spelling of the Cippus Abellanus 
^^ ' ' ?a (^ occurrences) and so cannot possibly be a mere graphic varia- 
. U.;* tion of est, must be a different form. It can represent *est 

(i = (?", 41) with es- standing in the same relation to the usual 
es- as the ed- in L. est to the usual ed- of edo etc. 

3. As regards the distribution of the roots es- (Grk. co--, 
Skt. aS'y etc.) and fu- (Grk. <^u-, Skt. JAw-, etc., 124), observe 

218] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 167 

O. fusid agreeing with L. foret rather than with esset^ O.-U. fust 
contrasted with L. erit^ and U. futu contrasted with O. estud^ 
L. esto, 

4. O. amfret 'ambinnt', for which one would expect *ainfriiet 
or ^amfrint, is probably a form of the Second Conjugation, into 
the analogy of which the Present had been drawn by the First 
Singular *amfred^ just as in Latin, vice versa, ambio follows the 
Fourth Conjugation, starting from ambiSy ambits etc. In both 
cases the isolation from the simplex is due to the fact that the 
prefixes were unusual, making the composition less obvious. 

U. anibretuto 'ambiunto' etc. may also belong to the Second 
Conjugation, but here there is no difficulty in assuming the 
original unthematic inflection, the e corresponding to i in L. ltd 
and both representing original ei. 

Remarks on the Forms Connected with L. habe5 

218. U. habe 'habet', Pres. Subj. habia, Imperat. habitu, 
habetu, belong with L. habed to the Second Conjugation. But 
the Future U. habiest shows a formation which belongs properly 
to the Fourth Conjugation. This might have arisen by analogy, 
owing to the resemblance between forms like habia (with i for «, 
89, 1) and those of the Fourth Conjugation. However, the inti- 
mate relation between io- and ^-formations is well known, and 
habiest may belong to a lost present *hab%d. 

U. neifhabas 'ne adhibeant' may be compared with early 
Latin advenat, tagam^ etc., in which the usual Present Stem 
does not appear. 

The hep- of O. Aipirf'habuerit', pruhipid 'prohibuerit', Fut. 
Perf. hipust^ pruhipust (cf. also U. eitipes, 264, 2) is best explained 
as a contamination of the roots seen in L. habeo and capio^ cepi. 

A Present *hapid is also to be assumed with great proba- 
bility for U. hahtu, hatu 'capito', from *hapitdd (216) through 
*hapt6d^ *haft6d (12 1); to which belong further U. subahtu 
'deponito', subotu (?see 36, a), and subator 'omissi' (for the lack 
of the initial A, cf . an-^statu beside an-hostatu etc., 149, a). 

168 Inflection [218 

O. hafieit 'habebit' is very likely a mistake for *hapie8t^ 

fonned from *hapid^ like U. heriest from *her%d. In this case 

all the Oscan forms would belong to ^hapjfi. 

Note. L. habeo has often been connected with Gothic haban^ Eng. Aave, 
etc., on the basis of a root khabh'. But the Umbrian forms point unmistakably 
to a root ending in 6, not hh^ and the Grermanic words are pirobably from the 
same root as Goth, hafjan, L. capid. 0, hafiest with / stands absolutely alone, 
and is irreconcilable with U. habe etc., except on the assumption of a by-form of 
the root Without further evidence for / it seems more likely that it is a mifi- 
take for *hapiest (cf . fepacid for fefacid ; even as it stands hqfiest contains one 
obvious correction, the reading being hxafiert). 

Remarks on the Forms Comiected with L. faciO 

219. The Pres. Subj. O. fakiiad, U. fajia, Infin. fa^iu, faju, 
Imperat. O. factud^ agree entirely with the Latin inflection. 
But the Umbrian Imperat. fetu^ feitu^ cannot correspond to 
O. factud^ for we should have *faitu like aitu to O. actud (148). 
It must rather come from ^fek{e)t6d or fek{i)t6d with the form 
of the root seen in L. feci. 

The participles U. aanfehtaf and feta, if belonging here, are 
also from fek-. 

U. feia 'faciat', beside fagia, is also, probably, homfek'. We 
should expect *fe9ia, but see 144, 6, on U. peiu. 

Note. It is noteworthy that in the Imperative form the spelling with e is 
far more common than that with ei (fetu 48 times, fetu 52 times, feetu once : feitu 
20 times, feitu 5 times), while in all other examples the diphthong resulting from 
the change of A; to i remains unchanged, not only in aitu, but also in -veitu and 
deitu (143). The reason for the difference lies in the quality of the first vowel. 
The e was an open e in both -veitu (orig. e) and deitu (open g from ei ; see 66), 
and did not contract with the following i, while in feitu the B was a close S 
(orig. g; see 42) and did suffer contraction. In the same way ie was contracted 
only when the e was close (82, 2, with a). Thus the spelling fetu, fetu, repre- 
sents the contracted form, while feitu, which is nearly as common as fetu in Qld 
Umbrian, is a retention of the old spelling prior to the contraction. 

In all the examples where we have assumed fek-, some prefer /g-. This 
is somewhat easier for feia, but less satisfactory for fetu, feitu. Moreover it is 
probable that in the meaning * do, make' the Italic root is always/gfc-,/afc-, though 
this, of course, is an extension of an earlier /e-, /a- (Grk. ^i^, Skt. dha-, etc.), which 
is preserved in L. condo etc. and in O. prfiffed, prtiftfi (see 223 with footnote). 

222] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 169 

The Imperfect Indicative 

220. The only extant form is O. fufans 'erant', showing the 
same formation as in Latin. A form serving as the past tense 
of the verb 'to be', namely *bhud'^ whence O. /a-, L. -bd (124), 
was added to case-forms in -a, -e, giving a periphrastic forma- 
tion, and this was then extended to root-forms, as in L. dabam^ 
ibam^ with which O. fafans is most closely connected. 

The Future Indicative 

221. This is in origin a short-vowel Subjunctive of an 
«-Aorist, identical with the Homeric short-vowel forms of the 
Aorist Subjunctives. In the Second and Third Singular the e 
suffers syncope (90, 2), and in the Third Plural the -out is sup- 
planted by -ent^ as regularly (204, 3), Thus O, deiuast 'iurabit', 
censazet *'Gen&Qh\mt\ U, prupehast 'piabit', from -dset^ -dsent; — 
U, ferest 'feret' from *fereset; — U, ostensendi 'ostendentur' from 
*ostendesenter (137,2,156); — O, fust, TJ. fust (fus^ 127,3) 'erit', 
furent 'erunt', from *fuset^ *fusent; — U, eest^ est ^ihiV from 
*eisety etc. 

Although the «-aorist is properly formed from the Verb- 
Stem, the Future has come to follow the Present Stem even 
where it differs from the former. So O. didest^dahiV with the 
Present reduplication, U. heriest (heries^ 127,3) 'volet', O. herest 
(100, 3, <?), U. purtuvies'porricies', fuiest'fiet', with the -io- of the 
Present Stem, In the Fourth Conjugation there are two for- 
mations, as regards the stem, related to one another as the 
Latin Imperfects leniebam and lenibam ; e.g. U. heriest etc., — 
but O. sakrvist 'sacrabit' (Pres. sakruvit). The latter is analogous 
to deiuast. 

The Perfect Indicative 

222. This tense, as in Latin, includes various formations. 
While the m- and «-Perfects of the Latin are lacking, their place 
is taken by others specifically Oscan-Umbrian. The /-, tt-^ and 

170 Inflection [882 

wA^Perfects (227-229), though having no formal connection with 
the Latin t;i-Perfect, resemble it in scope, in that they are mainly 
confined to the First and Fourth Conjugations. 

Note. An s-Perfect, that is, an 8-Aorist in origin, is assumed by some 
for U. sesusb ^sederit', andersesust. But this is probably based on the parti- 
cipial stem ^aesao- with ss from two dentals (138). A vi-Ferfect is also assumed 
by some, but with even less justification. 

The endings are the same as in other secondary tenses. 
In illustrating the different types, forms of the Perfect Sub- 
junctive and Future Perfect are included. 

223. Reduplicated Perfect. Examples: O. deded *dedit', 

U. dede (181, e?), with Fut. Perf. U. tdrust, dirauat, from *dedu9t 

(by 181); — O. fefacid 'fecerit'; — U. peperacuat 'posuerit'(?); — 

U. pepurkurent 'poposcerint'; — U. fefure 'fuerint' (128, 2, a); — 

U. deraicust 'dixerit' from *dediku8t (by I8l); — O. prdfied *posuit' 

from *prO'fefed: L. pro-didit^^ conrdiditj etc. (for the ff cf. 

L. rettuliy reppuli^ for *re-tetull etc.); — O. aa-manaffed 'mandavit, 

locavit' from *man-fefed (80, 2), as if L. *mandidit like condidit 

etc. (see 264,2)^ manafum 'mandavi'; — O. fifikus 'decreveris'(?). 

a. In all examples but the last the vowel of the reduplication is e. This 
is the original vowel of the Perfect reduplication, but in Latin, after the analogy 
of tetendi to tendo^ etc., it was replaced by an t, m, or o, of the root-syllable 
wherever the latter was the same in both Perfect and Present ; e.g. momordi 
for earlier memordi^ cucurrt^ etc., but pepull. O. fifikus, if connected with 
L> flgoi U. fiktu, is an example of a similar, though independent, development 
in Oscan-Umbrian. None of the other Perfect forms is necessarily at variance 
with such an assumption, for in U. dersicust and fefure there is no identity in 
the root-syllable of Present and Perfect, and for U. pepurkurent the Present is 

224. Simple Perfect without reduplication. Examples: 
O. kdmbened 'convenit', O. cehnuat {ce- prefix as in L. cedo)^ 
U. benust ' venerit' ; — O. dicust 'dixerit' ; — O. avafa/cer 'dedica- 
vit' (80,2), U. fakust'fecerit'; — U. AaJtts 'habuerit' ; — O. dadid 

1 The meaning of O. priiffed and prfiftfi (244, 1) agrees more nearly with that of 
Grk. irpoTlBrjfj.L than with that of L. prddo. In the Latin compounds in -do are merged 
forms of the roots dhe- 'put' and dd- 'give*, and the existence of the former is less 
obvious in prddo than in condo, which is therefore a more certain cognate of the 
Oscan forms. 

226] Formation of the Moods and Tenses lYl 

'dediderit'; — U. couortus^ courtust 'converterit'; — O. pertemust 
'peremerit', peremust 'perceperit'; — U. procanurent '*proci- 
nuerint'; — U. eiscurent 'arcessierint'; — U. portust 'portaverit'; 
— O. urust 'oraverit'; — O. comparascuster^GonsultsL erit'; — 
O. afakus 'detuleris'(?). 

a. As in Latin, it is impossible to distinguish always between forms which 
are in origin simple thematic Aorists, like Grk. fKiirov etc., and those which 
belong historically to the Reduplicated Perfect, but have lost the reduplication 
in composition or, by analogy, in the simplex, as L. scidl beside earlier scicidi etc. 
Loss of reduplication is most evident in cases like O. dicust beside U. dersicust 
or U. fakttst beside O. fefacid. O. dadid and U. procanurent are doubtless exam- 
ples of loss of reduplication in composition. O. uruat and U. portust from verbs 
of the First Conjugation (see 211) are, of course, not original formations. 

b. U. iust 4erit' is parallel to L. it, and U. purtiias ^porrexeris^ is an 
extension of the same type, like L. audit after ii. With purtiias belongs also 
U. heriiei *voluerit' (284, note). 

225. Perfect with lengthened vowel in the root-flyllable. 
Examples: O. hipid ^hdh\ient\ hipust^ etc. (218), U. prusikurent 
*pronuntiaverint' (cf. also O. sipus 'sciens', 90, 1, 6), with e, like 
L. cepi^ venl^ etc.; further O. upsed' fecit', uupsens, upsens, oviraev^^ 
with 6 (68) in contrast to o of the Present (lipsannam etc.). 

a. By lengthened vowel is meant here simply a long vowel in contrast to 
a short vowel of the Present. It represents an inherited variation ; e.g. e: a in 
O. hipid, sipuSj as in L. cSpl to capio (see also 218), or S: e in U. prusikurent, 
as in L. v^i to venio, O. upsed belongs to a denominative of the First Conju- 
gation, from which one would expect Perf. ^dpsatted or ^tipsafed, but is formed 
after the analogy of Perfects of primary verbs, and the o in contrast to the o of 
the Present must be due to Perfects like L. Sml, odl^ etc. 

6. Observe that the forms corresponding to L. emi, venl^ and fBci do not 
follow this type. Thus O. pertemust (224); O. kdmbened, U. benust (224); 
O. fefacid (228), U. fdkuM (224), like fhefhaked of the Praenestine brooch (cf. 
L. pepigl beside jp^gfi). 

226. The Z-Perfect. This is found in Umbrian only, the 
examples being Fut. Perf. entelust 'imposuerit', 2d Sg. entelus, 
and apelust 'impendent', 2d Sg. apelus. These are based on 
participial forms ^en-tend-lo-^ ^awrpend-lo- (-lo- is a regular parti- 
cipial suffix in the Slavic languages; cf. also L. pendulus^ 
credulus^ etc.), with the change of ndl through nnl^ nl, to II (186). 




v/ , 



172 . Inflection 7 [226 

The type doubtless arose in the Future Perfect, which is of 
partw^EialjSlig^? and as the only examples are in this tense it 
is impossible to say whether it ever extended to the Perfect, 
giving such forms as *enteled etc. If not, its mention here 
among the Perfect types is only justified by convenience. 

227. The /-Perfect. Examples: 0.aikdafed'decrevit'(?);— 
O. sakrafir 'sacrato'; — U. andirsafust 'circumtulerit'; — U. pi- 
hafi 'piatum sit'; — U. herifi 'oportuerit'; — probably U. ceheji 
'accensum sit'; — O. fufens 'fuerunt'; — ■ U. amprefuus 'ambieris', 
ambrefurent 'ambierint'. 

This /-Perfect is a periphrastic formation like the Imper- 
fect, the second element in this case being *bhuom, *bhue8^ 
*bhuet, etc., that is, a past tense formed from the root ' to be' 
with the thematic vowel. The Latin Futures like qmdbo con- 
tain the same form, but in its Subjunctive function. 

228. The ^^-Perfect. This is found in Oscan (with Paelig- 
nian, Marrucinian, and Volscian) but not in Umbrian. Oscan 
examples, all of the First Conjugation, are : pnifatted 'probavit', 
PI. prdfattens ; — dadikatted 'dedicavit' ; — teremnattens ' terminave- 
runt'; — tribarakattins 'aedificaverint'; — lamatir, lamatir *caeda- 
tur'(?) ; — djuunated 'donavit'. Cf. Pael. coisatens 'curaverunt', 
Marruc. amatens, Volsc. «i«^ia^i£?n«'statuerunt'. This formation 
is probably based on the ^o-Participle through the medium of the 
Future Perfect (cf. the Umbrian ^-Perfect), but so long as the 
double t is left unexplained its history must remain obscure. 

Note. It is possible that a contamination of the ^o-Participle and 

the wes-Participle resulted in a form with tu (e.g. -tuos) which then 

became tt. But it is difficult to support the change of tu to U. 

a. O. angetuzet * proposuerint' , the etymology of which is wholly uncertain, 

has sometimes been taken as a ^-Perfect. But without further evidence of a 

^■Perfect in the Third Conjugation, it seems more probable that the t belongs 

to the root {get- or gent- with prefix an-). By any theory the fragmentary 

angitu . . , if related, is puzzling on account of the i. 

229. The nki-Periect, This is found in Umbrian only, 
the examples being Fut. Perf. purdinhiust 'porrexerit', purdin- 
8U8t, purdinhis^ 2d Sg. purtinjus; — combifiansiust ^n\mtiaLYeTit\ 

281] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 173 

combifiansiust^ combifiansust^ Perf. Subj. comhifiansi ; — dislera- 
linsust 'inritum fecerit'. These forms point clearly to a forma- 
tion containing nkj (see 144), but its precise origin is uncertain. 

Taking purdin^iust as the earlier formation, one may assume that it is 
based on an adjectival stem *purdinkiO'^ again through the medium of the Future 
Perfect (226). Such a form would contain an -inko- based on the O.-U. sufiKx 
-in- (O. leginum etc.) like L. -iunco- based on the corresponding -ion- (cf. L. rati- 
uncula to ratio). But neither this nor any of the other explanations is entirely 

The Future Perfect 

230. For examples, see 205-209 (especially 207) and 223-229. 
For the omission of final ^ in U. 3d Sg. habus and couortus, cf. 
127, 3. 

The origin of this formation is disputed, but the most prob- 
able explanation is that it is periphrastic, a combination of a 
short-vowel Subjunctive of the verb 'to be' with an old Nom. 
Sg. of a Perf. Act. Partic. in -w«, a possible relic of which is 
O. sipus 'sciens' (90, l, b). The forms would then be 2d Sg. 
-us-ses^ 3d Sg. -us-set^ whence by syncope -i*«(«), -ust. After the 
analogy of the Future, e.g. after -azent to -a«^, would arise beside 
-ust the 3d PI. in -uzent (O. -^zet^ -uset, U. -urent), 

NoTB. Another possibility is that the type is formed from the 

Perfect Stem after the analogy of the Future fjist * erit\ Connection 

with the Latin vi- and wi-Perfect, which is strongly urged by some, 

seems to the author the least likely view. K41W V\A^,fl ^ , ^'r# '.-'^ 

a. U. uesticos * libaverit' (VI b 25) beside Imperat. ues^ica^u is taken by some 

as coming from *uestikaust, but we should expect rather *uesticafust, or *uesticu8t 

like portust. It probably stands for uesticos fust^^ and is a to-Participle, like 

U. pihos *piatus% but used here in the Active sense like U. ^ersnator, L. cendtus. 


231. The Italic Subjunctive represents a fusion of the old 
Subjunctive and Optative, which are kept distinct in Greek and 
in Vedic Sanskrit. 

1 Such an ellipsis, though perhaps without parallel in Latin, is natural enough 
where the Future Perfect has been used in a clause immediately preceding, and where 
the conjunction amipo * donee' prevents any ambiguity. But it is also possible that 
the omission is a mere error. 


174 Inflection [231 

The Optative moodnsign was %e^ i, for unthematic verbs, as 
seen in L. «im, «f«, etc. (early L. 9iem^ sies, etc.), velim, edim, etc., 
and also in the Perfect Subjunctive in -im etc. In thematic 
verbs the mood-sign, including the thematic vowel, was oi, as in 
Grk. (f>€poi etc., but of this formation there is no trace in Italic. 

The Subjunctive mood-sign for unthematic verbs was iden- 
tical with the thematic vowel of the thematic Indicatives. This 
type, which may be called the short- vowel Subjunctive, is seen 
in Latin in ero and in the Future Perfect, and in Oscan-Umbrian 
in the Future and probably in the Future Perfect (280), but has 
not survived in any forms which are Subjunctives from the 
Italic point of view. For thematic verbs there were two mood- 
signs, a and e. The a is seen in Latin in the Present Subjunc- 
tive of Conjugations II, III, and IV. The e is seen in the 
Present Subjunctive of Conjugation I (probably, see below) and 
in the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive, also in the Future 
of Conjugations III and IV except in the First Singular. In 
general, then, the Italic Subjunctive forms represent either unthe- 
matic Optatives with ie, i, or thematic Subjunctives with a or e. 
In Oscan-Umbrian their distribution is the same as in Latin 
except in the Perfect Subjunctive (284). 

The Present Subjunctive 

232. For examples, see 205-209. In the First Conjugation 
the Oscan forms deiuaid ^i\iret\ tadait^cen8e2it\ sakahlter ^sacri- 
ficetur', contain -a<f-, from which comes L. -e- by contraction. 
This 'de- from -die- is probably the ^-Subjunctive of -afo-, though 
it might also be wholly or in part the i^"-Optative of an unthe- 
matic stem in -a. The Umbrian forms portaia 'portet' etc. 
represent a departure from the original type and are due to 
the influence of such forms as U. fagia, feia, fuia, etc., of the 
Fourth Conjugation. The forms of Conjugations II-IV agree 
entirely with the Latin. Of the unthematic forms, U. «i, «fw«, 
etc., show the same generalization of the i as is seen in L. «i« 
etc. (early sieB etc.); while O. osii[nB withji for ie shows the 

|LCjr>^ VX>& vM 

286] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 175 

opposite extension of ie^ or, more exactly, represents the original 
*si'ent (ending -ent) with e changed to e under the influence of 
forms containing 'ie-. 


The Imperfect Subjunctive 

233. The only examples are O. fusid *foret', hjerrins 'cape- 
rent', patensins 'aperirent' (with Psiehupsaseter 'operaretur, fieret'). 
The i is identical with the e in L. esses, amdreSy ageres, etc., and 
the formation represents an ^-Subjunctive of an «-Aorist. The 
«-Aorist, as an unthematic formation, would take the short-vowel 
Subjunctive, and this is preserved in the O.-U. Future (221). 
But, used as Subjunctives, the forms followed the analogy of 
the long-vowel type, which had become characteristic of Italic 

The Perfect Subjunctive 

234. For examples, see 205-209 and 223-229. The i of 
O. sakraffr and tribarakattins points to e rather than f, so that 

the formation is an ^"-Subjunctive. ^Vt^< y^^- >" - ^ '.- T 6f'^<^^'<-y^ 

Note. Some maintaiu that the two Oscan forms with f are dot sufficient 
evidence to justify us in assuming a divergence from the Latin formation, which 
is an {-Optative ; that the f of sakrafir may be a mistake such as is found in the 
class of inscriptions to which it belongs, and that the f of trfbarakattiiis may stand 
for i, shortened from i before nt. As regards the latter point, the Imperf. Subj. 
forms like h]errfns etc. beside fusid show that before the ending -ns a long vowel 
was either retained or restored by analogy (78, a), and so we are reasonably 
justified in assuming from tribarakattins a 8d Sg. ^Hribarakattid. As for U. heriiei, 
which is best taken as a Perf. Subj. ' voluerit' (and keriei^ herie * vel% which is the 
same form), the spelling ei is otherwise unknown for either g or i, but may stand 
for B, like the ei in nesimei (42). It must be admitted that the material bearing 
on the question is scanty, but so far as it goes it points decidedly, we think, to 
an g-Subjunctive. 


235. Two probable examples of the Present Imperative 
are: U. aserio 'observa' and «^ipZo 'stipulare', both of the First 
Conjugation, with o for final a (34). Here also Pael. eite 'ite'. 

236. All other forms are such as correspond to the Latin 
Future Imperative. 

.■^., . >. i J,7o • . . ^ ^ Inflection \ -»*^ |-ggQ 

1. The endiAg of the Second and Third Singular is O. -tudy 
'^ • •' ; U. 'tu, corresponding to L. -to^ early -tod^ Grk. -ro), etc. (68, 64). 
jt.'-. 5.' Ia For examples, see 206-209. All the Oscan forms are of the Third 
iN>(^»'^" Person. In the Third Conjugation the thematic vowel suffers 

syncope except after n (88, i). For U. aitu, deitu^ -veita, see 148 ; 
for IJ.feitu^fetu^ 219. 

2. There is no unquestioned example of a Plural in Oscan, 
but eituns (nos. 14-18) has often, and perhaps correctly, been 
taken as 'eunto'. As such it is easily explained as formed 
from the Singular after the analogy of the Third Plural of 
other tenses, where -ns corresponds to Sg. -c?, e.g. Subj. -ana 
beside -ad, -ins beside -id, etc. It is no objection to this that 
the Latin and Umbrian formations are different, for both are 

In Umbrian a Second and Third Plural has been formed 

by the addition of -td (written -ta, -tu, -to ; see 84), of uncertain 

origin. So fututo 'estote', aituta 'agunto', habetuto, habituto 

'habento', tusetutu, tursituto 'terrento', etc. 

a. The form etatu, etato ' itatote' comes from ^etatutu, *etatyto, by hap- 
lology, as L. semestris from *semi'mestris etc. 

237. There is also a Passive Imperative, ending in Oscan 
in -mur^ in Umbrian in -mu, PI. -mumo. Thus O. censamur *cen- 
setor'; — U. persnihmu, persnihimu *precator', PI. peranihimumo ; 
anowiAimw'induito', eA^^wr«^aAa7ww 'exterminato', etc. (the Um- 
brian forms are all Deponents). The history of the ending is 
like that of early Latin -mi/iJ, in fruimino etc., which is related 
to the -mini of the Second Plural (originally an Infinitive form), 
but modeled after the Active ending 't6(d). Similarly O.-U. 
^-mod was formed after -tod^ and in Oscan the d was replaced 
by the r of the Passive. The Umbrian pluralizing -md is 
modeled after the -td. 

Note. This *'mod may come from *-mnod and so be almost identical 
with L. -mind. But, in the absence of other evidence for a change of mn to m 
in Oscan-Umbrian, the possibility must be granted that, while formed in the 
same way as L. -mind, it started from a by-form with m, perhaps one of the 
cases in which an I.E. interchange of mn and m has to be recognized. 

288] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 177 

a. U. annamu, aramahamo '■ ordamini' comes from *arsmamumo by hap- 
lology, as etato 4tatote\ And this has effected a reduction in the following 
word, kateramu, caterahamo ^ cateryamini\ 


238. The Imperative forms have just been mentioned. In 
the Indicative and Subjunctive only the Third Singular and 
Third Plural are represented, but two different types of for- 
mation are to be distinguished. For omission of the final r in 
Umbrian, see 108, 4. 

1. Forms in -ter and -tur^ answering to the Latin formation 
with -tur. In Oscan only -ter is found, while in Umbrian -ter 
is used in primary tenses, -tur in secondary. Examples : 

Indicatives. O. uincter *convincitur', sakarater 'sacratur', 
karanter 'vescuntur', comparascuster ^QOXi&\x\\jaL erit'; — U. herter 
'oportet', terte 'datur'(?), o«fgw«gwdi*ostendentur' (89, 2, 166). 
Cf. also Marruc. /(^renter 'ferimtur'. 

Subjunctives. O. sakahlter 'sanciatur'; — U. emantur, emantu 
*accipiantur', terkantur *suffragentur', tursiandu 'terreantur' (166). 
Cf. also Pael. ifpsa«e^er'operaretur, fieret'. 

2. Forms in which r alone appears as the ending of the 
Third Singular. This type is unknown in Latin. The most cer- 
tain examples are: Pres. Subj. \].ferar\ — Perf. Subj. O. sakra- 
fir, with which belong O. lamatir, lamatir^ U. pihafei, herifi, ceheji^ 
and probably U. ier (cf . Fut. Perf. iust) ; — Pres. Indie. O. loufir 
(from Houfer beside Act. Houfeti L. lihet\ for meaning 'vel', 
see 202, 18). For the meaning of forms of this type, see 289. 

The Future Perfects U. henuso^ couortuso^ probably belong 
here, standing for *benusor and *couortusor^ though their precise 
origin is doubtful. 

a. The view that U. hertei, herti, stands for *?iertSr^ and represents a Pres- 
ent Subjunctive of a still different type from those cited under 1 and 2, is to be 
given up. Though ei usually stands for a long vowel, there are a few instances 
of its use for short i (29) which, taken in connection with U. ostenaeridi with i 
for e before final r (89, 2), show that it is unnecessary to separate hertei from 
hertor and other forms in 4er, Nor is the Subjunctive demanded by the syntax. 

178 Inflection [288 

6. 0. sakraitir *sacretur\ for which one would expect *8akraiter like saka- 
hiter, possibly owes its i to contamination with forms like sakrafir. Or shall we 
adopt the other possible reading sakrattir in spite of the fact that this would 
give us a tt-Perfect and an /-Perfect from the same verb ? 

c. ForO. kaispatar *caedatur'(?) and krustatar 'cruentetur^(?), apparently 
related to L. caespes and crustus, there is no satisfactory explanation. If they 
are taken as Subjunctives of the tt-Perfect from denominatives of the First 
Conjugation, the ~ar instead of -ir cannot be accounted for. It is more probable 
that they are Present Subjunctives of the Third Conjugation, from *kai8pd, 
*krust6, the -tar in place of -ter being due, possibly, to contamination with the 
type of U. ferar. Another suggestion is that they are from Presents in -ato or 
-ato, in which case they belong to the same type as U. ferar, . * s 4- ■ 

U39. A Passive" and Deponent formation charalcterizmi by 
r is the common possession of the Italic and Celtic languages. 
This r is unquestionably to be connected with a series of Third 
Plural secondary endings containing r, which are preserved in 
Sanskrit (-i^r, -ran^ -ranta^ etc.). But the precise starting-point 
and the various steps in the development are necessarily obscure. 
The following view seems most probable.^ 

We start from an Active ending -r, parallel to the usual -n<, and a Middle 
ending -ro parallel to the usual -rUo. 

The forms in -r, though originally Plural and Active, came to be used 
only when the subject was indefinite, and in this way lost their specifically 
Plural force. Cf. Eng. 'they say' or *one says', but Germ. *man sagt', Fr. *on 
dit', etc. From such a meaning it is but a step to an Impersonal Passive (cf. 
Eng. 'it is said'), and from that again to a fully developed Passive with definite 
subject ; and this development would be assisted by the existence of other forms 
containing r which were based on a Middle ending and so had partly Passive 
force from the outset. In the O.-U. forms in -r the impersonal meaning prevails, 
there being only one form with subject expressed, namely O. eavf lamatir ''let 
him be beaten' (?). In O. Idviass . . . sakriss sakrafir, avt dltiumam kerssnafs Hhe 
loviae are to be consecrated with sacrifices, but the last one with banquets', 
sakrafir has the Accusative construction which goes with the meaning *let one 
consecrate', 4et there be consecration of. O. lovfir^ U. ier, herifi, henuso^ and 
couortuso are impersonal, while in the case of U. ferar ^ pihafei, and ceh^ it is 
impossible to say whether the word or clause to which they refer is to be taken 
as Nominative or Accusative. 

1 1 follow Thurneysen, K.Z. 37, 92 ff., in his explanation of forms in -<er, but 
for forms like U. ferar I still hold to what is substantially the view of Zimmer, 
K.Z. 30, 276 ff., and this without regard to the question of how far an Active imper- 
sonal use is actually to be recognized in the corresponding Celtic forms. 

242] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 179 

The forms in -ter sprang from a Third Plural in -ntro representing a con- 
tamination of the Middle endings -nto and -ro (cf. Skt. -ranta^ a combination 
of the same elements in the reverse order). After this the Third Singular end- 
ing -to became -tro ; and -tro^ -rUro, became -<er, -nter, in the same way as U. agery 
L. ager, from *agros (91, 2). 

The forms in 4ur, undoubtedly from -ior^ are the most difficult, but per- 
haps originated in a combination of -nto with the simple -r, giving -ntor^ whence 
the Singular 4or, 

All the formations mentioned, though originating in secondary endings, 
came to be used in primary tenses as well. The distinction of primary -ter and 
secondary -tur is unoriginal and confined to Umbrian. In Latin, -tur prevailed 
in all tenses ; in Oscan, -ter. 

The Periphrastic Passive 

240. In the Perfect System of the Passive, periphrastic 
forms are more common than the r-forms. Thus : Perf . Indie. 
O. teremnatust 'terminata est', prdftiiset 'posita sunt', serif tas set 
' scrip tae sunt', U. screhto est ^'SCTiptum. est', screihtor sent, etc.; 
Perf. Subj. U. kuratu si'curatum sit'; Fut. Perf. U. pihaz fust 
'piatus erit', muieto fust 'muttitum erit', ^ersnatur furent 'cenati 
erunt', etc. ; Perf. Infin. U. kuratu era 'curatum esse', ehiato erom 
*emissum esse'. 

The Present Infinitive 

241. For examples, see 205-209. The ending was -oniy 
doubtless an Accusative form in origin, with change to -nmi 
in Oscan (60). In the First Conjugation -aum remained uncon- 
tracted, and in tribarakaviim the v is simply a glide sound. See 83. 

For the Perfect Infinitive Passive, see 240. 

The Supine 

242. The one certain example of the Supine is U. anzeriatu, 
a«ena^o 'observatum', showing the same formation and use as 
the Latin Supine. On o for -w(m), see 67. 

a. U. aso VI b 50 is often regarded as a Supine, but is more probably a 
Perf. Pass. Partic. (** Let the same person carry it lighted on the right shoulder"). 

180 Inflection [248 

The Present Active Participle 

243. The formation is the same as in Latin. Examples are : 
O. praesentid 'praesente' (178, 6, a), U. z«ref, aerae 'sedens', U. restef, 
reste 'instaurans' (218, 4, a), U. kutef 'murmurans' (262, 2). For 
the /, see no, 4. 

a. The existence of an O. staief * stans^ is altogether doubtful, owing to 
the uncertainty of the reading and division of words (no. 29). 

The Perfect Passive Participle 

244. The formation is the same as in Latin. 

1. 'to-, O. «(?r{fto« 'scriptas', U. screihtor; — U. k'Ai^i^ 'cinc- 
tos'; — O. statds'stati'; — O. prdftii *posita' from *pro-fartO' (fa- 
reduced grade of fe-^ as in fak- beside fek-); L. pro-di-tua, 
con-di'tus^ Grk. Trpo-de-To^ (see 228 with footnote); — U. daetom 
'delictum' (as if L. *de-itum)\ — O. ancensto 'incensa', censtom-en 
'in censum', to censaum (2ll). For forms in -«o- from roots end- 
ing in a dental, see 188 ; and for U. spefa etc., see no, 3. 

a. O. ancensto, censtom-en, represent the normal formation, as compared 
with L. census which is one of the examples of the analogical extension of -so-. 
Similarly O. censtur : L. censor (0. kenzsur, occurring once, is due to Latin 

6. A probable example of the analogical -so- is *pelso-, assumed from 
U. pelsatu etc. See 262, 1, a. So also U. sepse, which may well mean *sane^ 
{sepse sarsiie * sane sarteque'), is perhaps an adverb formed from *saipso-: 
L. saeptus. Cf. L. lapsus, 

c. U. aso 'arsum' (242, a) is commonly connected with L. assiis, which 
seems to contain *asso- in place of *asto-. But it might also be connected with 
L. arsus, if the r of Qrdeo, dreo, were original and not from s, as is often assumed. 
That is, its s might stand in the same relation to the r/of U. trahuorfi (116, 3) 
as that of L. rusum to the restored rs of rursum, versus, etc. This of course is 
impossible if L. dred is connected with dra, O.-U. asa^, but the history of this 
whole class of words is obscure. 

2. 'dto-. O. teremnatust 'terminata est', staflatas ' statu tae', 
ehpeilatas'erectae'; — U. pihaz, j^iAos 'piatus' (86, 187, 2), gersnatur 
'cenati', anzeriates'observatis', etc. 

a. O. deiwa^uns ' iurati% if the n is not merely a mistake, must owe its 
form to the influence of agent-nouns in -on- like L. praedo, O. sverrunei (247, 2). 

246] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 181 

3. -1^0-. U. purditom ''jpoTTect\im\ Am^u'optato', stahmito 
' statutum', persnis ' precatus' from *permit{o)%y etc. Like persnis 
in formation and use is U. uestis, uesteis 'libans\ beside uesticatu 
etc. from an extended stem ^uestikd-. Here belongs also U. sar- 
site 'sarte' (see above, i, 6), as if L. *sarcitus instead of sarins, 

4. -etO' (see 86, 3, 88, 2). U. tagez, ^a«e« 'tacitus' (187, 2), 
uirseto 'visum', opeter 'lecti' (212,' 6), maletu 'molitum' (beside 
c?omafir 'commolitis' with -to-); — further, in the First Conjuga- 
tion, U. prusegetu, oseto^ etc. (211). 

a. U. comohota ' commota' probably belongs here, coming from *mouetO' 
by syncope and change of ou to 6 (72). L. motus also comes from *moueto-^ but 
independently. For it is not to be separated from wtua from *uoueto-, earlier 
*^oghMeto-f U. yafetes (152), in which, obviously, the process is specifically 

The Gerundive 


245. The forms correspond to the Latin, with the change 
oi nd to nn (186). The origin of the formation is still unsettled. 
Examples: O. tipsannam ^faciendam', sakrannas^sacrandae', eehiia- 
nasdm 'emittendarum'; — U. pihaner 'piandi', anferener 'circum- 
ferendi', pel8an8'sepeliendus'(?). 

Note. The Oscan-Umbrian forms bear upon the much-disputed question 
of the origin of the Gerundive to this extent, that they are unfavorable to any 
theory which assumes that the original form contained ndh. For there are too 
serious difficulties, we think, in the way of assuming that the representation of 
an original sonant aspirate after a nasal by a simple sonant is not only Latin and 
Umbrian (161) but also Oscan, and so may belong to the Oscan-Umbrian or even 
the Italic period. See 161, a with footnote, and 264, 2 (O. aa-manaffed from 
Pres. *marifo), not to mention O. Anafrfss. Otherwise Fay, Trans. Am. Phil. 
Assoc. 29, pp. 15 ff. 




246. 1. 'tor- in agent>-nouiis (L. victor), O. censtur 'censor', 
U. affertur ' *adf ertor, flamen', O.embratur'imperator', O.Regaturei 
*Rectori' (with -d-tor- after derivatives of a-verbs). See 180, l. 

a. Derivatives of agent-nouns are regularly formed from the reduced grade 
of the suffix (97), like L. victr-ix; e.g. U. kvestretie, uhtretie (251, 1), beside 
kvestar, uhtur, 0. Fuutref (180, a). Here belong the Oscan proper names Sadiriis 
,'Satrlus' (81, 167, 2; cf. L. satcyr), VestirikiliU *Vestricio' (81; cf. L. Vestdnus 
with -^tor-), Tintiriis**Tintrius'*(cf. L. Tintdrius with -ttJr-; TirUirius is simply 
the Oscan form, like Pontifis, Popidius, CcUavius). But the later formation 
with -tor- (cf. L. amaUiriiLS, auctdritds) is also represented, e.g. U. spetuiie 
**spectoriae' beside Speture **Spectori', O. Kenssurinefs beside kenzsor * censores\ 

2. 'ter- {-ter-, -tr-) in nouns of relationship (L. pater). O. patir 
'pater', U. frater'fratres'. See 180, 2. 

247. 1. -ion- (-in-), -tion- {-tinr)^ in abstracts denoting action, 

or, with a transfer to the concrete sense, the result of the action 

(L. legio,, actio). O. trfbarakkiuf ' aediiicium', tanginud 'sententia', 

fruktatiuf 'fructus', medicatinom 'iudicationem', U. natine'natione'. 

See 181, with a. 

a. 4i-^ of which -tidn- is an extension, is seen in some words where the 
Latin has the extended form. Thus U. ahtim-em *ad caerimonium^(?): L. QdiiO ; 
— O. uhftis ' voluntates' : L. optio ; — U. -vak&z, -uacos^ from.*uakat(i)8 : L. vacdn 
tid. Cf. also U. puntes' pentads' from *pomp-ti- (146, 158) ; — U. spanti *latus' 
from *8parUi (root span-^ Eng. span^ Germ, spannen^ related to spfl- in U. spdhaiu 
(110, 3, a). 

1 That is, the formation of the word as a whole, irrespective of inflectional varia- 
tions. Some matters which belong strictly under this head, such as the formation of 
adverbs, of the comparative and superlative, etc., have been treated, for greater conven- 
ience, in connection with Inflection. There remain, then. Derivation of Nouns and 
Adjectives by means of suffixes. Secondary Verbal Derivation, and Composition. No 
attempt is made to present the material in full, but examples are given of all the 
more important formations. 


248] Derivation of Nouns and Adjectives 183 

2. -on- in agent-nouns (L.praedo). O. svemmei ^spokesman' 
(? see note to C. A. 2 ; cf. L. ausurro); — U. mardn-, name of an 
official (see note to no. 84). For other nouns in -J/i-, see 181, b. 

a, -ondr-f probably an extension of -dn-, and frequent in names of divinities 
(L. Belldna), is seen in U. Vesune. In the parallel names of male divinities, 
U. Afmone, Puemone, Uojione, all Dat. Sg., it is not clear whether the suffix is 
-Qno- or simply -on-, 

3. -men- (-mw-) in nouns denoting action or result of the action 
(h, frogmen). U. norm 'nomen'; — O. teremnlss 'terminibus' (but 
U. termnom-e etc., like L. terminus beside termen) ; — U. tikamne 
*dedicatione' (from dikd-; cf. L. certdmen etc.). The extended 
form -mento- is seen in O. tristaamentud 'testamento'. But 
U. pelmner : L. pulmentum, 

248. -Zo-, -elo'^ 'flo-^ -klo-^ 'tro-^ in nouns denoting means or 
instrument, or sometinjes place or result. 

1. -Zo-, -elo' (L. vinculum). U. *uiUo' (preui^latu ' *praevincu- 
lato') from ^uinkelo-; — U. tigel 'dedicatio', Ace. Sg. tiglu, from 
*dikelo'. See 88, 4, 144. 

2. 'flo- (L. pabulum; orig. -dhlo-^ Grk. -0\o-). A ^staflo- 
(L. stabulum) is implied by O. staflatas 'statutae', U. stajlarem 
* *stabularem', Pael. j9n«^af aZoczna; '*praestibulatrix'. Cf. the 
adjective suffix -fli- (261, i). 

3. -Jkfo-, 'kid' (L. pidculum ; orig. -tlo-^ Grk. -tXo- ; see 129, 2). 
O. sakarakltim ' templum', IJ. pihaclu ' piaculo', U. naraMum * narratio'; 
— U. kiimnahkle 'inconventu', from *komnO' (U. kumne, O. comono)^ 
either directly, after the analogy of other forms in-aHo-, or through 
a denominative verb-stem *komnd'; — U. ehveUdu *sententiam' 
from *ueleklO' (ehueltu^y^ta; cf. L. vehiculum); — U. muneklu 'spor- 
tulam' from ^moini-klo- (cf . L. perlculum)^ containing a denom- 
inative verb-stem *moinl' (cf . L. micnia^ communis^ O. mtiinl-lni) ; 
— (Masc.) O. puklum 'puerum', Pael. puclois (Skt. putrd-); — 
U. fikla 'offam' from *fig'kld (L. jingo). For O. pestltim *templum' 
with 'tlo' preserved, and U. persclo^ belonging probably under 1, 
see 129, 2. 

a. Is U. aviekla, auiecla * augurali' simply an adjective form of a noun 
*ay>i^klo-, formed from a denominative verb-stem *auie- (cf. U. auie *augurio')? 

184 Word-Formation [848 

We should expect an additional adjectival sufQx, as in L. periciUdsus^ pid^iiUdris, 
etc. But on the other hand, a diminutive form ^auiSkdo-, whether with -fceto-, 
or from an ^auiBko- (cf. U. aviekate), would give U. ^avie^la. Cf. U. arflataf 
and strolifla, 249, 1, 2, and 144. 

4. 'tro-^'trd' (L. ardtrum). U.krematru'*crematra' (L. cremo) ; 
— mw^a^ro 'cinctum' (89,3); — kletram 'lecticam' (L. ell-no^ cli- 

tellae^ etc.). 

a. A transfer to the i^Declension is seen inO. castroua, U. castruo, etc. : 
L. castrum. 

249. -Zo-, -elo-^ 'kelo-j in diminutives. 

1. -Zo-, -elo- (L. porculus). U. Funtler-e, Fondlir-e 'in *Pon- 
tulis' from ^fontelo- (L. fons); — U. arglataf 'arculatas', derived 
from *arkelo- (L. arcus^ arculus; see 164); — O. itiklei probably 
* formula of consecration, consecration' from ^iokelo- (L. iocua^ 
U. iuka 'preces').^ 

2. 'kelo' (L. osculum). O. ziculud 'die', Ace. PL djiikdltis 
(cf. L. diecula); — U. veskla 'vascula', struhgla '*struiculam'. See 

88, 4, 144. 

250. -io- (-i-), -id'. For the inflection of the Neuters in -^'o-, 
see 172, 178, 1, 6. 

1. In primary derivatives (L. studium, furia), O. kdmben- 
nieis 'conventus'; — O. memnim 'monumentum' from *me-men-%o-\ 
— U. afkani 'cantum'; — O. heriam 'arbitrium, vim'. 

2. In secondary derivatives (L. magisterium, familia). O. 
medicim 'magistracy', Abl. Sg. meddixud (lOO, 3, {?), and meddikkiai 
'in the meddixship', both derived from meddik- 'magistrate, 
meddix', the suffix having here the same force as L. -dtus in 
iudicdtuSj magistrdtus (L. indicium,, vindicia^ are primary deriva- 
tives from iudico^ vindico); — O. /am^Zo 'familia' from *famelid 
(100, 3, (?), derived from ^famelo- (O. famel, L. famulus) ; — O. 
Viteliii 'Italia' (also Vltelliii, 162, 1) from * Uitelid,^ probably derived 
from ^uitelo- (U. vitlu, L. vitulus) ; — here also probably O. pru- 
pukid 'by previous agreement' (178, 5). 

1 The derivation from a *diuO'kelo- * day', though attractive on the side of mean- 
ing, is on the whole less likely. 

2 From some such form was borrowed the Grk. 'iraXfa, which became the source 
of L. Italia. 

262] Derivation of Nouns and Adjectives 185 

251. 1. 'itid' (L. duritia). U. kyestretie 'in quaestura', 
uhtretie 'in *auctura', beside kvestur, uhtur (see 246, 1, a). 

a. That these are Locatives of the First Declension and not Ablatives of 
the Fifth with the suffix -itiS- (L. duritiSs)^ is shown by the form of the adjective 
agreeing with kvestretie. 

2. -W0-, -nd- (L. donum^ umd). O. dunum, U. dunu 'donum'; 
— IT. ^remwt^ 'tabemaculo' from Hrelnno- (125, l); — O. fiisnii 
'fanum', U. fesnaf-e, from *fe8-nd- (99, l). O. comono 'comitium', 
U. kumne, and O. amntid 'circuitu', amnud 'causa', are formed 
from the prepositional adverbs kom and am, like L. trdnstrum 
from trdns. For -no- in adjectives, see 256. 

a. snor- is to be assumed for O. kersnu ^cena% U. sesna^ etc. See 116, 2. 
-ni- is seen in U. poni *posca' (po-ni-). 

3. -?wo-, -md' (L. armus, spuma). O. Hormo-^ whence turu- 
miiad'torqueatur', from *^{?rArJ^-7wo- (146); — O. egmo^'Tes' (L. egeo?); 
— U. arsmor 'ritus,' whence also arsmatiam 'ritualem', arsmaAaiwo 
'ordamini', without any certain cognates, but probably coming 
from ^ad-mo-y with a root ad- used of 'orderly arrangement'. For 
-mo- in adjectives, see 189. 

4. -urid'^ -erid'^ in derivatives of numerals. U. tekuries, 
dequrier 'decuviis' (191, 10); — O. ptimperiais ' *quincuriis' (in U. 
pumpdrias the f is probably an error). 

6. ''tdt{i)' (L. honitds). O. Herentateis 'Veneris' (Pael. Heren- 
tas ; cf. also *^pi€VTr)<; • 'A<^/}o8rn;9 iTrwvv/jiov. — Hesychius) from 
*7ierenti'tdt{i)' by haplology, like h.voluntds from *uolonti'tdt(i)-. 

6. -tvr (L. cantus), U. Ahtu '* Actui' ; — U. afputrati ' arbi- 
tratu' with -dtu-^ like L. consuldtus etc., but with this force more 
commonly -^'o- (260, 2) or -dto- (269, 2). 


252. 1. -zV, 'iio' (L. patrius). This is especially common 
in praenomina and gentiles, for which see 174-176; also in deriva- 
tives of names of divinities, as O. Mamerttiais 'Martiis', O. Itiviia 

1 Inchiding many substantives of obviously adjectival origiu. 

186 Word-Formation [262 

'loviam', U. luvie, U. ^erfie beside ^erfe, O. Fiisiais, U. Fisier^ etc., 

beside U. Fiao. 

a. Many of these are used as epithets of other divinities, as in U. Prestate 
(erfie, Tefre luvie, etc. (cf. L. Hercvles lomuSy Venus lovius^ etc.). They some- 
times stand alone as independent names, e.g. U. luvie (II a 6, 8), Sa^i (II h 10). 

2. -eo- (L. aureus) from -eio-, U. fasiu, farsio 'farrea' 
{i from e, 89, 1). 

253. *'aiio-y -eiio-^ '6110-. See 61, 3. 

1. -aiio'. O. kersnaiias '*cenariae'; — U. pemaiaf 'anticas', 

pustnaiaf 'posticas', from peme 'ante', postne 'pone'; — pdraia, 

persaia 'humi stratas'(?) from pmim, per so 'fossam'; — in names 

of persons, O. Tantmnaitim, Vesulliais (176, 3), Maraies^ Gen. Sg. 

Maraiieis (176,4); — extended by the suffix -ano-, O. Pdmpaiians 

'Pompeianus', O. Btivaianiid'in Boviano'. 

a. Like Veil etc., Pompeii was name;^ from a gens, ip this case the *Piim- 
paiius (derived from *pompe * quinque' ; cf . Qy,intii). 

2. -eiio', O. vereiiai 'iuventuti', Gen. Sg. vereias, yerehias 
(? reading uncertain) from *uerO' 'defense' (see note to no. 4); — 
U. Teteies 'Tetteius'(?). It is doubtful whether U. deueia 'divi- 
nam' belongs here, though if it contains the simple -fo- suffix 
(252, 1), like O. Dilviiai, the spelling ei in both occurrences is 

3. -eiio' (L. plebeius). O. Kerriiai 'Cereali', Kerriitiis, etc. 

Note. The suffixes 'aij,o-, -ciio-, and -^iio- probably originated in the 
addition of the suffix -io- to the Loc. Sg. of a-, o-, and enstems. With -ai}0- is 
to be compared Grk. -aios (dlKaios); and Grk. -cios (oUetos), though coming from 
various sources, corresponds in part to -eiio-. Similarly O. ptUiu'cuia', L. 
quoiuSy cuiuSy are, like Grk. xoios, from *quoi-io-. 

254. -dsio' (L. ordindriufr). O. purasiai 'in igniaria', degetasis 
'*decentarius'; — frequent in substantive use, denoting certain 
ceremonies, as O. Fiuusasiais 'Floralibus', kerssnasias '*cenariae', 
sakrasias ' *sacrariae', U. plenasier umasier ' *plenariis *urnariis', 
etc.; — with an added -iko-^ O. miiltasikad 'multaticia'. For the 
retention of s in Umbrian, and for U. ezariaf 'escas'(?), see 112, a. 

Note. It is not unlikely that this suffix originated in the addition of the 
suffix -io- to the Gen. Sg. of o-stems. 

256] Derivation of Nouns and Adjectives 187 

255. 1. -no- in primary derivatives. U. jt?Ze7ier *plenis'; — 
O. suUus 'omnes', suUufif, etc. (L. soll-emnis etc.; cf. also Pael. 
solois 'omnibus'), probably from *solnO'\ For -wo-, -na- in nouns, 
see 261, 2. 

2. -m- in primary derivatives. \],fons 'favens', Nom. PI. 
foner^ etc. (cf. L. Fones beside Faunus). 

3. -no- in secondary derivatives. U. ahesnes'ahenis'. 

4. -dno- (L. Romdnus). O. Abellantis 'Abellani', U. Trehlanir 
'Trebulanis', etc.; — with added -io-, O. Dekmanniiiis, name of a 
festival. ^ ^ {rT 

a. O. amvlanad *Eetour' would seem to be a derivative in -awo-, used sub- 
stantively, were it not for the spelling amvlannadf which occurs twice, and is 
probably the more correct (n for nn can be paralleled, but not nn f or n ; see 
162, 168). The form looks like a Gerundive used substantively, as if L. *amvi- 
andum, and meaning a ^circuitous route'. But there is apparently nothing like 
this in Latin. ^^*^)-cn.«.. 'Ck%- 

6. -tno- (L. divinus). O. deivinais 'divinis', Bantins 'Ban- 
tinus', Ma/A€/>Tti/o 'Mamertina'; U. caJn/ier 'caprini', Ikuvins 
'Iguvinus', etc. 

6. -ono-, U. esonO' *sacer' is possibly from *ais(e)s-dno- (112, a), though 
there is little support in Italic for such an adjective-sufi&x. The noun-suffix 
-OTM)-, -ona-^ originated in an extension of -on- (247, 2, a). 

256. 1. 'ho- in names of peoples (L. Opscl^ Osci^ Falisci, 
etc.). U. Turskum, Tuscom 'Tuscum'; — U. lapuzkum, lapusco 
'*Iapudicum' from *Iapud{i)skO' (cf. lapydes^ 'laTrvSe?, name of 
an lUyrian- people) ;-— U. Naharkum, iVa Aarcoiw '*Narcum' (cf. 
L. iVSr, Nahartes^ Ndrtes)? 

2. -iho' (L. bellicus). O. ttivtiks 'publicus', toutieo^ U. totcor, 
etc. ; — O. mtiinilni 'communis', muinikam, etc. ; — U. fratreks, 
fratrexs '*fratricus, magister fratrum'. 

3. -ikio- (L. patrieius), O. serevkid 'auspicio' probably from 
*seruikio' (173, 5); — O. Kastrikiieis 'Castricii'; — with syncope 
O. ItivkiIiii'*Iovicio'. 

1 Some derive from *«oZj^o-, but the change of lu to II is one which we do not 

2 The uniform spelling with h in both alphabets shows that the h is not merely 
a sign of vowel-length, and that L. Ndr is from *Naharj like cors from cohora. 

188 Word-Formation [256 

4. 'ikio- (L. novicius^ but otherwise rare except in the type 
-tlcius). O. Vestirikiiiii ' Vestricio', Viinikiis ' Vinicius' (-^kio- rather 
than 'ikiO' is assumed here on account of the spelling with i, not i). 

6. -ukio- (or -ukio-l). U. Eastrugiie (cf . O. castrouSj V.castruo^ 
from kastrvr) in contrast to O. Kastrikiieis. 

6. -dk- (L. auddx), O. malak8'malevolos'(?); — U. huntak 
'puteum'(?), probably Ace. Sg. N. of *honddk' meaning 'under- 
ground' (cf. hondra 'infra') and used substantively of a 'well'; — 
U. curnaco 'cornicem', curnase : L. comix with -lAr-. 

7. 'dko' (L. merdcu% ; cf. also Celtic names like Teutohodidci 
etc.). U. Tesenakes, Tesenocir (see 85, a). 

8. 'k', O. Vezkei is most easily derived from ^Uetes-k- or 
*Ueto8'k- with -k- beside -ko- in L. vetuseus^ yet the connection 
with the latter word must be regarded as wholly uncertain. 

257. 1. -ro- in primary derivatives. O.-U. aakro- 'sacer' 
(O. aaKopOy U.«at?ra,etc.);^U. rufra 'rubra' ; — U.vufru 'votivum' 
{uof--, cf. vufetes 'votis'). 

2. -n- in primary derivatives. O.-U. %akri- beside sakro- 
(see 187, 2); — U. joacer 'propitius', Nom. PI. pacrer (pdk-; cf. 
L. pax etc.); — O. akrid (99, 3); — U. ocrer (99, 3;- for ocar 
see 91, b). 

3. For -ero'^ -tero-, see 188, 2. 

4. -aK-, -ari-, in secondary derivatives (L. reffdlis, populdris). 
O. fertalis '(ceremonies) celebrated with sacrificial cakes' (L. fer- 
turn); — O. luisarifs (see 188, and note to no. 21); — O. Dekkriarim 
'Decurialem'; — U. furu sehmeniar 'forum seminarium' (cL forum 
piscdrium etc.). Cf. also U. disleralinsust^ 262, 3. 

5. -^lo- (cf. L. -iZi- in hostllis etc.). O. iuvilu '*iovila', diu- 
vilam, iiivilam, etc., is probably an adjective form used substan- 
tively, from ^dioullo-^ a derivative of Diou- (O. Ditivei etc.). 
Cf . L. Iulu8^ lulius^ from *Iouilo-^ louilio- ; and luilius (inscr.), 
which is perhaps luilius. 

258. 1. -UO' in primary derivatives. O. salavs 'salvus' (80, 1), 
U. saluom 'salvum', etc. ; — O. siuom 'omnino', U. seuom 'totum', 
etc., from ^se-uo- (15, 12); — U. give'citra' (189, 1, a, 190, 1); — 

269] Derivation of Nouns and Adjectives 189 

with participial force, 0./a(?w«'factus',ji?rae/wa*«'praefectus', from 
^fak^o- (cf. L. mortuuB etc.). 

2. 'Uo- in secondary derivatives. U. mersuva'iusta' from 
*medeS-^o (138, a); — U. tesvam^ c?er«wa 'prosperam' probably 
from *dedeS'U0' (182, 6); — U. felsva *holera'(?) from ^feles-uo- 
(L. holus? see 149, 6). 

3. -j/io-, an extension of -wo-, in proper names. O. Salaviis, 
Kalaviis, Helleviis, Heleviieis, for which see also 80, 1 ; — O. Akviiai, 
U. Piquier. 

4. -ouio- in proper names. O. Kaluvis, Gen. Sg. Kaldvieis ; — 
U. Fisouiey -Qrahouie, U. Ikuvinus, liouinur^ etc. also implies an 
^Iffouio-: L. Iffuvium. Cf. Mars. CantouioSy and Vitrovius, Sal- 
loviuSj etc., which occur in Latin inscriptions but are dialectic, 
the regular Latin forms being Vitruvius, Salluvius, etc. 

Note. is an extension of -omo-, earlier -cmo-, as -uio- is of -jio-. 
For -^0- beside -mo-, cf. Ion. k€P€6s from *K€V€f6i and k€ii'6s from *K€vp6s. In 
Latin the two forms of the suffix become identical.^ 

259. 1. 'tO'^ the suffix of the Perf. Pass. Partic. (244), is 
also used, as in Latin (barbdtus)^ to form adjectives directly 
from noun-stems. U. hostatu 'hastatos', mersto 'iustum' (88, 3), 
petenata 'pectinatam, comb-shaped', etc. ; — U . ponisiater^ punicate, 
name of an official, perhaps named from a purple costume 
(*poiniki'dtO' : L. punieus). Cf. also proper names from par- 
ticiples or adjectives in -to-, as O. Minaz, Pukalatiii {^pukldto- 
from puklo- *puer', O. puMum etc.), Kluvatiis, Betitis, etc. 

2. -dto- is used in substantives denoting office or official 
body, like L. -dtu-, O. senateis ^senaius' (cf. also L. sendti); — 
JJ . fratreeate (Loc. Sg.) 'office of fratrex'; — U. maronatei (Loc. 
Sg.) 'office of maro' (see note to no. i^\ maronato (Abl. Sg.; 
see 302). twcv' -1^ ' ' '■■• ; .' •■<-->^ '/j j .'.■,;_. 

3. -dti' in derivatives of names of towns (L. Arpinds). 
O. Saipinaz'Saepinas, of Saepinum', Liivkanateis'*Lucanatis'; — 

1 For the material see especially Solmsen, Studien zur lat. Laatgeschichte, 
pp. 135 ff., who, however, goes too far in assuming that all such forms as are cited 
above in 1, 2, and 3 contain -eijo-y not -j^o-. See author's Verb-System, p. 175. 

190 Word-Formation [259 

U. Tafinate, ^amwa^e W Tadinatem, of Tadinum'; — used sub- 
stantively as names of gentes^ U. Atiiefiate, Kaselate, Casilate^ 
Talenate, etc (II b 1-7). 

260. 1. 'do-, U, kalefuf, calersu 'with a wbite forehead' 
(cf. L. cal{l)idu8^ Isidorus, Orig. 12, 1, 52), like L. pallidus etc.; 
— probably U. «{?r«er 'suilli', «or«aZem 'suillam' (see 67). 

2. -idio-, -edio-y in proper names (L. Calidius). O. Htisidiis, 
Pdpidiis, CaisidiSy Pael. Apidis ; — also with syncope O. Pupdiis, 
Pael. Popdis ; — with added -mo-, O. Tafidins; — U. Coredier^ Kure- 
ties (Pael. Uibedia); — U. Atiersiur^ Atiidriur (but L. Auidium)^ 
Pael. Ouiedis. The reason for O. i (not i) and, in general, the 
relation of the different forms are obscure. 

261. 'fli' (L. amdhilis ; orig. -dhli-^ the adjective i-stem form 
of 'dhlo-, 248, 2). U. fagefele (aes facefete) **facibile, *sacrificabile', 
purtifele '*porricibilem'. Since anaptyxis is unknown in Um- 
brian the first e in -fele is surprising. Possibly it is due to the 
Nom. Sg., in which -fel from -flis would be regular (cf. pacer 
from *pakri8 91, 2). 



262. 1. As in Latin, the great mass of denominatives, 
whether or not derived from a-stems, follow the First Conjuga- 
tion. Examples: U. kuraia'curet', kuratu (Pael. eoisatens) from 
*koi8d (L. curd); — O. moltaum 'multare' from *molktd (O. molto, 
L. multa); — O. ehpeilatas 'erectae, set up' from *peild: L. plla ; 
— O. deiuaid 'iuret', deiuast^ deiuatud^ etc. from *deiuo- (L. deuB ; 
see 16, 4) ; — U. stakaz 'statutus' from ^stdko- (cf. L. stdffnum); — 
U. pihatu ^pi2ito\ pihos^ etc. from adj. *pro- (L. pius); — O. prd- 
fatted'probavit' from adj. ^profo- (L. probus); — O. teremnattens 
*terminaverunt' from Hermen- (O. teremniss, L. termen)\ — 
U. vepuratu 'restinguito'(?) from adj. lie-pwr-'fireless' (U. vepurus, 
263, 2); — O. tipsannam 'operandam, faciendam', U. osatu^ etc. from 
*ope8' (L. opus); — U. tuderato 'finitum' from Hudes- (U. tuder); 

282] Secondary Verbal Derivation 191 

— U. etufstamu, efwr«^aAi/it^ 'exterminato' from Hudes-to- (cf. 
L. modeS'tus). 

There are also examples of the formation from the ^o-Parti- 
ciple, corresponding to the Latin iteratives. Thus U. etaians 
'itent', etato^ etc. from ^ei-to-j not from ^i-to- like L. ito; — 
U. statitatu 'statuito' from statlto- (U. statita, see below, 3) ; — 
U. frosetom 'fraudatum' from *frau88o- (L. frausus) as if 
L. *frau8d; — \J . preplotatu of uncertain meaning, but perhaps 
'*praeplauditato, strike down' from *plaudeto-. 

a. U. peUatu, pelsans, etc. is probably derived from a Partic. *pel80-, like 
L. pulso from pulsus, though its etymological- connection is uncertain. The 
meaning * bury' (in the trench ; cf . VI b 40) seems the most probable among 
various suggestions, and the connection with L. sepelio may be maintained if 
we take the latter as se-pdio (for se- beside sS- cf . solvo from *se-lud, socors from 
*se-cors). In this case *pelso- will be *pel-so- for *pel40' with the same analog- 
ical -so- as in L. pulsus etc. (see also 244, 1, a, b). 

2. Denominatives of the Second Conjugation are : O. turu- 
miiad'torqueatur' from ^tormo- (cf. L. tormentum); — O. fatium 
*fari' like L. fateor from Partic. *fatO' (<f>aT6<;)y which was 
replaced in Latin hjfdto-; — U. kutef speaking low' (kutef pes- 
nimu equivalent to the more common tacez pesnimu'tacitus pre- 
cator') probably as if L. *cauted {*cauten%) from cautus ; — 
O. pdtiad, putiiad'possit', as if L. *poteo (cf. patens^ potui)^ from 
poti' (L. potis), 

3.^ Denominatives of the Fourth Conjugation are : U. pers- 
nihimu 'precator', persnis^ etc. from ^persni-^ *persk-ni- (146) (cf. 
Skt. prap-nd' from the same root, whence denom. pragnaydmiYi 

— U. statita 'statuta' from ^sta-ti- (Grk. o-rao-^?) ; -— U. stahmito 
'statutum', Btahmeitei^ from the stem of U. s^aAmei 'statui' 
{^itd-mo- or ^std-mi-)'^ — O. sakruvit 'sacrat', saknrist, from *%alzru- 
(214, 3); — U. c?i8?eraKn«w«^ 'inritum fecerit' from an adjective 
*di8-lei8dlir^oS. the track' (L. Ziro, Germ. Greleise) and so 'wrong, 

1 The assumption of a primary verb with a nt-soffix, a tjrpe of which there are 
no other relics in Italic, is altogether less probable. 

192 Word-Formation [268 

Nouns and Adjectitpes 

263. 1. The first element is a noun or adjective stem 
(L. armi-ger), O. meddiss, meddis 'meddix', Gen. Sg. medlkeis, 
etc., from *medo8 (U. mefs 'ius') and dik-^^ precisely like L. index 
from iu8 and dik-; — Liganak-dikei, name of a goddess, the first part 
being a derivative related to L. lex (80, 2; cf. %€afio(f>6po<; an epi- 
thet of Demeter); — U. man-tiahklu, marirdr ado ^uieiiitdW (97); — 
U. tu-plak (192, 1) ; — IT. durpursus 'bipedibns', petur-pursus 'qua- 
drupedibus' (94, 191, 2, a, 4, a); — U. di-fue 'bifidum' (191, 2, a); — 

U. nuf-pener ' pondiis', name of a small coin, the first part 

being obscure, while the second is from *pendo^ (cf. L. dvrpon- 
dius; 94); — U. sevracni- (159, a). O. tribarakkiuf ^aedificatio' 
and the verb tribarakavdm are probably derivatives of a Hrehark- 
or Hreharkio-^ compounded of Hreho- or Hreh- (O. trilbdm 
'domum'; see 171, 14) and *ark- (L. arx^ arceo)^ and so meaning 
first 'the closing in, i.e. the construction of, a building', then 
simply 'building', like L. aedificatio, 

a. U. seuacni-^ peracnU, exemplify the same shifting to the i-stem form 
that is seen in L. inermis^ biiugiSy etc. 

2. The first element is an adverbial prefix. Most of these 
prefixes are the same which are used in the composition of verbs 
(264, 1), and occur separately as prepositions, e.g. O. kdm-bennieis 
'conventus'. For examples, see 299-302. But the following 
occur only in noun and adjective (including participial) com- 

The negative an- (L. in-; see 98), corresponding to L. in-^ in O. an-censto 
*non censa', am-prvfid 'improbe', amiricatud **immercato'; U. an-hostatu 'non 
hastatos\ an-takres Mntegris% aanfehtaf 'infectas* (73, a), ansihUu^ non cmctOB*, 
auirseto ^ non visum% asnata 'non umecta^ ase^eta 'non secta' (n omitted in last 
two examples by 108, 1; for auirseto from an-u- cf. U. co-iiertu etc. (300, 2). 

U. sei- (L. sed-y se-) in sei-podruhpei *seorsum utroque' (200, 2). 

1 O. meddiss may be from *mede8-dik- through *med8dik', 8 being lost between 
two mutes, or from *medo-(lik- with the not infrequent substitution of the o-stem for 
the 5-stem form. 

264] Composition 1 93 

U. yen- in ven-persuntra, vem-pesontres, ve-pesutra^ficticia' (?) beside per- 
sontro- *figmentum'(?) is evidently connected with L. ve-, but with a nasal, 
perhaps representing an added particle ne, and without distinctly negative force. ^ 
Another probable example of this prefix is U. vepurus, which is best explained 
as *fireless' (cf. U. pir, pure-to^ etc.), esunes-ka vepurus meaning *at the sacri- 
fices without fire' (cf. Grk. Upd Awvpa). 

3. Juxtaposition (L. sendtusconsultum). U. lupater, like 
L. lupiter from Voc. Sg. *I)%eyrpater (Zev Trdrep); — U. deaen-duf 

a. The juxtaposition of prepositions and adverbs of time and place, as in 
L. ab-hinc, irUer-ibi, etc., is exemplified by U. ap-ehtre *ab extra, extrinsecus'. 
For other examples of compound adverbs see 202, passim. 


264. 1. The only extensive type of verbal composition is 
that in which the first element is an adverbial prefix. Most of 
these prefixes are such as occur separately as prepositions, and 
examples will be given in connection with the latter (299-302). 
Those not occurring separately are : 

(L. a, ah). O. aa-manaffed ^mandavit, locavit', U. aJia-uendu *avertito% 
aha4ripur8atu, a-tripursatu, ah-trepufatu, a-trepufatu Hripodato\ See 77, 2. 
The preposition with a case-form does not happen to occur. But cf . U. ap-ehtre 
*ab extra, extrinsecus' (263, 3, a). 

(L. amb-, am-). For am- and *amfer-, for which, however, there is a 
related preposition, O. ampt (800, 1), see 161 with a. 

(L. an- in an-helo). U. an-tentu, an-dendu, with the same meaning as 
en-tenttt, en-dendu Mntendito', am-pentu, a-pentu 'impendito', an-ouihimu^indu- 
itor% an-zeriatu, anrseriato ^observatum^ a^seriatu, etc., an-stintu, a-stinta ^distin- 
guito', an-stiplatu * stipulator', am-paritu *conlocato% am-parihmu *surgito* (in 
the last four examples connection with L. am-, amb-, is possible, but less likely) ; 
— O. avafaKCT *dedicavit' (80, 2), probably an-getuzet * proposuerint' (228, a), 
Cf. also U. ancla^ anglaf *oscines' (165). 

(L. dia-). U. disleralinsusb. See 262, 3. 

(L. por-). U. pwr-douitu^ pur-tuvitu *porricito', pur-din^iust, pwr-ditom^ 
etc. See 51. 

(L. re-). U. re-vestu *revisito% re-statu * instaurato', re-stef, etc. 

O. ceA>nust Wenerit* contains the particle seen in L. ce-do^ ce-Ue. 

1 So occasionally in Latin. See I.F. 10, 248 if. 

194 Word-Formation [264 

2. Juxtaposition. A probable parallel to L. animadverto 
is U. eitipes'decreverunt' from *eitom *hipenB (see 84), used like 
L. 'ratum habuerunt'. For *hipen8^ i.e. *hepen8^ of. O. hipid 
etc. (218). 

The first part is perhaps from *aiketo- with the same root as Skt. tq- 
*have power', Eng. oion, etc. (cf. also O. aikdafed, 264, 3), the phonetic develop- 
ment being *aiktO','*BktO'j *eitO' (1^8). 

O. manafum 'mandavi', aa-manaffed ' mandavit, locavit', from 
*manfefom^ *manfefed (80, 2, 223), belong to a Pres. *manf6^ earlier 
*mandhd^ whence also L. man-do^ which was originally inflected 
like abdo^ condo, etc., but passed over to the First Conjugation 
(thus avoiding confusion with mando 'chew'). 

This *man-dkd is formed after *con-dhd (L. condo) etc. from man-, seen 
in U. manf *manus' (Ace. PI.), L. man-ceps, etc. (If it is viewed thus as an 
analogical formation, it is not necessary to assume a case-form in man-.) 

A parallel formation is probably U. hondu *pessumdato'(?), belonging to 
a Pres. *hondd, this from *hon-fd, *hom-dhb^ horn- being the same element that 
is seen inU. ^ndra* infra' etc. (L. humus). The phonetic development is the 
same as in U. -uendu (161). 

3. O. trlbarakaviim * aedificare' is probably, like L. aedifico^ a derivative 
of a noun already compounded. See 263, 1. Of O. aikdafed the most probable 
explanation is that it means * decrevit, authorized' and is derived from *aiko-dO'^ 
the first part belonging to the root aik- seen in Skt. Iq- * have power' etc. (cf . also 

U. eitipes, 264, 2). 




265. The Possessive Genitive in the various phases of 
possession and connection is common. Thus O. sakarakltim Heie- 
kleis 'templum Herculis'; predicative O. Herentateis siim 'Veneris 
sum'; — O. L. Pettieis meddikiai 'in the meddixship of L. Pettius'; — 
O. senateis tanginud 'sensitus sententia'; — JJ. farer agre Tlatie 
'f arris agri Latii'; — U. popluper totar liouinar 'pro populo civi- 
tatis Iguvinae'; predicative U. pisest totar Tamna^er 'quisquis 
est civitatis Tadinati'.^ 

The Objective Genitive. U. katletigel 'catuli dedicatio'; — 
arsierfrite 'sancti fiducia, with confidence in (thee) the holy one'. 

266. The Partitive Genitive. U. mestru karu fratru 'maior 
pars fratrum'; — O. minstreis aeteis eituas ^minoris partis pecu- 
niae'; — O. idic tangineis 'id sententiae', like L. id temporis etc. 

The following are bolder than anything in Latin, but may 
be paralleled elsewhere. U. iuenga peracrio tursituto 'iuvencas 
ex opimis fuganto' (VII a 51); — U. struh§las fiklas sufafias kumaltu 
'prepare some sacrificial cake, etc' (II a 41). 

The use of the Partitive Genitive as subject, which is found 
in Avestan, Lithuanian, and rarely in Greek, is probably to be 
recognized in U. eru emantur herte '(whether) any of them are to 
be accepted' (Va 8). 

1 The treatment of the Syntax is brief, not through any intention to slight this 
side of the grammar, but because the syntactical material is relatively meagre. That 
is, owing to the nature of the remains only a limited number of constructions are 
met with. Moreover, in view of the general similarity to Latin syntax, it is needless 
to heap up examples of the common constructions, and some matters, such as the 
uses of the parts of speech, etc., may be passed over entirely. 

2 These last two examples belong to the class in which it is impossible to draw 
the line between the Possessive and the Partitive Genitive. 


196 Syntax [S67 

267. Genitive with Adjectives. O. diuvilam Tirentittm Ma- 
giium salum mttinikam ^iovilam Terentiorum Magiorum omnium 

268. Genitive of Time. This Genitive, which is found 
in Greek and elsewhere (i/v/ctoV 'by night', rpi&v /ai;i/o)i/ 'within 
three months', etc.), and which is a natural development of the 
Possessive Genitive (the time to which an action belongs), is 
to be recognized in O. eisucen ziculud zicolom XXX nesimum 
comonom ni hipid 'shall not hold the comitia within the next 
thirty days from that day' (T. B. 17). Cf. L. in diebus Vprox9iu- 
meis in the Latin inscription of the Tabula Bantina. 

Note. The zicolom is often taken as an Ace. Sg., as if *from that day 
until the thirtieth day following', but there are serious objections to this, namely 
1) the use of the Accusative without a preposition, 2) the use of the numeral 
signs for the ordinal, 3) the use of nesimum * proxlmum' in such a phrase, as if 
L. ad diem tricensimum proximum. 

269. Genitive of the Penalty. O. ampert minstreis aeteis 
eituas moltas moltaum KczYt^c^'dumtaxat minoris partis pecuniae 
multae multare liceto' (T. B. 12, 13), and moltaum licitud^ ampert 
mistreis aeteis eituas licitud ^rmiltaie liceto, dumtaxat minoris 
partis pecuniae liceto' (T. B. 18). That is, *one may fine with 
(a fine of) not more than half the property'. 

In the former passage aeteis may be the Genitive of the Penalty with moltas 
in apposition, or it may be taken as an explanatory Grenitive with moUaSf this 
last being the Genitive of the Penalty. ^ The preceding ampert^ literally non 
trans, is not a preposition (in this case, we should expect the Ace), but an 
adverb used without effect on the case-construction, just as, frequently, L. pluSy 
minus, amplius. Similarly in the corresponding Latin phrase \dum minoris'] 
partus familias taxsat (T. B. Latin side), partus is Genitive of the Penalty, and 
not governed by taxsat. 

a. A noteworthy construction, perhaps containing a sort of detached 
Genitive of the Penalty, is seen in TJ. fratreci motar sins a. CCC 
*magistro multae sint asses CCC (VII b 4), which is paralleled by 
L. lovei bovid piaclum datod et a. CCC moUai suntod (CIL. XI, 4766), 
where moUai must be Gen. Sg. and not Nom*. PL, as is shown by the 

1 Some take moltas as a Cognate Accusative (Plural) and assume that it is to 
be understood in the shorter passage. But the Plural is unlikely. See also a. 

271] Uses of the Cases 197 

following eiiLS piadi moltaique dicator[ei] exactio estlod]. The con- 
struction might arise through a contamination of such expressions 
as magistro a. CCC miUta sint (sunto) and magistrum a, CCC muUae 
mtUtato. Of. the detached Abl. in U. muneklu habia namer prever 
(292), and L. lupiter, tibi bove aurato voveofuturum (Acta Arvalium). 

270. Genitive of the Matter Involved, in legal phraseology. 
O. suaepis . . . altrei castrous auti eituas zicolom dicust 'siquis 
alteri capitis aut pecuniae diem dixerit', that is, on a charge in- 
volving the death penalty or a fine (T. B. 13, 14 ; on castrous see 
note to passage), contrasted with dat castrid loufir en eituas 'de 
capite vel in pecunias' (T. B. 8, 9). Cf. L. quoad vel capitis vel 
pecuniae iudicasset privato (Livy 26, 3, 8), beside de capite^ etc. 
A bolder example is O. aserum eizazunc egmazum pas exaiscen 
ligis serif tas set 'to make a seizure involving these matters which 
are written in these laws' (T. B. 24). Cf. L. eiq(ue) omnium 
rerum siremps lexs esto (T. B., Latin side). Note also the free 
use of the Genitive in the Law Code of Gortyna to denote the 
matter or person involved, e.g. tw iXevdepco 'in the case of a 
freeman', t& %/>oVft) 'in the matter of time', ^ peKaarco iypdrrai 
'as is written in each case'. 

Note. To take such Genitives as depending on a noun either expressed 
(e.g. zicolom in the first Oscan example) or understood, is forced. It is possible, 
of course, that they originated in connection with a noun and afterwards came 
to modify the sentence as a whole, thus going through the reverse of the process 
seen in the case of the Adnominal Dative. But even this assumption is unneces- 
sary, and it is more probable that we have to do simply with certain phases of 
a broad use of the Genitive denoting the sphere to which an action belongs. 

271. Free use of the Genitive of a noun with gerundive 

in agreement. With L. (arma) quae cepit legum ac Itbertatis 

subvortundae (Sallust) compare U. uerfale pufe arsfertur trebeit 

ocrer peihaner 'the templum where the flamen remains for the 

purification of the mount' (VI a 8). A more striking example 

is U. sururo stiplatu pusi ocrer pihaner 'let him make the same 

request as for the purification of the mount' (VI b 48). 

Note. This Genitive, which obviously modifies the sentence as a whole, 
and not a noun expressed or understood, belongs historically with the preceding. 
See note to 270. 

198 Syntax [27S 


272. Dative of the Indirect Object with transitive verbs. 
O. Anagtiai Diiviiai dunum deded ^Angitiae Diae donum dedit'; — 
U. huftriffetu Marte Grabouei 'boves tris facito Marti Grabovio'. 

273. Dative with certain verbs used intransitively. U. ri 
esune kuraia 'rem divinam curet' (cf. curd with Dative in early- 
Latin); — ar%ferture ehueltu 'flaminem iubeto' (cf. iubeo with 
Dative in Tacitus); — persnihmu Puemtine 'supplicate Pomono'. 

274. Dative with prepositional compounds. \J . prosesetir 
strusla ficla arsueitu 'prosectis struem off am addito (advehito)', 
U. pir ase antentu 'ignem arae imponito'. 

275. The Dative of Reference or Concern. U. aserio . . . 
anglaf eBona mehe^ tote lioueine . . . 'observa . . . oscines divinas 
mihi, civitati Iguvinae' (VI a 4, 5) ; — O. piei ex comono pertemest 
'(the magistrate) in whose case the assembly shall be prevented 
in this way' (T. B. 7) ; — O. suaepis altrei . . . zicolom dicust 
'siquis alteri . . . diem dixerit' (T. B. 13, 14); — U. pune kame 
speturie . . . naraklum vurtus 'cum carni *spectoriae . . . nuntiatio 
mutaverit' (II a 1); — U. ahauendu . . . atero pople 'avertito . . . 
malum populo' (VII a 27; cf. L. solstitium pecori defendite etc.); — 
preuendu . . . atero tote 'advertito malum civitati' (VII a 11); — 
O. Maiiiii Vestirikiiiii . . . inim Maiiii[i] IHykiiiii . . . ekss kdmbened 
'Maio Vestricio . . . et Maio lovicio . . . ita converiit' (C. A, 1 ff.; 
observe the use of two Datives where Latin has one Dative and 
cum with the Ablative); — O. ekas idvilas luvei Flagiui stahint 'hae 
*iovilae lovi Flagio stant' (no. 25) ; — O. aasas ekask eestint 
htirtiii 'these altars are for (belong to) the sacred grove' (T. A.). 

Note. Several of these Datives might of course be differently classified, 
e.g. that with O. kumbened and U. preuendu under 274, that with ahauendu 
under a special class of "verbs of taking away." The last two examples cited 
are very close to the Dative of the Possessor (276), but this is only a special 
variety of the Dative of Reference and in our usual terminology is restricted to 
the use with the verb 'to be\ 

276. Dative of the Possessor. U. etantu mutu afferture si 

*tanta multa flamini sit' etc. 

281] Use9 of the Cases 199 

277. Dative with Adjectives of Relation. U. futu fans 
pacer . . . pople ^esto favens propitia . . . populo'; — O. nessimas 
staiet veruis 'proximae stant portae' (but veruis may also be taken 
as an Ablative of the Point of View, 288). 

278. Dative with Nouns. The Dative with nouns of verbal 
meaning (L. obtemperatio legihus etc.) is seen in U. tikamne luvie 
'with a dedication to lovius' (II a 8). The Dative of Reference 
with nouns is found only in brief clauses which are in the nature 
of headings, as O. Evkltii statff 'Euclo statua' (T. A.). 


279. The Accusative of the Direct Object with transitive 
verbs and the Accusative with Prepositions (299, 801) are of 
course extremely common. The Cognate Accusative is seen 
in U. teio suhocau suboco 'te invoco invocationes' (Via 22 etc.; 
cf. te bonas preces precor^ Cato, De Agric. 134). Note also 
U. perca arsmatiam anouihimu 'virgam ritualem induitor' (cf. 
\j. galeam induitor) \ — O. censamur eituam 'censetoT pecuniam' 
(cf. voluisti magnum agri modum censeri^ . . . eum te atidisset servos 
suos esse censum, Cic. pro Flacco, 32). 


280. In contrast to its restricted use in Latin, the Locative 
is widely used in Oscan-Umbrian. It has preserved a distinct 
form in the Singular, at least in the First and Second Declen- 
sions, to which nearly all the examples belong, while in the 
Plural it is merged with the Dative-Ablative-Instrumental. In 
Oscan it is ordinarily used without a preposition, but in Umbrian 
it is very frequently, perhaps always (see 169, 7), combined with 
the postpositive -en. For the Locative with other prepositions, 
see 301, 802. 

281. Locative of Place. 1. Oscan. Bansae 'at Bantia', 
Tiianei 'at Teanum', eisei terei 'in this territory', comenei 'in the 
assembly', vfai mefiai 'in the middle of the road', aasai purasiai 

200 Syntax [281 

'on the fire-altar', Itivkei 'in the grove', thesavrei 'in the treasury'; 
— with -en, htirtin'in the grove' (171, 7), exaisc-en liffis ^in. these 

2. Umbrian. AJsmme^Acersoniem^ Sit Acedom2i,\ tote lauincy 
toteme louinem (169, 7, a) 'in the city of Iguvium', acre Fisie^ 
ocrem Fisiem (169, 7, a) 'on the Fisian mount', desire onse^ testre 
e uze 'on the right shoulder', arven 'in the field', tertie sviaeve 
'in the third pot', tafle e'on the table', /mwe 'on the stand' (?), 
manuv-e 'in the hand', Fondlir-e 'at the Springs', fesner-e'at the 

282. Locative of Time. 1. OscAN. eizeiczicel[ei]^ on tha,t 
day', alttrei ptitereipid akenei 'in every other year' (? see 200, 2, a), 
ptistrei iiiklei 'at the following ceremony' (?), medikkiai 'in the med- 
dixship', Fiuusasiais 'at the Floralia' (similarly eidtiis Mamerttiais, 
Fiisiais pumperiais, used, in the iovilae-inscriptions, of certain 

2. Umbrian. sume ustite'at the last period' (?), kvestretie, 
uhtretie (261, i, a)^ fratrecate^ mar onatei ^ in the quaestorship' etc., 
plenasier umasier, sehmenier dequrier^ Sit the festivals of — '. 

283. A Locative of Circumstance is seen in O. eizeic uincter 
'is convicted of this'. Cf. L. in hoc seelere convictus beside the 
usual Genitive construction. 


284. The fusion of the original Ablative and Instrumental 
was accomplished in the Italic period, so that in Oscan-Umbrian, 
as in Latin, they are no longer distinguished in form. For the 
Ablative with' prepositions, see also 800, 802. 

Ablative Uses 

285. Ablative of the Place or Time Whence. O. Akudun- 
niad'from Acedonia', Tianud Sidikinud 'from Teanum Sidicinum' 
(both examples from coin-legends); — O. imad-en 'from the bot- 
tom up', eimc-en ziculud^hom this day on' (the -en here is not 

2»0] U%eB of the CaseB 201 

essential to the Ablative force). In Umbrian this Ablative 
is regularly accompanied by the preposition e, eAe'ex' or the 
postpositive -ta, -tu, -to (800, 9), as ehe esupoplu 'from this people', 
akm-tu *from the field', anglu-to hondomu . . . anglom-e soma 'from 
the lowest to the highest comer', pure-to 'from the fire'. 

286. Ablative of the Source. O. eitiuvad mtiltasikad, aragetud 
malta8[ikad] 'from the money raised by fines'. Cf. L. (ex) aere 
conlatOj aere moltatieod. 

Note. These examples might also be classed under the Ablative of Means. 

287. Ablative of Accordance. O. senateis tanginud (once 
with dot) 'in accordance with the judgment of the senate', 
U. afputiati fratru Atiieriu 'in accordance with the judgment of the 
Atiedian brothers', O. prupukid sverrunei ' spokesman (?) by previ- 
ous agreement', U. fratru mersus 'in accordance with the customs 
of the brothers' (III 6 ; cf. L. {ex) moribua). 

Note. This Ablative is probably, in part, of Instrumental origin, and 
is not always to be distinguished clearly from the Ablative (Instrumental) of 
Attendant Circumstances, and of Means. 

288. Ablative of the Point of View. U. nesimei asa 'next 
to the altar' (L. proxime ah)^ testru sese asa 'at the right of the 
altar' (see 807); — so probably U. todceir tuderus seipodruhpei ^ on 
both sides, separately, of the city limits' (VI a 11). 

289. Ablative after Comparatives. O. mais zieolois X nesi- 
mois 'more than the ten following days'. Although mats might 
be used without effect on the following case, as sometimes 
L. plu8, an Ablative of Time seems less probable here. 

Instrumental Uses 

290. Ablative of Means. O. sakriss sakraffr, avt tiltiumam 
kerssnals 'consecrate with victims, but the last with banquets'; 
— O. tristaamentud deded 'gave by will' (Ablative of Source also 
possible; cf. L. (ex) testamento); — U. mani nertrvr tenitu^hoiH 
with the left hand'; — U. kletra fertuta 'carry on (by means of) a 
litter'; — U. e^u hue joiAqfei 'expiate with this ox'; — U. vinu 

202 Syntax [290 

persnihmu 'make supplication with wine', similarly, with verb 
understood, tio esu hue 'thee with this ox (I supplicate)'. 

a. U. herie uinu herie poni fetu^yel vino vel posca facito' {VI b 19, 20) 
is to be compared with L. ture et vino fecerunt (Acta Arvalium), etc. But the 
Accusative construction is the usual one, as in Latin also, and the use of the 
Ablative here is perhaps due to its denoting a subsidiary offering, thus approach- 
ing the uses mentioned in 293. 

b. With L. quid hoc fiomine facias compare U. fetu uru pirse mers est * do 
with him what is right' (VI b 55). 

291. Ablative of the Route. U. uia auiecla etuto ^go by 
the augural way' ; — O. eksuk amviannud eituns 'let them go(?) by 
this detour' (see note to nos. 14-18). O. r[Ihtlid] amnud 'right 
around in a circle' (C. A. 16, 17) is to be compared with L. sur- 
sum (deorsum) rivo recto (iv^o recto) 'right up (down) the stream 
(ridge)' (CIL. I 199). 

292. Ablative of Measure and Price. O. via teremnattens 
perek(ai8) III 'laid out the roads three rods wide'. Note espe- 
cially U. muneklu habia numer prever pusti kastruvuf 'spertulam 
habeat nummis singulis in capita, shall receive a perquisite of 
one sesterce for each person' (V a 17, 18 ; cf. also V a 13). 

293. Ablative of Accompaniment. This is regularly accom- 
panied by the preposition com. U. com prinuatir stahitu 'stand 
with the assistants', eru-com prinuatur dur etuto 'let the two 
assistants go with him', O. com preiuatud actud, con preiuatud 
urust 'deal (plead) with the defendant', com atrud acum 'have a 
lawsuit with another'. But it also appears without the preposi- 
tion where the feeling of accompaniment has become subordinate 
to that of means or manner. Thus U. apretu tures et pure 'go 
about (i.e. perform the lustration) with the bulls and the fire' 
(I b 20). Note the Ablative with and without com in U. eno 
com prinuatir peracris sacris amhretuto 'let him together with the 
assistants go about with unblemished victims' (VI b 56 ; but also 
etuto com peracris sacris^ VI b 52). The Ablative of Accompani- 
ment without com^ in close attachment to a noun, also appears 
in U. arvia puni purtuvitu 'offer fruits of the field with sour wine' 

297] Uses of the Cases 203 

(II a 24) and U. persutru vaputis mefa vi8ti9a feta fertu ^ bring the 
persontrum with incense etc.' (II b 13), in which the feeling is 
much the same as in some of the examples given under the 
Ablative of Attendant Circumstances (294). See also 290, a. 

a. In Umbrian, the Ablative with postpositive -co(m)^ -ka(m), has devel- 
oped a distinctly locative sense, ^at\ e.g. asa-ku^at the altar% £ennnti-co * at 
the boundary', testru-ka peri, nertru-co persi *at the right (left) foot', vuka-kum, 
uocu-cowi * at the temple', weris-co * at the gate', etc. In the sense of 'with' the 
postpositive occurs only with pronominal forms, as eru-com (in example above). 
Cf. L. mecum, qwUmscum, etc. 

294. Ablative of Attendant Circumstances, Manner, etc. 

U. eruhu ti§lu sestu luvepatre 'present to Jupiter with the same 

dedication' (lib 22), fetu tikamne luvie 'offer with a dedication 

to lovius' (II a 8), arsier frite tio «w6(?e?ai^ 'with confidence in 

(thee) the holy one I invoke thee' (VI a 24 etc. ; frite could also 

be a Locative in form, but probably belongs here rather than in 

2%z), futu fo8 pacer pase ^i^a'be favorable and propitious with 

thy peace' (Via 30 etc.), O. dolud mallud ^ with guile'; — here 

also O. medikeis serevkid 'under the inspection of the meddix', 

pr. meddixud 'under the magistracy of the praetor' (cf. Loc. 

medikkiai, 282). 

a. Of the same origin are the adverbial O. amirica^ied ' *immercato, with- 
out remuneration' (cf. L. immerito, inauspicato, etc.), and U. ^mtu ' consulto, 
intentionally' (see 307). 

295. Ablative of Time. U. menzne kurclasiu 'in the last(?) 
month' (II a 17), pesclu semu 'in the middle of the prayer' (VI b 
15, 36). 

296. Ablative Absolute. O. toutad praesentid ' in the pres- 
ence of the people', U. aves anzeriates'when the birds have been 
observed' (I a 1 etc.). 

Locative Uses 

297. The sphere of meaning of the Ablative (-Instrumental) 
overlaps that of the Locative at certain points, and in several 
of the examples already given the Ablative expresses what might 

204 Syntax [297 

also be expressed by the Locative. Thus Means and Place are 
often identical, and we find U. mani kuveitu 'bring with the hand', 
mani tenitu 'hold with the hand' (290), beside manuv-e habeta 'hold 
in the hand'; — U. kletra fertuta 'carry by means of a litter' (290), 
beside tafle e fertu 'carry on a table'. The road by which one 
goes is also the road on which one is, and the Ablative of the 
Route may be used even where there is no word of motion. 
Cf. L. iam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat (Livy 
4, 41, 8). The Ablative of Time, originally an Instrumental 
denoting duration of time, comes to be used with much the 
same force as the Locative of Time. See 296. The Ablative 
of Accompaniment with postpositive -co has developed a Loca- 
tive force. See 293, a. Cf. also the Ablative with op in Oscan 
in a strictly local meaning (800, 5). 

These and other points of contact in function, together with 
the identity of form in the Plural which exists in all branches of 
Italic, have led in Latin to the almost complete absorption of 
the Locative by the Ablative. And even in Oscan-Umbrian, 
where in general the Locative preserves its identity,^ there are 
examples of the Ablative which can only be viewed as encroach- 
ments on the Locative, namely : 

298. Ablative of the Place Where. U. tremnu serse 'sitting 
in the tent' (Via 2, 16), sersi^ pirsi sesust^ when he has seated 
himself on the seat' (VI a 5); — so also probably anderuomu 
sersitu (VI b 41), though anderuomu is of unknown meaning, 

and is taken by some as ander uomu 'inter '; — O. Bdvaiandd 

'at Bovianum' (no. 46 ; see p. 43, footnote). 

1 In consonant-stems in Umbrian the Abl. Sg. and Loc. Sg. are not to be dis- 
tinguished, both ending in -e, which, like the L. -e, is probably the old Loc. ending -i. 
In Oscan there are no examples of the Locative in the Third Declension. 

3 Abl. Sg. of an i-stem. The Loc. Sg., whether of an i-stem or consonant-stem, 
would end in -e. 

399] Prepositions 205 


With the Accusative only 

299. 1. (L. ad), O. az (ac?-«, like L. a6-«; 187, 2), U. -af, -a 

(188,6). O. az hiirttim^at the grove'; — U. asam-a '(return) to 

the altar', asam-af ' (offer etc.) at the altar', spinam-af '(go) to the 

column', spiniam-a ' (pray) at the column'. 

Cpds. O. adfust *aderit% aserum ^adserere' (187, 2), akkatus ^advocati^ 
(89, 3, 102, 3, 189, 1), aflukad, aflakus (? 97, a, 189, 1), adpfid *quoad' (202, 9); — 
U. aipeltu *adpellito', ai^eitu, arveitu, arsueitu, etc. *adyehito% affertur, arsfertur, 
arfertur, etc. **adfertor, flamen', neifhalMis *ne adhibeant' (84), afkani **accinium, 
cantum', aipatrati *arbitratu', ape, appei, etc. *ubi' (202, 8), amipo 'donee' 
(202, 10). For U. af-, ar-, ars-, ar-, see 182 with a. 

Note. U. -af , -a, occurs only in Tables III, IV, and II a. Else- 
where Ho' is expressed by -e(n) (301, 2) and *at' by -ku(m), -co(m) 
(298, a), 

2. (L. ante). O. ant 'usque ad' (from *anti; see 92). The 
only example is ant ptinttram (no. 3) 'up to the bridge' (i.e. 'up to 
in front of the bridge', and so 'close up to the bridge'). 

Note. The meaning 'before' is expressed by O. prai, U. pre (800, 7). 

3. (L. extra). O. ehtiad (142, 190, 3). Thus ehtiad felhtiss 
'outside the walls'. 

4. U. hondray hutra'infra' (16, 5, 188, 2). Thus hondra esto 
tudero 'below these limits', hondra furo^ hutra furu 'below the 

a. 0. huntrus teras (no. 19, 11) apparently means 'infra terram' and con- 
tains a related preposition, of obscure formation, followed by the Genitive. But 
the sentence is incomplete, and it is not wholly certain that huntrus cannot be 
simply Ace. PI. 'inferos'. 

6. (L. per). O. pert, U. pert 'trans' (from ^per-ti; cf. post 
from *poS't{). O. pert viam 'across the road', U. pert spinia 'beyond 
the column'. Cf. also O. am-pert 'not beyond, not more than', 

1 "Prepositions" is used here as a syntactical term and includes the post- 

2 Given here for convenience. For prefixes which have no corresijonding forms 
used as prepositions, see 263, 2, 264, 1. 

206 Syntax [899 

which however is used adverbially, not as a preposition (see 269). 
The same form, joined postpositively to the Ace. PI., appears in 
the numeral adverbs O. joe^iro^ert'quater', U. triiuper, trio-per 
'ter' (192, 2 ; for the loss of -t^ see 127, 3). 

Cpds. 0. pert-umum (pert-emest^ pert-emust) *perimere, prevent'. The 
simple per- appears in O. per-emust 'perceperit', also in U. per-tentu * stretch out' 
(^protendito' may be used in translating, since L. pertendo is used only in a 
transferred sense, but this per- has nothing to do with -per * pro'; for U. peme 
etc. sec 800, 8, a), per-etom *peritum', per-acni- *sollemnis' (159, a); with inten- 
sive force, in U. per-acri- * opimus, in perfect condition' (in form like L. per-d/ier^ 
but with the meaning which the root shows in Grk. dic/ui^ etc.). 

Note. The meaning * beyond, across', seen in O.-U. pert, is an 
easy development of through', and traces of a similar use are found 
elsewhere. Cf. Lith. per tXUa *go over the bridge', per tris mylbs 
*over (more than) three miles', etc. Here, probably, L. petfidus. 

6. O. perum 'sine' (*per-om ; see 201, 5). Thus perum dolom 
mallom 'without guile'. 

Note. The meaning is simply a further specialization of that seen in 
pert. Cf. Eng. * beyond doubt' = * without doubt'. 

7. O. ptistin, U. pustin, pusti, posti 'according to' (an exten- 
sion of poBt^ probably ^posti-en). O. ptistin slagim senateis suveis 
tangintid 'by vote of the respective senates according to the terri- 
tory' (see note to C. A. 34); — U. posti aenu '(iour pounds of 
spelt) for each year' (or 'ceremony'; see 169, a), pusti kastruvu 
'(one, two, or three sesterces) per head, for each person' (or 'estate'; 
but see note to T. B. 8, 13), pustin an^if 'by turns', pustin ereclu 
'(to Pomonus and Vesuna) on their respective altars'. 

Note. From a *po8tirme (cf. U. post-ne) one would expect O. *p6stiii 
with 1, while from *posti-en the i of pustin is regular (see 44, b). For the 
meaning, cf. Eng. after = according to, in * after their value', * after our sins', 
etc., L. secundum, Germ, nach, etc., and also the distributive force of L. in in 
' in singulos annos' etc. 

8. (L. supra). U. suhra (167, 1, IW), 3). Thus mbra esto 
tudero 'above these limits'. Elsewhere the form is used adver- 
bially {mbra «crezA^or 'written above' etc.). 

800] Prepositions 207 

With the Ablative only 

300. 1. (L. amb-^ Grk. aji^i), O. ampt (see 161, a). Thus 
eksuk amvlannud eituns ampt tribud tuv. ampt Mener ^by this detour 
let them go{?) around the Public Building (and) around the 
temple of Minerva' (no. 18). Except for this one example we 
find, as in Latin, only the prefix. 

Cpds. The prefix appears usually as am-^ rarely as avnJb- (Umbrian), and 
also in an extended form *amfer- (after arUer-)^ 0. amfr-, U. arribr-. See 161 
with a. 

2. (L. cum). O. com, U. com^ -00(171), -ku(m). See 298 with a. 

Cpds. O. ktUnbened * convenit', ktUnbenniels ^conventus\ comparaacuster 
^consulta erit', kiijmparakineis 'consilii'j — U. comhifiatu *nuntiato% couertu 
'revertito' (17, 18), kuveitu *convehito, congerito' (for co- before u cf. early 
Latin coventionld^ Volsc. couehriu * curia'), comoUu *commolito', comohota *com- 
mota' (17, 17), conegoa ^ genu, nixus', kukehes *incendat'(?). Cf. also 0. comono 
^comltia', U. kumne *comitio' from ^kom-no- (16, 4, 261, 2). 

3. (L. de). O. dat (190, 3, a). Thus dat eizae egmad^con- 
cerning this matter', dat eiza{i)sc 'concerning these matters', dat 
sena\teis\ tanginud 'in accordance with the judgment of the 
senate' (also senateis tanginud, 286 ; cf. L. de sententid beside 
sententid), dat castrid 'in a matter involving the death penalty' 
(also castrous, 270). 

Cpds. O. dadikatted *dedicavit', da[da]d *dedit\ dadid 'dediderit', all with 
dad- for dad-d- (168); — U. da-etom '*de-itum, delictum' (da from *dad by 183, 
and extended to cpds.). 

4. (L. ex, e). U. e, ehe. There are only two examples, 
e-asa 'from the altar' and ehe esu poplu 'from this people', the 
meaning being commonly expressed by the postpositive -td 
(below, 9). 

Cpds. 0. ehpeOatas 'erectae', ehprelvlrf (142, a); eestlnt *exstant', ee[stit] 
* exstat', eehiianasam * emittendarum' (77, 1) ; — U. ehueltu ' iubeto', ehvelklu *sen- 
tentiam*, eveietu 'voveto', eheturstahamu^ e^wrsto^mu 'exterminato*, efurfaiu 
*expurgato'(?), eAioto * emissos', Mtraf-e^in exitus'. Cf. also 0. ehtrad * extra' 
and U. ap-ehtre * ab extra' (142). 

Note. The conditions under which the I of 0. eestlnt etc. arose 
are not clear. See 77, 1, with note. 

208 Syntax [300 

5. (L. oh), O. tip, op (from ^opi- by 92 ; cf. Grk. €7rt, Skt. 
dpi). Thus tip elsiid sakarakltid 'at this temple', [lip] slaagid 'at the 
boundary', op toutad^ op eizois 'in the presence of the people, of 
these persons', 'apud populum', 'apud eos'. 

Cpds. O. 08u[ns *adsint' (122, 2); U. os^endu 'ostendito' (122, 1), prob- 
ably ufestne (188, a), perhaps ooaerclom (77, 8). 

6. (lj,po8t). O. ptist, post, IT. post, pus (from ^pos-ti ; of. Lith. 
pds etc.). O. piist feihtiis 'behind the walls', post eizue, post exao 
'after this'; — U. post uerir, pusveres (139,2) 'behind the gate'. 
Cf. L. postedj posthdc. In origin this is probably an Ablative 
of the Point of View. 

a. In U. postertio pane 'postquam tertium' tertio is not an Ablative after 
postj but an independent adverb of time, post being here an adverb, forming 
together with pane a conjunction. • 

Cf. the derivatives U. pos^ne * pone' (cf. pcrne 'ante'), whence pustnaiaf 
'posticas'; O. posmom *postremum', p^stiris 'posterius', etc. See 189, 2, 188, 2, 

7. (L. prae). O. prai, U. pre, pre (68). O. prai Mamerttiais 
'before the Martian festival', U. pre uerir 'before the gate.' As 
only plural forms occur, the Locative is also possible, but it is 
far more probable that the case is the same as that used with 
pru^ post^ etc. 

Cpds. O. praeserdid 'praesente,' praefucus 'praefectus'; — U. prehabia 
'praehibeat', prepesnima ^praefator', preucndu * ad vertito' (used in contrast to 
ahauendu *avertito'), etc. Cf. also prepa *priusquam' (202, 4) and pretra 'pri- 
ores' (188, 2). 

8. (L. pro). O. pru (68), U. -per, -pe(r) (from -pro, 91, 2 ; 
for -pe, see 103, 4). O. pru meddixud^hj virtue of magistracy' 
( imperio etc), pru medicatud 'in place of judgment', that is 
'as if judgment had been rendered' (cf. L. pro ioudicatod, CIL. 
IX 782); — U. tota-per, tuta-per, tuta-pe'for the city', poplu-per 
'for the people', ocri-per 'for the mount', fratrus-per 'for the 
brothers', etc. 

Cpds. O. pruhipid * prohibuerit', prupukid 'by previous agreement' (86, 5, 
173, 6) ; — U. prusekatu ' prosecato', procanurent ' *procinuerint', pmpehast ' ante 
piabit', etc. Note the distinct temporal force of the prefix in O. prupukid, 
U. pmpehast. Cf. also 0. pruter pan *priusquam' (188, 2, 202, 4). 

801] Prepo8itio7i8 209 


a. In U. peme * ante', pemaiaf * anticas', O. Pemai *Prorsae% the per- 
is not from pro-., like U. -per, but is original. Cf. Lith. pimai 4n the 
previous year', Grk. ir4pv(ri, etc. 

9. U. -ta, -tu, 'to (for -td ; see 84), of uncertain origin. Thus 
8kalce-ta 'from the bowl', akru-tu 'from the field', pure-to 'from 
the fire', etc. See 286. 

With the Accusative and Locative 

301. 1. (L. inter). O. anter (U. anter-, ander-^ 98, c, 166 ; 
no certain example of prepositional use). Thus O. anter slagim 
[AjbeUanam inim Ntivlanam 'between the territory of Abella and 
that of Nola' (C. A.; cf. also nos. 14-17); — but anter teremniss 
'within the boundaries' (that teremniss is an Ablative is much less 
likely). If we may judge from the single example, the Locative 
was used where the meaning is 'within'. In all examples of 
the Accusative the meaning is 'between (two points)'. 

Cpds. O. Anterstatal **Interstitae' ; — U. andersislu ' intersidito', antermen- 
zara 'intermenstruarum', anderuacose, antervakaze ' *intervacatio' (? see note to 
VI b 47, lb 8), anderuomu (? see 298). 

2. (L. in). O. en, -en, U. -en (-e, -em^ 109, l ; once -i, 89, 5). 

With Accusative. O. en eituas 'for a fine', censtom-en 'to the 
census'; — U. anglom-e^ to the corner', fesnaf-e'to the temple', 
etc. Frequently -en is used where Latin would prefer ad ^to\ 
and in a few cases even like arf'at'. Thus (Via 10) anglw-to 
soma uapef-e auiehclu todcom-e tuder^irom the highest corner at 
the augural seats to the city limits' (uapef-e auiehclu resumes 
briefly the previous porsei nesimei uapersus a^iiehcleir est). 

With Locative. O. exaisc-en ligis ' in tliese laws' ; — U. manuv-e 
'in the hand', etc. See 280-282. For O. hiirtln Kerriiin with -en 
added to both noun and adjective, see 171, 7. 

In O. imad-en'from the bottom up', eisuc-en ziculud^irom 
this day on', -en is used adverbially. 

Cpds. O. embratur 4mperator% U. enetu Mnito', endendu ^inteudito\ 
isefeles Mnsectis' (39, 5). Cf. also the derivative 0. Entral '*Interae'. 

210 Syntax [801 

3. (L. super). U. super with Locative, super-ne (cf. adverbs 
per-ne^ post-ne^ L. pone, super-ne^ etc.) with Accusative. Thus 
supeme adro '(place the white vessels) over (oa top of) the 
black'; — but super kumne'(let loose the heifer) above the place 
of assembly', super erecle '(make libation) over the shrine'. 

4. (L. trans). U. traf, trahaf, traha, tra (110, 4). Thus 
traf Sahatam etu 'go across the Sacred Way' (similarly with 
cower^W return', eombifiatu * announce'); — but trahaf Sahatefeetu 
'sacrifice on the other side of the Sacred Way' (similarly tra 
ekvine fetu). 

Cpd. U. ^roAwcw:^ 'transverse'. 

With the Locative and Ablative 

302. (L. sub). O. avTT fieSixiai ^ in the meddixship'; — 
but U. su maronato (su by 126, i) 'in the maroship' (see note to 
no. 84). Some assume that maronato is Loc. Sg., from a i^-stem, 
but more probably it is Abl. Sg. of the o-stem seen in the Loc. 
Sg. maronatei. A difference in construction is more likely than 
a difference in stem. For both Locative and Ablative are paral- 
leled by the corresponding constructions without the preposition 
(O. medikkiai, U. maronatei, etc., 282 ; — O. meddixud, 294). For 
the Abl. Sg. in -o see 171, 6, a. 

Cpds. U. subocauu ' invoco' (102, 2), subahtu ' deponito, set down', siibator 
'set aside, omitted' (218; for force of sub cf. L. sitMacd ' remove'), sumt-u 
'sumito' (114, c), sutentu 'subtendito' (su- by 121), probably sufafiaf 'partis 
exsertas' (? cf. faf- in ex-f<rfUlato, Plautus Mil. Gl. 1180, and rf-fqfildtum 
^exertum', Festus ed. Thewrewk, p. 59), and safefakln of uncertain meaning. 

a. In Umbrian, forms of the adjective sopo- are used predicatively 
in the sense of 'sub'. See 306. 

With Other Cases 

303. (L. contra). O. eontrud (190, 2). In O. contrud exeie 
* contrary to this' exeic is commonly taken as a Locative, but is 
much more easily understood as a Dative, properly a Dative of 
Relation with contrud used adverbially. Cf. L. siti contra pug- 
nandum (Cels. 4, 5 (2)), huic contra itum (Tac. A. 11, 10). 

807] Adjectives 211 

304. The Genitive is found only with the so-called improper 
prepositions, as in O. egm[as tout%\cas amnud 'rei publicae causa' 
(cf. amntid 'circuitu'), U. ocrer pehaner paca 'mentis piandi causa' 
{paca Abl. Sg. of *pdkd- ; cf . L. pactum etc.). Another possible 
example is O. liimitti[m] pemum 'in front of the boundaries' (C. A. 
29), but the reading here is wholly uncertain. For O. ampert- 
mistreis aeteis, where aeteis has been taken as a Genitive after 
ampert^ see 269. 


305. Use of adjectives to denote a part. With L. summus 
mons etc., cf. U. pesclu semu ^in. the half of the prayer' (semu: 
L. semi-; see 189, 1, a), that is, 'in the middle of the prayer, dur- 
ing the prayer' ; — O. ejisal vlai mefiai 'in the middle of this rpad'. 

306. Predicative use of adjectives with the force of adverbs.^ 
With L. sciens 'wittingly', libena 'willingly', etc., compare O. dei- 
uatud sipus 'swear wittingly', U. tases persnimu 'pray silently', 
kutef pesnimu 'pray quietly', etc. Similarly U. postro in sopo 
postro peperscust ^]^\it the under parts behind' is an adjective 
agreeing with sopo (cf. pustra, pustru, II a 32, lib 19), but in 
effect an adverb. U. sopo- is frequently used in the same way, 
like L. supinuSy Grk. vTrrto?. Thus persuntru supu ere§le (IV 17), 
where supu, though an adjective agreeing with persuntru, has the 
force of 'sub', in contrast to the 'super' of persuntru . . . super 
erecle (IV 19); — uestisia sopa purom-e (VI b 17 ; cf. also VII a 
38), where sopa^ though agreeing with uestisia^ goes in sense with 
the following, sopa purom-e meaning 'beneath, into the fire' and 
so 'beneath the fire, sub ignem'. 


307. Predicate use of adverbs in the sense of adjectives ^ 
(L. bene est, etc.). U. porsei nesimei asa deueia e«^ 'which is 
next to the altar of the gods' (but O. nessimas staiet veruis 'stand 

1 That is, where an adverbial construction seems more natural to us. 

2 That iS| where an adjectival construction seems more natural to us. 

212 Syntax [807 

next to the gate'); — U. esuf testru sese asa asam-^ purtuvitu 'him- 
self standing at the right of the altar he shall place the offering 
on the altar' (IV 15 ; cf. also III 23, IV 3), in which sese is prob- 
ably an adverb, as if L. ^sesse, meaning 'situated' (cf . L. deztro- 
vorBum etc;); — U. drek prufe si 'let this be approved', literally 
'let this be (regarded as) properly (done)'^; — U. fetu puze neip 
eretu (II a 4) and, in briefer form, puaei neip heritu (VI a 27 
etc.) '(take it) as not intentionally (done)'. 



308. The Passive. Besides the Passive force, as seen for 
example in O. uincter ^Yincit\iT\ comparascuster^consultsL erit', 
U. emantur 'accipiantur'* oatensendi ^ostendentuv\ the Deponent 
use is frequent. * So O. karanter'vescuntur', U. terkantur'suffra- 
gentur', U. eturstahmu ^exteTmina>to\ U. jt?er«mAz77iw 'precator', 
persnisfust 'precatus erit', etc. Sometimes, however, the Active 
form is used in contrast to the Deponent of the Latin, e.g. 
U. Btiplo^ Btiplatui L. stipulor; — U. osatu, O. upsed, etc. : L. operor 
(but O. upsatuh sent no. 44 is Deponent 'operati sunt', in contrast 
to U. oaeto 'operata, facta') ; — O. fatium: L.fateor. Compare 
the use of Active forms in early and late Latin parallel to 
Deponents of the classical period. 

a. With the Deponent use of L. cenatiLS beside ceno^ iUratiis beside iUrd, 
etc., compare O. detuoiu ns 4urati% U. ^ersnatur furent 'cenaverint', and also 
U. uesticos (fust) *libaverit' (230, a). 

6. A Passive form with distinctly middle force is seen in U. amparilima 
* raise oneself, rise' beside the Active amparitu ' raise, set up (the litter)'. A 
similar relation is sometimes assumed between U. suhra spahatu ' spread out 
over, throw on' (VI b 41 y with object expressed (the vessels that have just been 
used), and subra spahmu (VI b 17, Vila 39), subra spafu (Va 20), with no 
objects expressed. But the meaning of the latter is probably not 'throw one- 
self over, walk over', but * perform the ceremony of throwing on (the vessels)'. 

1 Cf. O. izic amprufid facus estud^{\t any one has been made tribune of the 
people contrary to this) let him be (regarded as) made so improperly'. 

811] The Verb 213 

c. U. uestis^ t^es^eia Mibans' is parallel to U. persnis ^precatus* both in 
formation and use. It comes from *uestUo^^ with verb-stem ^uestl-^ of which 
*uestikar' (U. uesUcatu * libato') is an extension. The etymology of this group of 
words, to which belong also U. vestifia 4ibamentum^ and probably Uestiaier, 
name of a god, is unknown. 

309. The frequent impersonal use of the Passive (L. itur^ 
Hum est, etc.) is noteworthy, e.g. O. sakarater ^a sacrifice is made', 
U. purditofust 'the offering shall take place', muietofust 'a noise 
shall be made', herter'it is desired, desirable' and so used like 
L. oportet. Nearly all of the forms in which r alone appears as 
the personal ending are used impersonally. See 239. 

310. Transitive use of verbs usually intransitive, and vice 
versa. U. ninctu^ in form L. mnguito, means 'overwhelm with 
snow'; similarly U. sonitu 'overwhelm with sound', tremitu 'make 
tremble', though these are not of the same conjugation as L. %ono, 
tremo, Cf. also U. wepi^w 'overwhelm with water' from a root 
seen in L. Neptunus. U. habe (VI b 54 = I b 18) is used intransi- 
tively, 'holds himself, remains'. 


311. The use of the tenses shows no variation from what 
is found in Latin. The use of the Present Indicative to denote 
what is customary is frequent, as is natural in the language of 
ritual. It occurs with future meaning in some temporal and 
conditional clauses cited below. There is only one occurrence 
of the Imperfect Indicative, namely fufans 'erant', C. A. 10, where 
it simply denotes past situation, as so frequently in Latin. The 
Perfect Indicative occurs chiefly in dedications and inscriptions 
on public works, where it has the simple narrative force (His- 
torical or Aoristic Perfect). The Future and Future Perfect 
are very frequent in temporal clauses, the difference between 
the two being the same as in Latin. 

All the occurrences of the Imperfect Subjunctive are in 
clauses depending on an Historical Perfect, namely O. ekss kdm- 
bened . . . puz idik 8akara[kltim] . . . fusid, . . . piin patensins, . . . 

214 Syntax [811 

patensins, . . . [hjerrins Hta convenit, ut id templum . . . esset, . . . 
cum aperirent, . . . aperirent, . . . caperent' (C. A. 10-54); also 
Pael. upsaseter coisatens 'fieret curaverunt'. The Perfect Sub- 
junctive is regularly used in prohibitions and occasionally in posi- 
tive commands and expressions of wish. See 318, 818. It occurs 
also a few times in temporal and conditional clauses (819, 880). 


Commands and Prohibitions 

312. The Subjunctive of Command is frequent in Umbrian 
in the passage V a 1-V b 7, where the Atiedian Brothers decreed 
^let the flamen, whoever he shall be, have the care (kuraia) of the 
ceremony, let htm furnish (piehabia) whatever is necessary. Let 
him receive (habia) certain fees. When the brothers shall have 
feasted, let the magister or quaestor take a vote (ehvelklu feia) as 
to whether the matter has been properly looked after. And if 
the majority pronounce it satisfactory let it be approved (efek 
prufe si). If not, let the magister or quaestor take a vote (ehvelklu 
feia) as to the amount of the penalty, and whatever penalty they 
demand, let the flamen's penalty be so great (etantu mutu affer- 
ture si)'. But even within the limits of this passage the Imper- 
ative occurs twice, and elsewhere the Imperative is almost 
exclusively employed, occurring in hundreds of examples. The 
other examples of the Subjunctive are ene tra Sahta kupifiaia ^then 
announce across the Sacred Way' (I b 35, in the midst of a series 
of Imperatives ; the corresponding clause in VII a 43 has the 
Imperative combifiatu)^ and terkantur 'let them approve' (III 9, 
also in the midst of Imperatives). 

Note. It is hardly accidental that the series of Subjunctives in Y a is 
immediately preceded by eitipes^decreverunt.* Although the clauses are not 
actually dependent, they are so closely attached in feeling that the choice of 
the Subjunctive rather than the Imperative may well he due to the exclusive 
use of the former in dependent clauses. Similarly /os set, pacer set * be favorable 
and propitious^ belonging under 314, always occurs immediately after the 
phrase teio subocau^l invoke thee% whereas elsewhere the Imperative /itiw /o« 
pacer is used. Cf . VI a 22 ff . 

814] The Verb 216 

In Oscan also, the Imperative is nearly always employed in 
positive commands. Examples of the Subjunctive are saahttim 
tefdrdm sakahlter 4et a burnt-offering be made' (T. A.); — lamatir 
*let him be beaten' (T. B.); — sakrafir 'let there be a consecration'- 
(nos. 29, 30). For the use of the Perfect in the last two exam- 
ples, cf. L. 9it denique inscriptum in fronte unius cuiusque quid 
de re puhlica sentiat (Cic. Cat. 1, 13, 32), and see 818. 

With the preponderance of the Imperative in both Oscan 
and Umbrian is to be compared the usage of early Latin inscrip- 
tions, in many of which (e.g. the Lex Bantina, Lex agraria) the 
Imperative is used exclusively, while in others (e.g. the Senten- 
tia Minuciorum) a Subjunctive of Command may now and then 

313. In prohibitions, Umbrian uses the Imperative regu- 
larly, the Present Subjunctive occurring once in neifhabas'let 
them not furnish' (IV 33). In Oscan, however, the Imperative 
is never used, but always the Perfect Subjunctive. Thus nep 
AbeUandd nep Niivlaniis pidum tribarakattins 'let neither the Abellani 
nor the Nolani build anything' (C. A. 46 ff.); — izic eizeic zicel[ei] 
comono ni hipid 'let him not hold an assembly on this day' (T. B. 
7, 8) ; — ne phim pruhipid 'let him not prevent any one' (T. B. 25) ; 

— nep fef acid *'\Qi him not cause' (T. B. 10), in contrast to the 
Imperative factud of a positive command in the same sentence ; 

— nep censturfuid^ nei suae pr, fust 'let no one be censor, unless 
he has been praetor' (T. B. 28). 

Note. This use of the Perfect Subjunctive is to be compared with the 
Greek use of /xij with the Aorist Subjunctive, and, together with its occasional 
use in positive commands (312) and expressions of wish (314), is to be connected 
with the energetic force natural to the aoristic function. No temporal distinc- 
tion is involved. 

The Subjunctive of Wish 

314. The Subjunctive of Wish, though of different origin, 
is not always easily distinguished from the Subjunctive of Com- 
mand. But certainly U. /o« sei^ pacer set 'be favorable, propi- 
tious', alternating with futu fo% pacer (see 312, note), belongs 

216 Syntax [814 

here, likewise the Oscan Subjunctives in the Curse of Vibia 
and the shorter curse, no. 20, namely turumiiad, krustatar, kais- 
patar, lamatir 'may he be tortured, etc.', and, with the negative, 
nep pdtiad, nep heriiad'may he not be able, etc.' ^ Here also 
U. pihafei 'may it be expiated' (VI a 29 etc.). For the use of 
the Perfect, as in the case of U. pihafei^ O. lamatir (possibly krus- 
tatar, kaispatar; but see 238, c), which is also frequent in early 
Latin, see 313, note. 

The Subjunctive in Substantive Clauses ' 

315. The Subjunctive is usually introduced by O. puz, 
U. jt?w«i'ut' (202, 6), but in certain phrases, as in Latin, it may 
also stand without any conjunction. Examples are: U. stiplo 
aseriaia 'demand that I observe' (VI a 2) ; — U. etaians deitu 'let 
him tell them to go' (VI b 64); — U. comhifiatu erus der samlet 
him give notice to add the erus^ (VII a 44) ; but with an inter- 
vening clause as well as a different verb, carsitu . . . puse erus 
deraa ^let him call out ... to add the eru8^ (Vila 43); — with 
U. ti9it'decet', herter 'oportet', O. kasit'decet' (in form L. caret)y 
as U. fagia tigit'one ought to sacrifice' (II a 17), O. fakiiad kasit 
'one ought to sacrifice' (no. 31), U. dirsans herti^thej ought to 
give', etc. ; — O. ekss kdmbened . . . puz idik 8akara[kl(im] . . . fusid 
etc. 'it was agreed that this temple should be' etc. (C. A. 10 £f. ; 
see also 31 1); — \], eo iso ostenduj pusi pir pureto cehefi dia (VI a 
20), best taken as 'let him set them out in such a manner (iso) 
that (pusi) he cause (dia) one fire to be lighted from the other', 
cehefi depending directly on dia; — so probably U. pepurkuient 
herifi (V b 6) 'shall have urged to be necessary' (as if L. popoace- 
rint oportuerit) ; — O. factud pous touto deiuatuns tanginom dei- 
cans 'let him cause the people to declare their opinion under 
oath' (T. B. 9). 

1 In Greek curses the Optative is used in both the positive and the negative form. 

2 For convenience the Subjunctives in Substantive Clauses are grouped together 
here, without regard to their specific origin (Volitive etc.) . 

317] The Verb 217 

A noteworthy construction is seen in O. nep fefadd pod pis 
dat eizac egmad min[8] deiuaid dolud malud 'let him prevent any 
one from swearing falsely in this matter' (T. B. 10 f.), in which 
nepfefadd is felt as the equivalent of a verb of preventing and 
followed by pod mins, which is identical with L. quominus in 
meaning and nearly so in form (202, i)^. 

Clauses of Indirect Question 

316. In U. ehveUdu feia . . . , panta muta afferture si 'take a vote 
as to what the flamen's penalty shall be' (V b If.), the si is simply 
a dependent Subjunctive of Deliberation or Propriety. But an 
unquestionable example of a Subjunctive in an indirect question 
of fact, where the direct question would have the Indicative, is 
U. ehveUdu feia . . . , sve rehte kuratu si 'take a vote as to whether 
it has been arranged properly' (V a 23 ff.). 

Noteworthy, because of the lack of any interrogative word, 
is U. revestu . . . emantur herte 'see whether they are to be accepted' 
(V a 8, 10). Since even in Latin the original Indicative may 
still stand in indirect questions of fact, there is no necessity of 
taking herte as a Subjunctive. See 238, 2, a. 

Relative Clauses ^ 

317. In nearly all the relative clauses occurring, whether 
the relative is definite or indefinite, and whatever the mood of 
the principal verb, the Indicative is used. Thus U. pisest . . . , 
ee^W whoever is . . . , let him go' (VI b t53 f.); — O. sakarakllim 
Herekleis [dp] slaagid piid ist, . . . puz idik 8akara[kltim] . . . fusid 'that 
the temple of Hercules which is at the boundary . . . should be' 
(C. A. 11 f.); — U. pisi pumpe fust . . . , ere ri esune kuraia 'who- 
ever shall be . . . , let him look after the ceremony' (V a 3 ff.); — 
O. eensamur esuf . . . poizad ligud iusc censtur censaum angetuzet 

1 1 cannot understand the objection of v. Planta (II, p. 482) to this view, nor his 
assertion that the construction does not correspond to L. prohibeat quominus but to 
prohibeat quominus non or prohibeat ut non. 

2 Except those of time, for which see 318. 

|i> 218 Syntax [817 

*let him be rated according to the law by which the censors 
shall have proposed to take the census' (T. B. 19 f.), etc. (exam- 
ples of the Future and Future Perfect are very numerous). 

Hence in U. prehabia pife uraku ri esuna si herte, et pure esune 
sis 'let him furnish whatever is necessary for the ceremony, and 
whatever persons are necessary' (V a 5 f .) there is no necessity 
of taking herte as a Subjunctive (see 238, 2, a), and in the second 
clause sis probably depends on a herte to be supplied from the 
preceding, though of course a Subjunctive would also be possible 
(cf . cui iu88U8 siet^ auacultet, Cato, De Agric. 5, 8, etc.). 

A reasonably certain example of a Subjunctive in a descrip- 
tive relative clause is seen in O. aiom . . . idic iangineis deicum 
pod ucdaemom touticom tadait ezum ' (having sworn) that they will 
render such judgment as they think to be for the best public 
good' (T. B. 9 f.)^ 

Here may be mentioned, though persei is in this case a con- 
junction (202, 2), V.persei mersei^so far as is right' (Via 28, 38, 
48) beside perse mers est (VI b 31, 55), the main verb each time 
being a Subjunctive. Cf. L. quod opus siet, used by Cato even 
where the main verb is Indicative (e.g. De Agric. 16). The choice 
of the two expressions, 'so far as is right' or 'so far as may be 
right', has nothing to do with the mood of the principal verb. 

Temporal Clauses 

318. All the temporal clauses which occur refer to future 
time, and in the great majority of cases, as in Latin, the Future 
or Future Perfect Indicative is used. The usual conjunctions 
are O. pon, U. ponne (202, 3) and U. ape (202, 8). The latter is 
far more common than ponne in the later Umbrian, and with 
the Future Perfect entirely displaces it (cf. ape amhrefurent 
VI b 56 : puni amprefuus I b 20, etc.). U. pure (202, 1) and pife, 
pirsi (202, 2), also have temporal force sometimes, as in pure nuvime 

1 Better taken so than as an Indirect Question (Verb-System, p. 144), since pod, 
not pidy is used. 

319] The Verb 219 

ferest 'when he shall bring them the ninth time' (II a 26), send 
pirai aesust^ when he sh^l have taken his seat' (Via 5). 

But the Present Indicative with future meaning is also 
found. Thus U. ponne oui furfant^ uitlu torn trif fetu^when 
they purify(?) the sheep, sacrifice three bull-calves' (VI b 43 ; 
furfant Pres. Indie, of Conj. I, as shown by efurfatu)\ — U. pune 
seste, urfeta manuve habetu *when you dedicate (the calf), hold the 
orhita in the hand' (lib 22 f.); — U. ponne iuengar tursiandu 
hertei 'when it is necessary to drive forth the heifers' (VII b 2 ; 
for hertei see 238, 2, a). Cf. also O. adpiid fiiet *so long as they 
occur' (no. 31 a ; for adpiid see 202, 9). 

Compare the Latin use of the Present Indicative with future force after 
antequam and prvusqtiam, and, especially in early Latin, in relative and condi- 
tional clauses (see also 319). 

The Present Subjunctive is also foimd. Thus O. pun far 
kahad, nip putiiad edum ^when he takes food, may he not be able 
to eat' (no. 19, 8); — U. pone eaonome ferar pufe pir entelust, 
erefertu^poe . . . 'when that in which the fire has been placed is 
brought to the ceremony, let him bring it, who . . . ' (VI b 50). 

This of course is the Anticipatory Subjunctive, which is frequent enough 
in such clauses in early Latin, and which in Oscan-Umbrian, as in Latin, was 
not completely displaced by the Future Lidicative (itself a Subjunctive in 

The Imperfect Subjunctive occurs in Ck A. 50, where the 
verbs of the surrounding clauses are also in the same tense, 
depending on ekss kdmbened. See above, 311. 

319. With the Conjunctions meaning 'before', 'after','until', 
namely O. pruter pan (202, 4), U. prepa (202, 4), post pane (202, 4), 
nersa (202, ll), arnipo (202, 10), the Future Perfect is the com- 
monest construction, but there is one occurrence each of the 
Future Indicative and the Perfect Subjunctive, the latter, as in 
Latin, with the same force as the Future Perfect. Thus : 

Future. — O. com preiuatud actud^ pruter pam medicatinom 
didest 'let him treat with the defendant before he gives judg- 
ment' (T. B. 16 f.). 

220 Syntax [319 

Future Perfect. — U. nep anderaistu, nersa courtust porsi 
angla anseriato iust 'one shall not intenupt(?) until the one who 
has gone to observe the birds has returned' (VI a 6) ; — U. pos- 
tertio pane poplo andirsafust^ . . . persnihimumo 'after he has 
performed the lustration of the people the third time, ... let 
them pray' (VII a 46 f.) ; — earn mani nertru tenitu, amipo uesti- 
sia uesticoa 'let him hold it in the left hand until he has poured 
out the libation' (VI b 24 f .) ; — anderuomu seraitu^ amipo comatir 
pesnisfust 'let him sit in the . . . until he has prayed with the 
broken cakes' (VI b 41). 

Perfect Subjunctive. — neip amholtu^ prepa desuacombifianii 
'one shall not go around before he has announced a propitious 
bird' (VI b 52). 

Conditional Clauses 

320. In conditional clauses, introduced by0.svai,«t^ae,U.8ve, 
sue (202, 14), the commonest construction is the Future or Future 
Perfect Indicative, the main verb being usually an Imperative 
or Subjunctive of Command. The Tabula Bantina alone fur- 
nishes some sixteen examples. The Future Perfect in both 
condition and conclusion occurs once in Umbrian (Via 7). 
U. pife, pirsi (202, 2), also, sometimes has conditional force 'in 
case that, if', e.g. peraei . . . pir orto 6«^ 'if a fire has occurred' 
(VI a 26 etc.), pdfe . . . aiu urtu fefure 'if disturbances(?) shall 
have occurred' (II a 3 ; see 128, 2, a). 

The Present Indicative with future force, which is frequent 
in early Latin legal inscriptions and is found occasionally in 
Latin poetry (e.g. Verg. Aen. 3, 606), is seen in O. suaepis eens- 
tomen net cebnuat, in eizeic uincter^ esuf lamatir 'if any one shall 
not have come to the census and is convicted of it, let him be 
beaten' (T. B. 20 f.). Cf. also U. svepis habe 'if any one remains' 
(lb 18), svepis heri 'if any one wishes' (IV 26). 

The Present Subjunctive is found in U. svepu . . . vakaze, 
suepo . . . uacose (I b 8, VI b 47), according to the explanation 
as *uaco8-8e 'vacatio sit'. See note to passage. 

328] Agreement 221 

The Perfect Subjunctive in future or future perfect sense, 
also found in Latin, is seen in O. svai neip dadid, lamatir 'if he 
does not give it up, let him be beaten' (no. 19, 4) ; — so probably 
U. ier (238, 2) in nosue ier ehe esu poplu, • • • » portatu ... 'if one 
does not go from this people, carry him . . . ' (VI b 54 f.). 

Noteworthy, because of the lack of any conjunction, is 
U. heriiei faciu affertur, . . . fagia tifit 'if the flamen wishes to make 
the sacrifice, it is proper' (II a 16 f.). 


321. The Present Infinitive is used as in Latin. The con- 
struction with subject Accusative is already developed, e.g. 
O. deiuatuns , . . atom deicum 'having sworn that they will say' 
(T. B. 9) etc. The Supine is used exactly as in Latin, e.g. 
U. aseriato etu 'go to observe.' For the -to- Participle without 
passive force, see 308, a. The Gerundive is used as in Latin, 
e.g. itivilas sakrannas 'the iovilae to be consecrated', tipsannam 
deded 'had made', etc. For the Genitive construction ip U. ocrer 
pihaner^ see 271. 


322. Agreement of adjectives belonging to nouns of differ- 
ent gender. Agreement with the Masculine is seen in U. peiqu 
peica merstu 'pico pica iusto' (VI a 1 ; but elsewhere with adjec- 
tive repeated, peico mersto peica mersta, etc.). Agreement with 
the nearest noun is seen in the recurring passage (VI a 32 f. 
etc.) aaluo aeritu ocrer Fisier^ totar liouinar nome^ nerf^ aramo^ 
Tieiro^ pequo castruo^fri salua seritu 'salvum servato arcis Fisiae, 
civitatis Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus, viros, pecuwm capita, 
fruges salvas servato', where saluo agrees with the first object 
name, and salua with the last,/n. 

323. Agreement by sense. As in Latin, the Plural may 
be used with a collective noun or a noun joined to another by 
com. Thus O. pou8 touto deiuatuns tanginom deicans 'ut populus 

222 Syntax [323 

iurati sententiam dicant' (T. B. 9) ; — U. sve mestni kam fratni 
Atiimu, pure ulu benurent, prusikurent ^si maior pars fratrum Atie- 
diorum, qui illuc venerint, pronuntiaverint' (V a 24 ff.); — U. com 
prinuatir . . . ambretuto, . . . com prinuatir eso persnimumo *cum 
legatis ambiunto, cum legatis sic precantor', *let him (the fla- 
men) with the assistants go about, pray' (VI b 56 f.). Cf. also 
U. hondra furo sehemeniar hatuto totar pisi heriest 'infra forum 
seminarium capiunto civitatis quisquis volet' (VII a 52). 

324. Attraction. The attraction of a noun to the case of 
the relative pronoun is seen in U. uasor (Nom. PI.) uerisco Tre- 
hlanir^ porsi ocrer pehaner paca ostenaendi, eo iso ostendu 'vasa 
ad portam Trebulanam, quae arcis piandae causa ostendentur, 
ea sic ostendito' (VI a 19 f .) ; — also in O. eitiuyam paam . . . deded, 
eisak eitiuvad 'pecuniam quam dedit, ea pecunia' (no. 4), though 
here the noun is repeated in its proper case. In Latin such 
attraction is mainly poetical in the best period (urbem quam 
Btatuo vestra est, Verg. Aen. 1, 573), but not uncommon in early 
prose. Cf. Vituries quel . . . damnati sunt, , . , eos omneis etc. 
(CIL. I 199, 43 f.), viatores praeconea quel ex hac lege lectei sui- 
lectei erunt, eis viatoribua praeconibus etc. (CIL. 1 202, col.ii,31f.). 



325. Asyndeton. The omission of the connective in a 
series of coordinate words or clauses is, as in Latin and else- 
where, extremely common. Noticeable is the frequency of 
phrases consisting of pairs of words without connective, like 
L. volena propitius etc. Thus \]. forts jt?ac?6;r 'favorable and pro- 
pitious', pemaiaf pustnaiaf 'before and behind', antakres kumates 
'whole and broken', afepes arves 'offerings of fat and the fruits 
of the field', atru alfu 'black and white' (I b 29), dupursus petur- 
pursus 'bipeds and quadrupeds', peme postne 'before and after', 
fato fito 'success and good fortune' (as if 1j, factum fitum, the 
first referring to 'efficiency, successful accomplishment', the 
second to 'that which happens, turns out well, good fortune'). 

338] Order of Words 223 

sepse sarsite 'together and completely' (cf.'L. sane sarteque; for 
the forms see 844, l, 6, 244, 3)^, veskla snata asnata 'vessels wet and 
dry' (i.e. vessels for liquids and those not for liquids ; of. Eng. 
*dry^ measure' and 'liquid measure'). Note also O. pr. censtur 
*praetor or censor' (T. B. 27). 

326. Omission of the Subject. In the Iguvinian Tables, 
as in early Latin prose, the subject is frequently left unex- 
pressed, when it is well understood who is the proper person 
to perform the action in question. Thus ape apelust, muneklu 
habia etc. (V a 17 ff.) *when one (i.e. the proper person, in this 
case the flamen) shall have performed certain rites, he shall 
receive certain fees'. Even when there is a change of subject, 
it may be left unexpressed. Thus in VI b 48 ff. there is a series 
of verbs with no subject expressed, though some of the actions 
are performed by the augur and others by the flamen, as is seen 
from the more detailed statements in VI a 1 ff . 

327. Omission of the Verb. The verb subocauu 'invoco' 
is omitted in U. tio esu hue peracrei pihaclu 'te hoc bove opimo 
piaculo' (VI a 25 etc.), tiu puni tiu vinu 'te posca te vino' (II a 25), 
with which compare L. te hoc porco piaculo (Cato, De Agric. 
141, 4). Corresponding to eno deitu arsmahamo etc. 'tunc dicito : 
*' ordinamini" ' etc. (VI b 56 etc.) the older version has simply 
enumek armamu etc. 'tunc "ordinamini" ' etc. (I b 19 etc.). 

The omission of the verb or of the object in dedications is 
of course common, likewise of the verb when it is readily 
supplied from a preceding clause. 


328. There is no fundamental difference from the Latin 
order, the resemblance being closest with the style of early 
prose such as that of Cato or the inscriptions. The following 
points are perhaps worthy of mention. 

1 U. sepse sarsite is also taken as ' separately and together', sepse being explained 
as from *se-pse. But this is on the whole less likely. 

224 Syntax [328 

1. As in Latin, the adjective regularly follows its noun, 
but may precede it if emphatic. Thus U. oeri-per Fisiu^ tota-per 
liouina 'pro monte Fisio, pro civitate Iguvina', etc., but deatrvrco 
perai, nertni-co persi ^ did dextrum (sinistrum) pedem', destram-e 
scapla 'in dextram scapulam', etc. In the numerous sacrifices 
of three victims the numeral always follows its noun in VI a 22, 
58, VI b 1, 3 etc., but always precedes it in the earlier version 
(I a 3, 7, 11, 14 etc.). Demonstrative pronouns precede, posses- 
sives follow their nouns, as in Latin. 

2. As in Latin, words or even whole clauses belonging to 
a subordinate clause are sometimes introduced before the rela- 
tive pronoun or conjunction. Thus O. prai Mamerttiais pas set 
'which are before the Martian' (no. 27), beside the normal order 
in the companion inscription (no. 28) ; — O. sakarakltim Herekleis 
[dp] slaagid pdd ist 'the temple of Hercules which is at the boun- 
dary' (C. A. 11 ff.). In this last passage all the words quoted, 
together with the succeeding four lines, belong to the clause 
introduced by puz (1. 17), which depends upon ekss kdmbened 
(1. 10). But in this case, owing to the length of the intervening 
relative clauses, the subjects are repeated after puz. Cf. L. set 
ques esent quei sibei deicerent neeesus ese Bacanal habere^ eeis utei 
ad pr. urhanum Romam venirent (SC. de Bacch. 3 ff.). 

3. With a series of objects the verb is sometimes placed 
before the first and repeated after the last. Thus U. fertu . . . 
fertu (II a 17 £f.), pihatu . . . pihatu (VI a 29 f.), seritu . . . seritu 
(VI a 32 f . ; quoted in 322). 


The following collection contains all the more important inscriptions. 
Those omitted contain, for the most part, only proper names or mutilated words. 

Uncertain letters are indicated by a change in type, italic in black-face 
text, roman in italic text.i Obvious mistakes are corrected in the text, the 
original reading being given in a footnote. Where there can be any reason- 
able doubt as to a correction, it is given in the footnote, the original reading 
being left in the text. Mistakes in the division of words (which is indicated by 
dots, usually one, sometimes two) are corrected without remark. Restorations 
are inclosed in brackets. The division of the lines is indicated by | , except 
where the printed lines follow those of the original. 2 

For the sake of convenience, capitals and marks of abbreviation and 
punctuation are supplied in the text, as well as in the translation. » The trans- 
lation of the more uncertain words is given in italics, or sometimes omitted 
entirely ; yet from the fact that a given translation is not italicized it does not 
follow that this translation is undisputed, but only that the author regards it as 
reasonably certain. A few fictitious Latin words are used for convenience, and 
marked with an asterisk. But transcriptions and translations of proper names, 
even when imknown in Latin, are not so marked , except in the Glossary. The brief 
comments to some of the inscriptions are merely supplementary to the Glossary. 

For each inscription the corresponding numbers of the collections of 
Conway and v. Planta are given. Some slight variations from the reading 
of one or both of .these are based upon autopsy. See the author's Critical 
Notes to Oscan Inscriptions, I.F. 12, 13 ff. 


The Cippus Abellanus and the Tabula Bantina are given first, as furnishing 
connected reading of some length and illustrating the spelling in each of the two 
alphabets. They are also commented upon more fully than the other inscriptions. 
After these nurabei*s the arrangement is geographical. 

1 Many letters which are somewhat mutilated, but of which enough remains to 
make it perfectly clear what was intended, are printed without change of type. In 
the texts of Conway and v. Planta mutilated letters are marked more freely. I am not 
sure now that I have been entirely consistent in this matter, but think I have not 
failed to mark letters which are mutilated enough to be really doubtful. 

2 In the case of a one-lioe inscription covering more than one line of printed 
text, I is added at the end. So nos. 6, 41 b, etc. 

* But in some cases where the interpretation is extremely doubtful, notably in 
no. 19, marks of punctuation are omitted from the text and given only in the translation. 



Oacan Inscriptions 

[No. 1 

I. Cippus Abellanus 

A limestone tablet about 6 feet 5 inches high, 1 foot 8 inches broad, and 
11 inches thick. Inscribed oq both sides. Found in 1745 at Avella in use as 
a door-step, and believed to have been brought from Castel d^ Avella, the prob- 
able site of the ancient Abella. Now in the Seminary at Nola. Conway no. 06, 
V. Planta no. 127. 

Maiitii Vestirikiiiii Mai. Srr. 
pruptUdd syerrunei kvaistu- 
lef Abellantii inim Maii(i[i 
mvkiilii Mai. PukalatHi 
5 medikei deketasiui Ntivl[a- 
ndi] inim ligatdis Abell[aniii8 
inim ligatdis Ntivlantiis, 
plis senateis tangindd 
suyeis pdtdrdspid ligat[ii8 

10 fofans, ekss kdmbened. 
Sakarakltim Herekleis [dp 
slaagid pdd ist inim teer[tim 
plid lip eisiid sakarakltid [ist 
pdd anter teremnf ss eh[trSLi8 

15 ist, pai teremennili mii[inikad 
tanginiid pniftliset r[ihttid 
amndd, puz idik sakara[kliim 
inim idik terdm miiini[klim 
mdinikei terei fusid [inim 

20 eiseis sakarakleis i[nim 
tereis fruktatiuf , fr[ukta- 
tiuf] mdinikd p(itiirii[mpid 
fusjid. Avt Nlivlanii . . . 
.... herekleis fii[sn . . . 

25 ... . pdspid NdvlaM .... 

Maio Vestricio Mai. f . Sir., 
ex antepacto arbitro^ quaestoii 
Abellano, et Maio 
lovicio Mai. f. Puclato 
meddici *decentario Nolano 
et legatis Abellanis 
et legatis Nolanis, 
qui senatus sententia 
sui utrique legati 
erant, ita convenit. 
Templum Herculis ad 
finem quod est, et territorium 
quod ad id templum est, 
quod inter termina exteriora 
est, quae termina communi 
sententia posita sunt recto 
circuitu, ut id templum 
et id territorium commune 
in communi territorio esset, et 
eius templi et 
territorii fructus, fructus 
communis utrorumque 
esset. At Nolani 
.... Herculis fanum 

No. 1] 

Oscan Inscriptions 


Ekkum [svai pid herieset 
triibarak[ayum terei piid 
liiinit1i[m] pernum [ptiis 

30 Herekleis fiisnti mefi[li 
ist, ehtrad feihtiss pti[a 
Herekleis fiisnam amfr- 
et, pert viam piisstist 
pai ip ist, ptistin slagim 

35 senateis suveis tangi- 
niid tribarakaviim li- 
kitud. inim idk triba- 
rakkiuf pam IVdvlaniis 
tribarakattuset ^ inim 

40 Hittiaf NtivlanUm estud. 
Ekkum syai pid Abellanlis 
tribarakattuset^ iiik tri- 
barakkiuf inim liittiuf 
Abellani^m estud. Avt 

46 plist feihuis pds fisnam am- 
fret, eisei terei nep Abel- 
lanlis nep Niivlanlis pidum 
tribarakattins.^ Avt the- 
savrdm piid esei terei ist, 

50 plin patensins, mliinikad ta[n- 
ginlid patensins, inim pid e[isei 
thesavrei pdkkapid ee[stit 
ajittitim alttram alttr[iis 
hjerrins. Avt anter slagim 

55 Ajbellanam inim Mvlanam 
sJtUlad vili uruvli ist . edii . 
ejisai viai mefiai teremen- 
s n]iii staiet. 


Item [si quid volent 
aedificare \in territorio quod 
limitwm tenus [quibus 
Herculis fanum medium 
est, extra muros qui 
Herculis fanum ambiunt, 
trans viam positum est 
quae ibi est, pro finibus 
senatus sui sententia, 
aedificare liceto. 
Et id aedificium 
quod Nolani 
aedificaverint et 
usus Nolanorum esto. 
Item si quid Abellani 
aedificaverint, id 
aedificium et usus 
Abellanorum esto. At 
post muros qui fanum ambi- 
unt, in eo territorio neque Abel- 
lani neque Nolani quidquam 
aedificaverint. At thesau- 
rum qui in eo territorio est, 
cum aperirent, communi senten- 
tia aperirent, et quidquid in eo 
thesauro quandoque exstat, 
portionum alteram alteri 
caperent. At inter finis 
Abellanos et Nolanos 

uhique via flexa est ^ 

in ea via media termina " 

1 trflMuakat tuset, tribarakat tins. 

228 Oscan Inscriptions [No. 1 


Cf. Mommsen, Unterital. Dial., 121 ff. ; Biicheler, Commentationes philo- 
logicae in honorem Th. Mommseni, 227 ft. ; Bartholomae, I.F. 6, 307 ff. ; 
V. Planta II, 622 ff. ; Conway, Exempla Selecta, 10 fE. 

The inscription contains an agreement between the cities 
of Nola and Abella in regard to a temple of Hercules, which 
was situated on the boundaries and owned in common. Such 
joint ownership of temples was not uncommon in antiquity. 
One may recall the temple of Artemis Limnatis on Mt. Tayge- 
tus which caused endless trouble between the Laconians and 
Messenians (Pausanias 4, 4, 2), the temple and grove of Juno 
Sospita at Lanuvium common to the Romans and Latins (Livy 
8, 14), and especially the temple which Servius Tullius built on 
the Aventine for the use of Romans and Latins (Livy 1, 46 ; 
Dion, Hal. 4, 2&). For this temple on the Aventine we are told 
that Servius Tullius made regulations and had them inscribed 
on a bronze stele which was placed in the temple, where it 
remained "until my time, with letters such as the Greeks once 
used" (Dion. Hal. 1. c). The Cippus Abellanus is probably 
one of two copies, the other having been set up at Nola.^ 

The precise date is unknown. The prominence of the 
senate points to a period after 216 B.C., when the powers of 
the senate of Nola were notably increased, while it can hardly 
be later than the Social War, in which Nola was virtually ruined. 
One may take 150 B.C. as an approximate date. 

The general arrangement of the temple property here is 
one that is well known elsewhere. The land immediately 

1 T^is was Mommsen's view and is distinctly favored by the provenance of 
the tablet ; Bticheler, as is evident from his explanation of slaagld, 1. 12, as ' e regione*, 
supposes there was only one tablet, which was set up near the site of the temple ; and 
Conway urges that ** the cost of erecting such a block and cutting such a long inscrip- 
tion would surely have been too considerable to allow of two copies where one would 
do." But dual copies of even longer inscriptions are well attested. Cf., for example, 
Dittenberger, Syll. Inscr. Graec.2, no. 20, an inscription of over sixty lines on a marble 
stele found at Eleusis, another copy of which was ordered set up on the Acropolis at 
Athens; further, Collitz, Sammlung d. griech. Dialekt-Inschriften, no. 345 (over 90 
lines, two copies authorized), Collitz, no. 3624 (325 lines, three copies authorized), etc. 

No. 1] Oscan Inscriptions 229 

surrounding the temple formed the sacred precinct proper and 
was inclosed by walls. Outside of this was the land which was 
a part of the temple property but not withheld from secular uses. 
This was marked off by a series of boimdary-stones. Such land 
was often used for pasturage and thus made a source of consid- 
erable income. In the case of our inscription, building was to 
be permitted on this land, if properly sanctioned. 

Summary of Contents, and Notes 

11. 1-10. Agreed as follows between the quaestor of Abella 
and the meddix of Nola and the delegates of Abella and Nola, 
appointed by their respective senates : 

1. 2. The word sverrunel does not refer to a special kind of quaestorship 
or to some other regular office held in addition to the quaestorship, but rather to 
a special appointment made *by previous agreement' (prupukid) with reference 
to the business in hand. According to the very probable connection with Eng. 
swear and answer (see 96), it may well have some such meaning as * spokesman.' 

I. 5. Besides the meddlss ttivtfks which appears in inscriptions of Pompeii, 
Herculaneum, Capua, and Bovianum, and seems to designate the head of a league 
of cities, the title meddix (see 15, 6) was also applied to municipal officers. 
Cf. medlkefs Piimpaiianefs, no. 3. At Nola (cf. also no. 42, from which it 
appears that there were two such officials, and no. 43) the title was defined by 
a word which corresponds in form to a L. *decentarius. This may be explained 
either as related to L. decens (cf. L. dicentdrius from dlcens) and meaning 
'regularly appointed, ordinarius', or as related to L. decern (see 191, 10) and 
referring to some organization of the city's territory or population of which we 
have no precise knowledge. 

II. 11-23. That the temple of Hercules, and the adjacent 
land within the outer boundaries which have been set around, 
be held in common, and the income from them be joint income 
of both cities. 

I. 12. slaagid (perhaps related to O.Ir. sHcAi' track', 5%e* street') means 
properly * boundary, border' as here, but the word was also used, like L. finis in 
the Plural, of * territory, district', and this is the meaning of slaglm in 11. 34, 54. 

II. 27-48. If any one wishes to "erect a building on the land 
in front of the temple limits, outside the wall running about the 
fane and across the road, it may be done with the sanction of the 

230 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 1- 

senate under whose jurisdiction the land falls. If the Nolans 
build, the building and its income shall belong to them ; to the 
inhabitants of Abella, if they build. But behind the wall sur- 
rounding the fane, no one shall erect a building. 

1. 29. The reading of the second word is very uncertain. The best sense 
would be given by a word meaning 4nside of% the liimitd- being understood as 
equivalent to the teremennitl inclosing the whole temple property. So if we 
accept pernlhii it jnay mean 'in front oV looked at from the inside, as in the 
case of pert viam, 1. 33. 

I. 33. To understand pert vfam we must assume that a road skirted the 
walls. Possibly the road connecting. Nola and Abella ran up to the walls and 
then divided, passing around on each side. 

II. 34-36. * By the vote of the respective senates according to the territory'. 
As the temple was situated on the boundary, the adjacent land would include 
sections from the original territory of both cities, each city retaining jurisdiction 
over its own section in the matter of granting permission to build. 

11. 48-54. When they open the treasury which is in this 
territory, they are to open it by common consent, and whatever 
is in the treasury they are to share. 

11. 54-58. The boundary-stones are on the road between 
the territory of Abella and that of Nola. 

This last sentence defines the locality of the boundary-stones, but the 
precise meaning is obscured by the uncertainty of the reading in 1. 56. At the 
beginning the old reading p]i!illad taken as ^qua' gives a reasonable sense, but 
there is no support for such a word, as there is for sjtUlad. At the end the only 
really certain letters are edi!i, and, while the old reading tedur is out of the ques- 
tion, V. Planta's pedi!i X is only a possibility. The old explanation of oravti as 
*flexa', related to L. wmum^ the curved part of a plow (which is then not to 
be connected with Skt. wj- Hum'), is in itself simpler than the connection with 
Grk. €j)pi5s, Skt. itni-'wide', though it must be confessed that either *qua . . . 
flexa' or *ubique . . . lata' seems a better combination than 'ubique . . . flexa'. 
But the whole line is puzzling. It is not even clear whether the road referred to 
is one connecting the two cities, or one which itself forms the boundary-line 
between their resi>ective territories. 

2. Tabula Bantina 

Fragment of a bronze tablet, about 15 by 10 inches, containing also, on the 
other side, a Latin inscription (CIL. 1 197). The Oscan inscription was origi- 
nally in two columns, a few letters of the right-hand column still showing. 
The fragment represents the middle portion of the left-hand column, and probably 


Oscan Inscriptions 


contains about one sixth of the whole inscription. Found in 1793 at Bantia, 
near the boundaries of Apulia and Lucania. Now in the Museum at Naples. 
Written in the Latin alphabet. There are six paragraphs, divided by spaces. 
Conway no. 28, v. PI. no. 17. 

1 . . . onom ust izic rw . . . | 

2 . . . suaQ . . nus q moltam 
angiiu . . . nur^ ... I 

3 deiuast 

maimas earneis senateis 
tanginud^am^ | 

4 XL osii\ns p]on ioc egmo 
comparascuster. Suae pis pert- 
emust^ pruter^ pan ..... | 

5 deiuatud sipus comenei 
perum dolom mallom^ siom ioc 
comono mais egm[as touti-] \ 

6 COS a,mnud pan pieisum 
brateis auti cadeis amnud, 
inim idic siom dat sena[teis] 

7 tangimbd maimas cameis 
pertumum. Piei ex comono 
pertemest^ izic eizeic zicel\ei\ \ 

8 comono ni hipid. 


. . . . si . . . quaestor multam 



maximae partis senatus 
sententia [dummodononminus] 
XL adsint, cum ea res 
consulta erit. Si quis per- 
emerit,prius quam [peremerit], 
iurato sciens in comitio 
sine dolo malo, se ea 
comitia magis rei publicae 
causa quam cuiuspiam 
gratiae aut inimicitiae causa, 
idque se de senatus 
sententia maximae partis 
perimere. Cui sic comitia 
perimet (quisquam), is eo die 
comitia ne habuerit. 

Pis pocapit post 
post exac comono hafiest^ 
meddis dat castrid loufir \ 
9 en eituas^ factud pous^ touto 
deiuatuns tanginom deicans^ 
siom^ dat eizasc^ idic tangineis\ 

Quis quandoque 
post hac comitia habebit 
magistratus de capite vel 
in pecunias, facito ut populus 
iurati sententiam dicant, 
se de iis id sententiae 

i nur, ud am, rut, from a small fragment no^lost. 
2 Aes hafiert. /Correct form probably hapiest. 
8 Probably tor pus, ou being due to following word. 
* Aes atom. ^ Probably for eizaisc. 

S%e footnote, p. 40. . 

232 Oscan Inscriptions [No. 2 

10 deicum^ pod ualaemom dicere, quod optimum 
touticom tadait ezum^ publicum censeat esse, 
nepfefacid^ pod pis neve fecerit quo quis 
dat eizac egmad min[s\ \ de ea re minus 

11 deiuaid dolud^ malud. Suae- iuret dolo malo. Si- 
pis contrud exeic^ fefacust quis contra hoc fecerit 

auti comono hipust, molto etan- \ aut comitia habuerit, multa tanta 

12 to estud: n.QXD, In, suaepis esto: n. MM. Et siquis 
ionc.fortis meddis moltaum eum potius magistratus multare 
herest^umpert minstreis aeteis\ volet, dumtaxat minoris partis 

13 eituas moltas moltaum licitud, pecuniae multae multare liceto. 


Suaepis pru meddixud Siquis pro magistratu 

altrei castrous auti eituas \ alteri capitis aut pecuniae 

14 zicolom dieust, izic comono diem dixerit, is comitia 

ni hipid ne pon op ne habuerit nisi cum apud 

toutad petirupert urust populum quater oraverit 

sipus perum dolom \ sciens sine dolo 

16 mallom in. trutum zico. malo et quartum diem 

touto peremust. Petiropert, populus perceperit. Quater, 

neip mais pomtis^^ neque plus quinquiens, 

com preiuatud actud \ cum reo agito 

16 pruterpam medicatinom di- prius quam iudicationem 
dest, in, pon posmom con prei- dabit, et cum postremum cum 
uatud urust^ eisucen ziculud \ reo oraverit, ab eo die 

17 zicolom XXX nesimum como' in diebus XXX proximis comi- 
nomni hipid. Suae pis con- tia ne habuerit. Si quis con- 
trudexeicfefacustyioncsuaepisl tra hoc fecerit, eum siquis 

18 herest meddis moltaum^ volet magistratus multare, 
licitud, ampert mistreis liceto, dumtaxat minoris 
aeteis eituas licitud. partis pecuniae liceto. 

1 Aea fepaeid. 2 Aes docud. » Aes exeig. 

4 Following the spacing on the bronze, some punctuate after potntis. Still 
others make the division after petiTupert. The division adopted is the only one 
which admits a satisfactory interpretation. 

No. 2] 

Oscan Inscriptions 


Pon censtur 

19 Bansae^ toutam^ censazet^pis 
ceus Bantins fust, censamur 
esvf in, eituam poizad ligud 

20 iusc^ censtur censaum angetu- 
zet} Aut suaepis censtomen 
nei cehnust dolud mallud \ 

21 in. eizeic uincter, esuf 
comenei lamatir pr. 
meddixud toutad prae- 
sentid perum dolum \ 

22 mallom, in. amiricatud alio 
famelo in. ei. siuom paei 
eizeisfust^pae ancensto fusty 

23 toutico estud. 

Cum censores 
Bantiae populum censebunt, qui 
civis Bantinus erit, censetor 
ipse et pecuniam qua lege 
ii censores censere proposu- 
erint. At siquis in censum 
non venerit dolo malo, 
et eius convincitur, ipse 
in comitio caedatur praetoris 
magistratu, populo prae- 
sente sine dolo 
malo, et *immercato cetera 
familia et pecunia omnino quae 
eius erit, quae incensa erit, 
publica esto. 

Pn, suae praefucus 
pod post exac Bansaefust, 
suae pis op eizois com \ 

24 atrud ligud acum herest, 
auti pru medicatud manim 
aserum eizazunc egmazum 

25 poA exaiscen ligis serif tas 
set, ne phim^ pruhipid 
mais zicolois X nesimois. 
Suae pis contrud \ 

26 exeic pruhipust, molto 
etanto estud: n. cd. In. 
suaepis ionc meddis mol- 
taunt herest, licitud. 

Praetor, sive praefectus 
post hac Bantiae erit, 
si quis apud eos cum 
altero lege agere volet, 
aut pro iudicato manum 
adserere de eis rebus 
quae hisce in legibus scriptae 
sunt, ne quem prohibuerit 
plus diebus X proximis. 
Si quis contra 
hoc prohibuerit, multa 
tanta esto : n. M. Et 
siquis eum magistratus mul- 
tare volet, liceto. 

1 Aes Sansae. ^Aes tautam. 

8 The first two letters are mutilated, but there is no doubt of the reading. 

* Aes anget uzet. s For pirn. See footnote, p. 144. 


Oscan Inscriptions 

[No. 2 

27 [ampert] minstrels aeteis 
eituas moltas moltaum 

[dumtaxat] minoris partis 
pecuniae multae multare 

Pr, censtur Bansae 
28 \ne pisfu\idy nei suae q. 
fust, nep censtur fuidj 
net suae pr. fust. In. suae- 
pii pr. in. suae- \ 

. . . ]um nerumfust, izic post 

eizuc nifuid. Suaepis 
30 [contrud exeic tr. pL facus 

f^ust^ izic amprufid facus 

estud. Idic medicifn eizuc 

\^pocapid Bansae'] 

medicim acuwitm 

J^nesimum \ 

32 um pod I 

33 medicim.^ 

Praetor censor Bantiae 
[ne quis] fuerit, nisi quaestor 
fuerit, neve censor fuerit 
nisi praetor fuerit. Et si- 
quis praetor et si- 

[quis censor] q 

] virum fuerit, is post 

ea tr. pi. ne fuerit. Siquis 
[contra hoc tr. pi. f actus] 
erit, is improbe factus 
esto. Id magisterium eo 

[quandoque Bantiae] 

magisterium annorum 

VI proximorum 


.... magisterium. 


Cf . Kirchhoff , Das Stadtrecht von Bantia ; Lange, Die oskische Inschrift 
der Tabula Bantina ; Jordan, B.B. 6, 195 ff. (for the Avellino fragment); Br^l, 
M^m. Soc. Ling. 4, 381 ff.; Biicheler in Brans, Fontes iuris Bomani«, 48 ff.; 
Moratti, Archivio giuridico, 1894, 74 ff. ; v. Planta II, 599 ff.; Gonway, Exempla 
Selecta, 2 ff. 

The inscription contains a series of municipal regulations 
for the town of Bantia. Its date and relation to the Latin 
inscription on the other side of the tablet are matters of dis- 
pute. But the probability is that the Latin inscription, the 
date of which falls somewhere between 132 and 117 B.C., is 

1 From 1. 29 on so much is lost that, even with the help of an inexact copy of a 
fragment containing a portion of what is now missing (called the Avellino fragment), 
no certain restoration of the whole text can be made. 

No. 2] Oscan Inscriptions 235 

quite independent of the Oscan and somewhat earlier. The 
Oscan inscription belongs then to the last quarter of the second 
century B.C. 

Translation and Notes 

11. 1-4. Only the conclusion beginning with deiuast is clear. 

'* . . . he shall take oath with the assent of the majority of 
the senate provided that not less than forty are present wheU 
the matter is under advisement." 

11. 4-8. " If any one by right of intercession shall prevent 
the assembly, before preventing it he shall swear wittingly in the 
assembly without guile that he prevents this assembly rather for 
the sake of the public welfare than out of favor or malice toward 
any one, and that too in accordance with the judgment of the 
majority of the senate. The presiding magistrate whose assembly 
is prevented in this way shall not hold the assembly on this day." 

The verb *p€Ttem6 (pertempAst etc.) is used in the technical sense of * prevent 
by intercession'. The intercession at Rome, while possible to any magistrate of a 
rank equal to or higher than that of the one in charge, was a prerogative employed 
especially by the tribunes of the people. These officials existed at Bantia, sus is seen 
from 1. 30. The intercession could be exercised, among other occasions, against 
calling together the assembly, no matter for what purpose summoned. But some- 
times a particular law contained the special provision that no intercession should 
be allowed. In our inscription the right of intercession is conditioned upon an 
oath to the effect that the privilege is exercised in the public interest, and with the 
approval of the senate. Compare the voluntary oath taken by Tiberius Gracchus, 
when interceding against the imprisonment of Scipio Asiaticus, that it was not 
due to any friendship for Scipio Africanus (Aul. Gell. 6, 19); and also the fact 
that even at Rome, in the case of a comitia summoned for the election of magis- 
trates, the intercession wsus dependent on the sanction of the senate (Cic. ad Att. 
4, 16, 6). On the general subject of the intercession see Class. Diet. s.v. 

1. 6. The phrase sipiLS perum dolom mallom is simply the reverse of the 
common Latin formula sciens dolo malo^ which occurs with prohibitions, as * let 
him not swear (or act) wittingly with guile*. 

1. 6. The phrase pieisum hrateis auti cadets amnud is clearly the equivalent 
of cuiuspiam gratiae aut inimicitiae caiLsa of Latin legal phraseology, and the 
Greek otrre x^^pt^oj ivcK* ovre ^x^P***^ 

1 For hrateis (also Fael. ftra^om, hraia, Vest, brat.) no satisfactory etymology 
has been suggested, while cadeis may well be related to (Toth. hatis, Eng. hate. 

236 Oscan Inscriptions [No. 2 

" Whatever magistrate shall hereafter hold an assembly in 
a suit involving the death penalty or a fine, let him make the 
people pronounce judgment after having sworn that they will 
render such judgment as they believe to be for the best public 
good, and let him prevent any one from swearing in this matter 
with guile. If any one shall act or hold an assembly con- 
trary to this, let the fine be 2000 sesterces. And if any magis- 
trate prefers to fix the fine, he may do so, provided it is for less 
than half the property of the guilty person." 

This and the following section refer to the assembly in its judiciary function 
as a court of appeal. 

With dot castrid loufir en eituas (11. 8, 9) and castroiis auti eituas (1. 13) 
compare the Roman indicia capitis i and indicia pecuniae. Cf. Livy 26, 3, 8 
quoad vel capitis vel pecuniae ivdicasset privato (note also in this passage privato 
= reoy as in 11. 15, 16). 

With 11. 9, 10, compare iuranto . . . neque se aliter coTisUium Jia^iturum . . . 
neque sententiam dicturum, quam ut ex h{ac) l(ege) exque re communi municipum 
eius municipi censeatfore (CIL. II 1963). 

1. 10. For the construction with nepfefacid, see 315, end. 

For 11. 12, 13, see 269. 

^ Nearly all commentators have taken dat castrid and castrous as *de funded 
'fundi'. But the objection raised long ago by Lange, Tab. Bant., 21 ff., has never 
been answered, namely that according to all Roman analogies we have to do with 
criminal procedure, in which a suit involving real estate would have no place. He 
translates 'capitis', but with an untenable explanation of the form. Recently Br^al, 
Mem. Soc. Ling. 11, 5, without recollection of Lange's view, quotes the opinion of a 
legal colleague that 'capitis', not 'fundi', gives the contrast to be expected, and sug- 
gests that castrid, castrous^ were inscribed by mistake in place of a word corresponding 
to L. caput. But this last assumption is not necessary. For, retaining the formal 
couDection with L. castruniy the meaning 'head', though apparently remote, is more 
easily explained than 'real estate'. The word is generally connected with L. cassia, 
and so would contain the root is)kat-, «(A;)ac?-* cover, protect', the cognate nearest in 
form beiDg Skt. c7ia«ra-m 'parasol'. From the meaning 'protection', whence in 
L. * fortress', may come ' cover' or ' summit', which frequently interchange with * head'. 
Cf. Skt. A;aA;u(2 ' mountain-peak' and 'head'; — Grerm. Giebel: Grk. /c£0aXi^; — (lerm. 
kopf probably: Eng. cop, Dutch kopje; — and especially Grerm. Dach 'covering, 
roof (decken, (rriyu, etc.), used dialectically in sense of 'head'. 

The Umbrian castruo, kastruvuf, which cannot be separated from the Oscan 
forms, occur in two often repeated phrases. In V a 13 ff. the perquisite for the per- 
formance of certain ceremonies is fixed at so much pusti kastruvuf, commonly taken 

No. 2] Osean Inscriptions 23 It 


" If any magistrate shall have appointed the day for another 
in a suit involving the death penalty or a fine, he must not hold 
the assembly until he has brought the accusation four times in 
the presence of the people without guile, and the people have 
been advised of the fourth day. Four times, and not more than 
five, must he argue the case with the defendant before he pro- 
nounces the indictment, and when he has argued for the last 
time with the defendant he must not hold the assembly within 
thirty days from that day. And if any one shall have done 
contrary to this, if any magistrate wishes to fix the fine, he 
may, but only for less than half the property of the guilty 
person be it permitted." 

The Roman procedure, as described in Cic. pro domo, 17, 45, Livy 26, 3, 
etc., is followed closely except that, according to the usual understanding of 
the case (otherwise Lange, Tab. Bant., 65 ff.), the interval of the trinundinum 
at Rome occurred after the third preliminary hearing, the qiiarta accusatio being 
immediately followed by the decision of the comitia; whereas at Bantia the 
interval of thirty days (this was also a recognized interval at Rome for certain 
classes of trials) was between the last hearing, which was the fourth or some- 
times even the fifth, and the convocation of the comitia. 

The op toutad, 1. 14, refers to the informal assembly, the contio. The 
trutum zico., 1. 15 (cf. the dieprodicta, Cic. 1. c), probably means the fourth day, 
that is the day for the fourth and (usually) final hearing, though trutum is also 
taken as ^definitum, fixed\^ 

" When the censors shall take the census of the people of 
Bantia, whoever is a citizen of Bantia shall be rated, himself 
and his property, according to the law under which these 

as *in fundos*, 'for each estate*. But the meaning *in capita', 'for each person* 
(cf. Livy 2, 33, 11, etc.) is more appropriate (cf. in hominem a. II, CIL. VI 820). 
In the other passage, where the word occurs among a series of objects which the god 
is asked to preserve (VI a 30 etc.), the meaning 'capita* is less attractive, and were 
it a question of this passage alone we should prefer 'fundos*. But it is possible to 
takepectfo cdstriio together as 'pecuum capita', or else to assume that the word was 
also used for small animals, sheep, goats, etc., in contrast to pecwo, large animals, kine. 
1 With this meaning there is no nearer connection for trutum than Lith. tvirtas 
'firm', while as 'quartum* its explanation is simple (191, 4). Moreover the analogy 
of the Roman quarta accusatio affords a strong presumption in favor of 'quartum', 
even though the procedure is not precisely the same. 

238 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 2- 

censors shall have proposed to take the census. And if any one* 
fraudulently fails to come to the census, and is convicted of it, 
let him be scourged (?) in the assembly, under the magistracy of 
the praetor, in the presence of the people, and let the rest of his 
household, and all his property which is not rated, become public 
property without remuneration to him." 

At Rome there was a formula census or lex cerisui censenda dicta. Accord- 
ing to the lex lulia municipalis (CIL. I 206) the censors are instructed to find 
out name, a^e, financial condition, etc., ex formula census j quae Boma^e ah eo, 
qui tum censum populi acturus erit^ proposita erit (cf. poizad ligud etc. here). 
At Rome, too, each citizen had to appear in person (cf. suaepis censtomr-en nei 
cdmust here). 

The penalty at Rome for non-appearance at the census without sufficient 
excuse (cf. dolud mallud here) was death or slavery of the person and sale or 
confiscation of his property. Cf . Valer. Max. 6, 3, 4 e^ bona eius et ipsum vendidit 
and Livy 1, 44, 1 censu perfecto, quern maturaverat metu legis de incen^sis latae 
cum vinculorum minis mortisque^ . . . The meaning of lamatir^ 1. 21, which 
occurs also in the Curse of Vibia (no. 19), is disputed, but 'caedatur' is more 
probable than 'veneat'.^ 

" The praetor, or if there shall be a prefect at Bantia after 

this, in case any one wishes to go to law with another before 

them, or to make a forcible seizure, as if judgment had been 

rendered, on these matters which are written of in these laws, 

shall not prevent one for more than the ten succeeding days. 

If any one contrary to this shall prevent, the fine shall be 1000 

sesterces. And if any magistrate wishes to fix the fine he may 

do so, but only for a fine involving less than half the property 

shall it be permitted." 

The construction is awkward. The subject of pruhipid (1. 26) is Pr. at 
the beginning, the clause suae . . . fust being thrown in parenthetically. Yet 
eizois refers to the prefect as well as to the praetor. With pru medicatud manim 
aserum compare pro ioudicatod n. [L.] manum iniect[i]o estod (CIL. IX 782). 

1 The translation * veneat' (Bucheler) for the passage in the Vibia Curse was 
thought to receive some support from the presence of ireirprifUvoi in the Gnidian 
Curses, but it is now recognized that this is not from TrnrpdffKca, but from wlfAwpfi/u^ 
and means 'consumed with fever' (cf. Rh. M. 49, 39). Accepting the translation 
*caedatur*, lamatir may be connected with O.Bulg. Zomi^i * break', Eng. lame and 
(colloquial) lam. Cf. Danielsson, Pauli's Altit. Stud. 3, 183. 

8] Oscan Inscriptions 239 


" No one shall be praetor or censor of Bantia unless he has 

been quaestor, nor shall any one be censor unless he has been 

praetor. And if any one shall be praetor, and ,^ he shall 

not become a tribune of the people after this. And if any one 

shall be made tribune contrary to this, he shall be made so 


This section treats of the order of magistrates, which here is quaestor — 
praetor — censor, while at Rome it is usually quaestor — censor — praetor, though 
sometimes the praetorship precedes the censorship as here; cf. Livy 41, 9, 11. 
Except for the first sentence, the text is so fragmentary that the precise meaning 
is entirely uncertain. 

Inscriptions of Pompeii^ 
3-13. Inscriptions on Public Works, and Dedications 

Most of these belong to the second century b.c. None is later than the 
Social War, after which Oscan ceased to be used in official inscriptions ; and, on 
the other hand, with the exception of no. 9, from a temple believed to belong to 
the third century, there is probably none earlier than 200 b.c. Within these 
limits there are no evidences of date beyond the forms of the letters, which 
show, for example, that no. 3 is one of the earliest of this period, no. 4 one of 
the latest. All of these inscriptions are now in the Naples Museum. 

3. Road-makers' tablet, found near the Porta Stabiana. Conway no. 39, 
V. PI. no. 28. 

M. Siuttiis M. N. Pdntiis M. M. Suttius M. f. N. Pontius M. f. 

a]idili8 ^kak vlam terem[na- aediles banc viam termina- 

tjtens ant ^nttram Staf [ii- verunt usque ad pontem Stabi- 

anam. Viu te[r]emnatust per. anum. Via terminata est perticis 

5 X. iu&sa via Piimpaiiana ter- X. lidem viam Pompeianam ter- 

emnattens perek. m ant kai- minaverunt perticis III usque ad 

laltivefsMeeilikiieis. Ekassvi- aedem lovis Milicbii. Has vi- 

ass ini via Itiviia ini Dekkvia- as et viam loviam et Decuria- 

rim medikeis Pdmpaiianeis lem meddicis Pompeiani 

10 serevkid imaden uupsens, iu- auspicio ab imo fecerunt, ii- 

su^ aidilis prtifattens. dem aediles probaverunt. 

1 For topographical matters cf . especially Nissen, Pompejanische Studien, and 
Man's Pompeii translated by Kelsey (references are to the second edition, 1902). 
a ia[8]8a impossible; here and in 1. 5 uncertain whether n or A, but see 63, a. 

240 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 3- 

Cf. Nissen, Pomp. Stud., 631 ff., and Mau, Pompeii, 184. 

The aediles laid out two roads, and these as well as two others they also 
constructed or repaired under the direction of the meddix of the city. One 
road, leading out from the Stabian gate where the inscription was set up, they 
laid out at a certain width as far as the Stabian bridge. The street leading 
from the same point into the city, and called, from its importance, the Via 
Pompeiana (now known as the Strada Stabiana), they laid out at a certain 
width as far as the temple or precinct of Jupiter Milichius. The Via lovia 
was doubtless named from a temple of Jupiter, and the Via Decurialis from 
some public building. The phrase viam terminare is not used in Latin, but the 
reference is clearly to the laying out of the road, that is, marking off its exact 
width, delimiting it (on the sides). Viass . . . imad-en uupsens ^made from the 
bottom up' corresponds to the Latin vids substruxerunt 

4. A tablet found on the site of what is believed to have been a palaestra. 
Conway no. 42, v. PI. no. 29. 

V. Aadirans V. eitiuvam paam V. Adiranus V. f. pecuniam quam 

(V vCTeiiai Piimpaiianai tristaa- iuventuti Pompeianae testa- 

k V mentud deded, eisak eitiuvad mento dedit, ea pecunia 

V. Viinikiis Mr. kvaisstur Piimp- V. Vinicius Mr. f. quaestor Pom- 

6 aiians triibiim ekak kdmben- peianus domum banc conven- 

nieis tanginud lipsannam tus sententia faciendam 

deded, isidum prdfatted. dedit, idem probavit. 

Cf. Nissen, Pomp. Stud., 168 ff. 

The quaestor had this building constructed from the money which V. Adi- 
ranus left by will to the Pompeian vereiia. This was probably an association of 
young men devoted to athletic and military training like the Greek ephebes. 
The word is best explained as a derivative with suffix -^io- (253, 2) from a 
*uero-* defense', containing the same root as O. veru *portam', Goth, warjan 
*ward off', etc. (15, 15), so that the original meaning would be * defensive body' 
(cf . Germ. Landwehr) ; but the military side of the association may have become 
entirely subordinate »t the time of this inscription. i 

5. Inscribed under a sun-dial found at the Stabian baths. Conway no. 43, 
V. PL no. 30. 

Mr. Atiniis Mr. kvaiss^r Mr. Atinius Mr. f. quaestor 

eitiuvad | miiltaslkad pecunia multaticia 

kdmbennieis tangi[n.] | aamanaffed. conventus sententia locavit. 

With eitiuvad mtlltasikad and aragetud mi:ilta8[ikud] (no. 43) compare 
L. quaistores aire rnoltaticod dederont (CIL. I 181). 

1 The spelling verehias, no. 30, if indeed this is the correct reading, 1, regard 
a somewhat freakish variant of that seen in vereiiai and not as sufficient ground for 
preferring connection with O. Yerehasiiii. 

11] Oacan Inscriptions 241 

6. Stamped in dots on the margin of the pavement in the temple of 
Apollo. Conway no. 52, v. PI. no. 31. 

fj. E[amp[anii8 . kvaijsstur O. Campanius — f. quaestor 

kdmbeim[iei8 tanginud] conventus [sententia] 

Appellaneis eitiu[vad Apollinis pecunia 

tipsjannu aainan[aff]ed. | faciendum locavit. - 

Doubtless a word for pavement is to be supplied before i!ip8]annu. With 
Appelluneis eitiu[vad compare L. poriic(um) . , , de stipe Dian(ae) emendum 
[fd]ciendum coerav€r[e (CIL. X 3781). 

7. On a stone block with* cornice. Conway no. 44, v. PL no. 34. 

V. Pdpidiis V. med. tdv. V. Popidius V. f . meddix tuticus 

passtata ekak lipsan. porticum banc faciendam 

deded, isidu prdfattd. dedit, idem probavit. 

Compare V. PopidiiLS Ep. /. q, porticus faciendas coeravU, found in the 
forum of Pompeii (CIL. X 794). 

8. On a marble slab formerly attached to a piece of sculpture representing 
a' female head. Conway no. 46, v. PI. no. 36. 

V. Pdpidiis V. V. Popidius V. f. 

med. tdv. meddix tuticus 

aamanafied, locavit, 
isidu idem 

prdfatted. probavit. 

9. On a block from the epistyle of a small building thought to be a well- 
house (Man, 139 ; otherwise Nissen, 338). Conway no. 47, v. PL no. 36. 

Ni. Trebiis Tr. med. tdv. N. Trebius Tr. f . meddix tuticus 

aamanafied. locavit. 

10. On a small pedestal. Conway no. 48, v. PL no. 36 a. 
Mz. Avdiis Kli. Mz. Audlus Cle.-i. 
Dekis Seppiis itpf. Decius Seppius Off. f 
kvaizstur upsens. quaestores fecerimt. 

11. On a stone slab. Conway no. 50, v. PL no. 32. 

. S]^riis Ma. . Spurius Ma. f. 

k]yaisstur quaestor 

kd]mparakinei8 consilii 

ta]ngin. aamanafied. sententia locavit. 

242 Oscan Inscriptions [Noa. 12- 

12. On a stone basis. Conway no. 53, v. PL no. 40. 

V. Sadiriis V. aidil. V. Satrius V. f . aedilis. 

13. On a plaster slab. Conway no. 59, v. PI. no. 62. 

Ahvdiu Ni. akun. CXn . . . Audio N. f . an. CXII 

Formerly read ahydiuni etc., no interpretation being attempted. But the 
mark of separation is clear. ^ Apparently we have to do with an epitaph, the 
praenomen being lost.^ For the spelling of Ahvdiu see 61, 2, a, and 171, 3, a. 

14-18. The Eituns Inscriptions 

These are painted in red on the outside* walls of houses standing near 
street-comers. For their interpretation cf. Nissen, Pomp. Stud., 497 ff. ; Con- 
way, I.F. 3, 85 ff. ; Degering, Mitt. d. deutsch. archaol. Inst., r&m. Abt., 13, 
124 ff. ; Mau, ibid. 14, 105 ff. ; Mau, Pompeii, 240 ff. The usual and more 
probable view is that they are military notices, dating from the Social War, 
when Pompeii was besieged by Sulla (89 b.c). It is suggested that many of 
the important streets were barricaded and that these inscriptions served as 
guides to the soldiers, pointing out the shortest available route to their respec- 
tive stations along the city walls. Nos. 14-16 are near streets leading to the 
north wall, no. 17 is on a street leading to the western wall, while no. 18, unknown 
until 1897, is near what at the time of the earthquake was a blind alley, but 
which at an earlier period probably led through to the region of the "Triangu- 
lar Forum" near the south wall. The veru Sarinu of nos. 14, 15, is not the 
Samian gate, but what is now known as the Herculanean gate. The buildings 
mentioned in no. 18 were probably in the Triangular Forum, the temple of 
Minerva being perhaps the well-known Doric temple at that place. 

The phrase puf faamat means * where (the officer named) is stationed' (for 
faamat : L. famulus^ see 99, 2 ; the officer's home is his command). The amvi- 
annud (see 255, a) is not simply ^way% but ^way around, detour' (to avoid the 
barricaded streets ; see above). For eituns the common interpretation as Nom. 
Sg. ^ iter' is the most difficult to justify grammatically. If the form is a noun 
at all it is Nom. PI. of an -dn- stem, meaning perhaps ^goers', that is 'patrols'. 
But the author is now inclined to favor the old interpretation 'eunto', there 
being no real difficulty in explaining the form as an Imperative (236, 2). 

14. Conway no. 60, v. PI. no. 47. 

Eksuk amvianud eituns Hoc circuito eunto 

anter tiurri XII ini ver. inter turrim XII et portam 

Sarinu, puf faamat Sarinam, ubi habitat 

Mr. Aadiriis V. Mr. Atrius V. f. 

1 Dennison, Am. Jour, of Arch. 1898, 399 b, Buck, I.F. 12, 21. 
3 Neither the published reports nor my own recollection of the inscription serves 
tx) conhrm or refute the supposition that it is incomplete. 

19] Oscan Inscriptions 243 

15. Conway no. 61, v. PI. no. 48. 

Eksuk amviannud eit. Hoc circuitu eunto 

anter tiurri XXJ ini inter turrim XII et 

vera Sar/hu, puf portam Sarinam, ubi 

faamat Mr. Aadiriis V. habitat Mr. Atrius V. f • 

16 . Conway no. 62, v. PI. no. 50. 

.^[sjuk amviaxmd eitu[n8 Hoc circuitu eunto 

anter tiurrji X ini XI, puf inter turrim X et XI, ubi 

faama]^ T. Fisanis t. habitat T. Fisanius O. f. 

17 . Conway no. 68, v. PL no. 49. 

Eksuk amy[i]anud Hoc circuitu ' 

eituns an[ter trjiibu eunto inter domum 

Ma. Kastrikiieis ini Ma. Castricii et 

Mr. Spuriieis L., Mr. Spurii L. f., 

puf faamat ubi habitat 

V. Sehsimbri/s L. V. Sexembrius L. f. 

18. Notizie degli scavi 1897, p. 466, Mitt. d. deutsch. arch&>l. Inst., 
rom. Abt., 13, 124 ff., I.F. 12, 13 ff. 

Eksuk amviannud Hoc circuitu 

eituns ampt tribud eunto circum Villam 

tdv. ampt Mener. Publicam, circum Minervium. 

Inscriptions op Capua 

19. The Curse of Vibia 

On a lead plate about 8f by 3 in. , found in 1876 near a tomb. Now in 
the Naples Museum. Conway no. 130, v. PI. no. 128. 

1 Keri Arent[ikai manjafum pal Cereri Ultrici mandavi, quae 
pui [v]ui heriam suvam quive vim suam, 

legin[um suvam aflja^2r cohortem suam adferat 

2 usurs inim malaks nistrus osores et malevolos propinquos 
Fftkiu Kluvatiui^ Valamais^ Pacio Clovatio Valaemae 
p[uklui] anfkadum damia^' filio. occidionem^ damnum 

' IFi 


Final letter almost certainly i, not d as usually read, so Dat. with nistms 
(cf. 277). For Pakiu see 171, 3, a. > Read Yalaimas. 

244 Osean Inscriptions [No. 19 

8 leginum aflukad idik tfd cohortem adf erat, id tibi 

manafum Vibiiai prebai* mandavi. Vibiae 

-ftiiipuriTulum dafdald Keri ministrum reddat. CereriUltrici 
Ar|entikaif*a]dn^jGQayatiiam]| (mandavi) [Pacium Clovatium] 

4 Valaimas puldam inim ulas Yalaemae filium, et illius 

leginei svai neip dadid cohorti. Si nee reddiderit, 

lamatir akrid eiseis dunte I** caedatur aeriter eius — — 

J^ijo^nxfcJUft-. '^^V^^A^^ 

5 inim kaispatar i[nim] et glehis tundatur et 
^Ipiistatar svai neip art cruentetur. Si nee, aut 

svai tiiam idik fifikus pust si tu id decreveris post 

6 pun kahiid avt ny/rnium eum incipiat aut , 

neip putiiad punum kahad nee possit, quandoque incipiat, 
avt svai pid per- . aut si quid perjicere 

iaib^^\)^<i\^^^ .l^r^^ nee] 

7 putiiad nip hu[n]trui8 nip possit; nee inferis nee 
supruis aisusis putiians superis saerificiis possint, quid- 
pidum putiia^sj^^is quam optati possint (propinqui) 
ud/V^t''?[PaM^Kluvatiiui]| [effieere Pacio Clovatio] 

8 Valaimas puklui pun far Yalaemae filio ; cum far 
kahad nip putiiad edum capiat nee possit edere 
nip menvum limu v\a. nec-minuer|a famem 

pi iivn -> ;. .U M.k. .OAsiu;v^ l^^oV^m i.'"^" . . eorum] 

9 pai humuns bivus karanter quae homines vivi vescuntur. 
suluh Pakis Kluvatiis Omnino Pacius Clovatius 
Valaims^ puk turumiiad Val^emae f . torqueatur. 

10 Vibiiai Akviiai svai puh Vibiae Aquiae sive 

aflakus PaMm Kluvatiium detuleris Pacium Clovatium 

Valaimas puklui^ suprC^*^ Valaemae filium supra 

11 inim tuvai leginei linii^ et tuae cohorti et 
sakrim svai puh aflakus hostiam, sive attuleris 

2 Read Valaimas. s Read puklum. 

No. 19] Oscan Inscriptions 245 

huntrus teras huntras infra terram infra . . . 

a ^^ ^[PaMm Kluvatiium]| [(Devoveo) Paeium Clovatium] 

12 Valaimais^ puklu ^ avt Keri Valaemae filium aut Cereri 

Aret[ikai] avt ulas Ultrici aut illius 

leginei >VAvJk/ovA/V^^%uta8 cohorti . . . , 

Cf. Buchelei, Rh. M. 33, 1 ff. ; Bugge, Altitalische Studien (Christiania, 
1878); Pascal, La tavola osca di esecrazione (Naples, 1894). On the curse- 
inscriptions in general cf. the convenient summary of contents by Battle, 
Proceed. Amer. Phil. Assoc. 26, LIV, and especially Wiinsch, Defixionum 
tabellae Atticae (with additions in Hh. M. 55). ^^^M^^tC^^^^y* fii/ix 

This inscription, as well as the following and also no. 40, belongs to a class CjLmf^ 
of magical curses of which there are numerous examples among Greek and Latin y^ 

inscriptions. Most of them, including the three Oscan, are written on thin lea^f^ *^<€^ 
plates, which were rolled up and placed in graves, in the belief that they gained AfCtC^ 
access thus to the infernal deities invoked. They are written carelessly and 
often with intentional obscurity. Sometimes the natural order of words is 
changed, or a meaningless jumble of letters inserted. The curse is sometimes 
against an unknown person who has committed a wrong, but oftener one or 
more individuals are expressly named. Sometimes the cause of the curse is 
given, e.g. theft, cheating, assault, infidelity, a lawsuit, etc. The curse may 
be conditional, *4f so-and-so does not (e.g. return a stolen object), may he . . .''. 
The introduction in Latin inscriptions is usually " mando", ** comraendo",** devo- 
veo", **dedico", or a like word, followed by **diis inferis", *'manibusinferis", 
or the name of some particular infernal deity. The punishments suggested are 
various, sometimes merely incapacity to eat, talk, or accomplish anything, but 
generally death with all sorts of tortures. 

The person uttering the curse often takes the precaution to add a clause 
which shall avert from himself or herself any possible evil incidental to the curse. 
So frequently, in Greek inscriptions, ifMl di daia or ifMl 5k Kadapbv. 

Owing to the fragmentary character of our inscription, no complete inter- 
pretation of it is possible, but the general trend is clear. The author of the 
curse is Vibia, and its object Pacius Clovatius, and incidentally his relatives, 
who are also her enemies (1. 2 ; for usurs inim malaks another interpretation 
worthy of consideration is 'mulieres et liberos', connecting usurs with L. uzor 
and malaks with L. mollis). The appeal is to Ceres Ultrix and her cohort of 
spirits (cf. dpiepoT . . . Mfiarpi^ KoiJ/09, IIXoiJtww, OeoU tois irapA Mfiarpi Airaat Kal 
irrfcrats, Collitz, 3536). In 1. 1 pai probably introduces a relative clause of pur- 
pose, *in order that she may direct her force and her cohort upon . . .'(?). The 
addition of the masculine pui is to be compared with Latin si deus si dea. 

3 Read VaUimas. ^ Read puklum. 

246 0%can Inscriptions [Nos. id- 

The cause of the corse is probably a theft, the object stolen bemg perhaps 
a slave (1. 3). If the object is not returned (1. 4) Vibia wishes Facius Clova- 
tius to be scourged (for lamatir see p. 238) and tortured (precise meaning of 
kaispatar and kmstatar uncertain ; for the forms see 288, c). But if it is other- 
wise decreed, she will be satisfied if he is incapacitated. So 11. 6-9. ** When he 

either undertakes to , may he be powerless, when he undertakes it, or if he 

wishes to accomplish anything, may he be unable to ; nor shall (his relatives ?) 
avail him at all by sacrifices to either the infernal deities or those of the upper 
regions. When he takes food, may he not be able to eat nor allay his hunger 
by anything which men eat. In every way may Facius Clovatius be tortured." 
But no harm must come to Vibia, in whichever way the curse is effected (11. 10 f.). 

The entire left-hand margin of the plate is broken off, so that the amount 
that is missing from the end of each line can only be inferred from restorations. 
But FascaPs restoration of Pakim Kluvatiiam after Ar[entikai in 1. 3 is well-nigh 
certain. For wherever the text is complete Valaimas puklum (or its variant) is 
preceded by this name (so in 11. 2, 9, 10). Bticheler, who restored 1. 3 differ- 
ently, thought that not over ten or eleven letters were missing. 

The inscription has no double consonants (note Keri = Kerrf, no. 45), no f, 
and probably no ^ (if it had Sf, the dot is no longer visible). This, together with the 
style of the letters, shows that it is to be ranked among the earlier inscriptions, 
though not so old as no. 21 (contrast aisusis, 1. 7, with luisarifs, no. 21), and 
there is no good reason for not dating it well back in the third century b.c. 

20. On a lead plate found in the same place as the preceding. Now in 
the Naples Museum. Conway no. 131, v. Fl. no. 129. 

1 Steni Klum. Virriis Stenius Clum. Verrius 

Tr. . apiu Virriiis Tr. Verrius 

Plasis Bivellis Planus Bivellius 

itppiis HelleYiis Oppius Helvius 

5 Liivikis Uhtavis Lucius Octavius 

6 Statiis Gaviis nep f&tium nep Statius Gayius nee fari nee 

deikum piitians. | dicere possint. 

7 Liivkis ^favis Niivellum Lucius Octavius Novellum 

Velliam | Velliam (reddat. Sinon,) 

8 nep deikum nep fatium piitiad | nee dicere nee fari possit, 

9 nep memnim nep tilam sifei nee monumentum nee oUam sibi 

heriiad. capiat. 

With the phrase nep fatium nep delkom piitians compare nee loqui nee sermo- 
nare possit in a Latin curse (CIL. I 818). Since praenomina in -iis are entirely 
irregular (174), one is tempted to read 11. 3-6 in columns (as Conway does for 
11. 3-4), that is, Plasis Uppiis, Liivikis Statiis, etc. But against this is Liivkis 

20] 0%€an Inscriptions 247 

6htaTi8 in 1. 7. In 11. 7-8 Ndvellum Velliam is without much doubt a proper 
name, but it is impossible to understand the construction without assuming 
an omission. 

21-34. The lovilae-Dedications 

Cf. especially Bticheler, Rh. M. 39, 316 f., 43, 128 £f., 557 fE., 44, 321 fE., 
45, 161 fE.; Conway, Ital. Dial. 101 fE. 

Of these inscriptions, some are cut in blocks or thick slabs of coarse tufa 
(see photograph at end of book), while others are stamped on terra-cotta tiles. 
Many of the tiles bear the same inscription on both sides (nos. 23, 24, 25), and 
one of the tufa blocks is also inscribed on both sides (no. 31); while many of 
the tufa blocks belong in pairs which stood side by side, with inscriptions refer- 
ring to the same dedicators and difEering only in some details (nos. 27-28, 2&-30, 
32-33). Most of the inscriptions contain the word diuvila-, ii^vila-, as the name 
of the object dedicated. This seems to be connected with the stem of L. luppiter, 
lovis (267, 5), and in one inscription (no. 25) the iovilae are dedicated to Jupiter 
Flagius ; there is also mention of loviae or Jupiter festivals (no. 29). It was, 
then, in all probability the technical name for some well-known and established 
Jupiter offering, — of just what nature we cannot tell. From the expression 
*this iovila', Hhese ibyilae\ we might assume that the stone was either itself 
the ioYila, or else a pedestal for the iovila, which in that case would perhaps be 
a small statue. But the terra-cotta tiles could not be pedestals, and moreover 
the inscriptions on some of them seem to point to the iovilae as objects near by 
(nos. 21, 26). 

The iovilae were dedicated by individuals (nos. 22, 25, 26, 32-33), by mem- 
bers of the same family (nos. 27-28), or of the same gens (nos. 21, 29-30, 34). 
Many of the inscriptions are accompanied by various devices which are undoubt- 
edly heraldic emblems or coats of arms. Often the festivals or periods at which 
the iovilae were dedicated are mentioned. The piimperias were probably festi- 
vals of certain societies or family groups (cf . U. pumpefias Xn, II b 2 ; origi- 
nally groups of five), and of these some were called Fisian and others Martian 
(nos. 27-28), apparently from the divinity in whose honor they were held (for 
Fiisiais cf. U. Fisio- beside Fiso **Fiso, deo Fidio'). So too there were Fisian 
Ides (no. 21) and Martian Ides (no. 29). Other festivals are the loviae (no. 29, 
also 24) and, probably, the Yesulliae (nos. 26, 34). Some festivals were celebrated 
with a banquet, others with a sacrifice (contrast kerssnais and sakriss, no. 29, 
and kerssnasias, no. 27, with sakrasias, no. 28). 

Most of these inscriptions, if not all, belong to the third century b.c. The 
mention of a meddiz precludes a later date than the capture of Capua by the 
Bomans in 211 b.c. Nos. 21-24, which lack the f and ii, belong to the beginning 
of the third or perhaps the end of the fourth century. No. 21 with its Dat.-Abl. 
PL loisarifs is one of the very eaiiiest Oscan inscriptions, barring coin-legends. 
The other numbers have the letters f and ii, but they are used with great careless- 
ness, and, moreover, the reading is often uncertain. 

248 Oacdn Inscriptions [Nos. 21- 

21. Conway no. 101, v. PI. no. 130. 

Diuvilam Tirentium *Iovilam Terentiorum 

. Magiium sulum muinikam Magiorum omnium communem 

"^ Fisiais eiduis luisarifs Fisiis idibus lusoriis 

sakrvist. liuk destrst. sacrabit. Ea dextra est. 

It is altogether probable that luisarifs is related, to L. ludo, lusus, as if 
L. *lU8dribu8, though this connection is rejected by Biicheler. To * consecrate 
the iovila at the festival of the Fisian Ides, which is celebrated with games^ is 
the same as to ^ consecrate with games\ Cf . the consecration with sacrifices and 
with banquets in no. 29. 

22. Conway no. 102, v. PI. no. 139. 

Ek. diuvil. | Upfaleis I Saidiieis | Hanc "^iovilam Ofelli Saedii 
sakruvit | pustrei. sacratinpostera(coiisecratione?). 

23. Conway no. 105, v. PI. no. 141. 

a. Pumperias pu8tm[as ^Quincuriae postremae 
Kluvatiiuin. Clovatiorum. 

b. Pumperias pu8tm[a8 *Quincuriae postremae 
Kluvatiium. Clovatiorum. 

24. Conway no. 103, v. PI. no. 147. 


Kluva . . . 


Diuvia . . . 


damu . . . 


KlUY . . . 

damuse . . . 


Diuvia ... 


25. Conway no. 108, v. PI. no. 



£kas iiivilas luvei 

Hae *iovilae lovi 

Flagiui stahfnt. 

Flagio sta.Tit. 

Minnieis Eaisillieis 

Miuii Caesillii 

Minateis ner. 

Minati f. principis 


Minieis Kaisillieis 

Minii Caesillii 

Minateis ner. 

Minati f. principis 

ekas iuvilas luvei Flagiui | 

hae *iovilae lovi Flagio 




Oscan Inscriptions 


Flagioi is probably related to L. Jiagrd and so to be compared with such 
epithets of Jupiter as Fvlgur, FiUgurator, Fulguralis, Ftdmen, Fulminaris (Carter, 
de deorum Romanorum cognominibus, p. 44). Whether ner. is an abbreviation 
of a cognomen such as Nero^ or of a title (cf. nn ner *quattuorvir') is uncertain, 
but the latter is more probable. 

26. Conway no. 109. v. PI. no. 134 a. 

Tr. Virriieis Ken- 
ssurineis ekas 
ilivilas tris eh- 
peilatasset Ye- 
6 sulliais. Fertalis 

Mi. Blli88ii(eis) Mi. m. t. 
Nessimas staiet 
veruis liivkei. 

Tr. Verrii Cen- 

sorini hae 

*iovilae tres 

erectae sunt Ve- 

sulliis. *Fertales 

statutae sunt 

Mi. Blossii Mi. f . in *meddicia tutica. 

Proximae stant 

portae in luco. 

It is not entirely clear whether fertalis is used substantively of certain 
ceremonies celebrated with cakes, being then in the Nom. PI. and subject of a 
new sentence, or as an adjective agreeing with VesuUiais. The spelling -is, not 
-is, would be more surprising in the latter case than in the former (see 178, 7). 

27. Conway no. 115, v. PI. no. 131. 

Ek. iilhil. Sp. Kal/iivieis 
inim | fratrdm mi#i|iiik. 
6 est Fiislais | piimperiais 
prali Mamerttiais | 
pas set. Kerssif|asias 
L. Pettie/|s meddikiai 
10 fufens. 

Haec *iovila Sp. Calovii 

et fratrum communis 

est Fisiis *quincuriis 

quae prae Martiis 

sunt. *Cenariae 

L. Pettii in *meddicia 


28. Conway no. 116, v. PI. no. 132. 

[ilivijl [ek. Sp.] | Kaliivieis 

ini!m fratrdm | mi^ik. 
6 est I Fiislais piim|periais 

pas pr|ai Mamerttia|is 

set. Sakrasials L. 
10 Pettieis meiddikkiai fuf lens. 

[*iovila haec Sp.] Calovii 
et fratrum communis 
est Fisiis *quincuriis 
quae prae Martiis 
sunt. *Sacrariae L. 
Pettii in *meddicia fuerunt. 


Oacan Inscriptions 

[No8. 20- 

29. Conway no. 113, v. PI. no. 133. 

tfpil. Vi. Pak. 

OpilU Vibii Pacii 



iMhs saiban- 

*iovilae sacran- 

nas efd^ls Ma- 

dae idibus Mar- 

6 merttMi/s. Pdif 

tiis. Cum 

k 1 

medd/8 keipv ad- 

meddix Capuanus ad- 

1 1 fust, I^viass me- 

erit, lovias me- 


88f!ina88 XAiet 

dioximas ■ 


fad sakrisa sa- 
10 kraffr, avt 
tUtiumani ker- 


hostiis sa- 


crato, at 
ultimam ce- 

For the reading of 11. 

6-9, cf. I.F. 12, 17 £f. Nothing satisfactory can 


made oat of the word between messimass and sakriss. 

30. Conway no. 114, 

, V. PI. 



iJpil. Vi. Pak. 

OpUli Vibii Pacii 



itivf/. saktejin. 

*iovilae sacra-nHae 






5 atill , . . . . 


ptin medd. pis 


Cum meddix quis 




fuat, aakrid "i^^ 

erit, hostia 




31. Conway no. 117, 

, V. PI. 



u« • • • ni* • • . 

ka5[it damsenjn- 


iaa paa fii et 

nnnp "fimrf 

pdatrei idklei 

in postera consecratione 

5 eehiianasdm, 


avt sakrim 

at hostiam 

fakiiad kasit 

faciat decet 

medikA;. tdvtik. 

in *meddicia tutica 

Kapy. adpdd 

Capuana quoad 

10 fiiet* 


36] Oacan Inscriptions 251 

b. . . idaf .... vif 

pa^. medikid *meddicio 

ttivtik. da/7. tutico 

sakraltir tasit sacretur decet 

5 damsennias 

pas fiiet piistr. quae fiunt in postera 

yHdei vehiian. consecratione emittendarum ; 

medik. minive. in *meddicio minor e, 


kersnadas. ^cenariae. 

What kind of offerings or celebrations are meant by damsennias is not 
clear, though the word (with damuse, no. 24) is very likely connected with 
L. damium, name of a sacrifice to Bona Dea, who was called Damia and Dami- 
atrix. Miniye in b 8 is perhaps an abbreviated form (Loc. Sg. for *minivei?) 
from a stem *miniuv<i-, as if L. *minuo-i "^^^^ iv for iuv (81, &). Was there a 
'minor meddix' in contrast to the *meddix tuticus' ? The second letter of avt, 
a 6, is e corrected to v. In eehiianasiim, a 5, beside yehiian. , b 7, the error is 
almost certainly in the second form, though some assume the opposite. 

32. Conway no. 106, v. PI. no. 136. 

Sepis I Helevi | piimpe. | Seppius Helvius *quincuriis 

Faler. | idvil. de. | Falemiis *iovilam dedit 

Virriieis medikia[i]. Verrii in *meddicia. 

33. Conway no. 107, v. PI. no. 137. 

Spiels Hdeviieis siim. Seppii Helvii sum. 

Mi. Anni|iei(8) medik|kiai Mi. Annii in ^meddicia 

tiiv. I iiivilam | pnifts | tutica *iovilam probaverunt 

piimper a *quincuriae 

Falenia s. Falerniae. 

The same s serves for the final of the last two words. 

34. Conway no. 110, v. PI. no. 142. 

yiriium I Vesuliais I deivinais. Verriorum Vesulliis divinis. 

Other Capuan Inscriptions 

35. Painted epitaph. Conway no. 134, v. PI. no. 156. 
Upfals patir Miinieis. Ofellus pater Minii f. 

36. Painted epitaph. Conway no. 135, v. PI. no. 167. 

Upfals Salaviis Minies. Ofellus Salvius Minii f. 


Oscan Inscriptions 

[Nos. 37- 

37. Painted epitaph. Conway no. 136, v. PI. nos. 161-162. 

a, Vibi[8] Smintiis Vibius Smintius 

Vibis Smintiis sum. \ Vibius Smintius sum. 

b. Vibis Smintiis. Vibius Smintius. 

38. Gold finger-ring. Conway no. 133, v. PI. no. 165. 
Vibis I Urufiis. Vibius Orfius. 

This was formerly read upside down as Arafiis Vibis. 

39. Small terra-cotta object of uncertain character, v. PI. no. 164 a. 
perkium | pdiieh siim . . . cuius sum ? 

See footnote, p. 146. 

Inscriptions from Other Campanian Towns 

40. Cumae (?). Several fragments of a lead plate in the possession of 
the Naples Museum and believed to have come from Cumae. It is evidently of 
the same character as nos. 19-20 from Capua. The portion of the text given 
here is made up of two of the larger fragments. Conway no. 137 c, f, g, v. PI. 
no. 119 V (where the fragments are united). 

[Upis?] Mut[ti]lli[s . . 
[Gnaijvs Fuvfdis Ufa . . 
Dekis Buttis, 
Dekis Rahiis Maraheis niir, 

6 2>kuya Rahiis Upfalleis, 
Marahis Rahiis Papeis, 
Dekis Hereiis Dekkieis Saipinaz, 
Bfaras Rufriis, Maras Blaisiis 

Dekkieis Rahiieis, Uppiieis 

10 Dekkieis Heriieis akkatus inim 

sullus inim eisunk uhftis 
avdbxm [sJuUas. 

[Oppius] Mutilius . . . , 
Gnaeus Fufidius . . . , 
Decius Bottius, 
Decius Raius Marae f . princeps, 

culpa (eiu8 est), 

Raius Ofelli f., 

Marius Raius Papi f., 

Decius Herius Decii f. Saepinas 

Maras Rubrius, Maras Blaesius 

Marae f., 
Decii Raii, Oppii 

Decii Herii advocati et 

omnes et eorum voluntates 
omnium omnes. 

44] Oacan Inscriptions 253 

The akkatus inim trstus, correctly explained by Skutsch (B.B. 23, 100) as 
^advocati et testes^ shows that the occasion of this imprecation was a lawsuit. 

Cf. **nec illi hanc litem vincere possint sic nee advocati eorom eo[s 

def]endere (non) possint," from a Latin curse (Rh. M. 65, 241 ff.). 

41. Herculaneum. On a marble table intended for offerings. Now in 
the Naples Museum. Conway no. 87, v. PI. no. 117. 

a, Herentateis siim. Veneris sum. 

b. L. Slabiis L. Aukil L. Stlabius L. f. Aucilus 
meddiss tiivtiks meddix tuticus 
Herentatei Herukinai Veneri Erycinae 
prdffed. I posuit. 

42. Nola. On a block of stone said to have been found under the ruins 
of a temple. Now in the Naples Museum. Conway no. 93, v. PI. no. 124. 

Nijumsis Heirennis Niumsieis Numerius Herennius Numerii f . 

Ka . . . I Perkens Gaaviis Ca . . . , Percennus Gavius 

Perkedne[i8 . . .] | meddiss Percenni f . . . . meddices 

degetasiiis ara^^[ud . . . *decentarii argento .... 

43. Nola. On a block of stone, possibly an altar. Conway no. 94, v. PI. .»/ 
no. 125. ;i \ 

Paakul Mulukiis liarai. Paculus Mulcius Mar. f. V^ i<i 

meddis | degetasis aragetud meddix *decentarius argento ^^ . (^ 

multas[fkud. multaticio. % ^ ^Y' 

44. Suessula. Incised on the inside of a glazed plate. Conway no. 97, ^ 
V. PI. no. 175. .^^ 

Minis Beriis Anei upsatuh Mtnius Berius Anei.voperati 

sent Tiianei. | ^ sunt Team. 

*fH^ "'j-A^ f^"^ ''- 

Tlie third letter in the second word is a peculiar character which is read 

by some as 1. The third word seems to be an abbreviation for another name, 

making «p^e plural sub^eot^iipsatah sent, used^t^e wJth-actiYO moaning. 

254 Oscan Inscriptiom [No. 46 


XdJuti iiiA<r..^i.. -^h.-K. U-'^'l ^j<:. f^^ -»/-_f-.vC^V. 

»1 ci t.'^^^l^« *-' 

Q ^. The Dedicatory Tablet of Agnone 

A small bronze tablet (about 11 by 6^ inches), inscribed on both sides. 
Now in the British Museum. Conway no. 176, v. PI. no. 200. 

(Di) qui erecti sunt in luco 

*? ' " Stattis plis set hiirtin 

^^* Kerriiin : Vezkei statif 

Evkllii statif, Kerri^tatif 


^ ^ V/ ^^' V'^Futrei Kerriiai statif 
vJP" ' aj»^'* '^ 6 Anterstatai statif 

Diumpais Kerriiais statif 
Liganakdikei Entrai statif 
Anafriss Kerriiiiis statif 
10 Maatdis Kerriidis statif 

Didvei Verehasidi statif 


Didvei Regaturei statif 
Herekldi Eerriidi statif 
Patanai Piistiai statif 

15 Deivai Genetai statif. 
Aasai purasiai 
saahtdm tefdrdm alttrei 
pdtereipid akenei i 

20 Fiuusasiais az hdrtdm 

Pernai Kerriiai statif 
Ammai Kerriiai statif 
Fluusai Kerriiai statif 

25 Evkldi Paterei statif. 

Cereali : Vetusci statua, 
Euclo statua, Cereri statua, 
Genetrici Cereali statua, 
Interstitae statua, 
Ammae Cereali statua, 
Lumpis Cerealibus statua, 
Leg . . dici Interae statua, 
Imbribus Cerealibus statua, 
Matis Cerealibus statua, 
lovi Versori statua, 
lovi Rectori statua, 
Herculi Cereali statua, 
Pandae Fidiae statua, 
Divae Genitae statua. 
In ara igniaria 
crematio sancta in altero 
quoque anno 
Floralibus ad lucum 

Pernae Cereali statua, 
Ammae Cereali statua, 
Florae Cereali statua, 
Euclo Patri statua. 

No. 46] 

Oacan Inscriptions 


Aasas ekask eestint 
hiirtiii : 
30 Fuutrei 

36 Liganakdikei Entrai 




Ditivei Verehasiii 
40 Diiivei Piihitii Regaturei 

Herekliii Kerriilii 

Patanai Piistiai 

Deivai Genetai. 

Aasai purasiaf 
46 saahtiim teMrdm 

alttrei plitereipid 


Htlrz Dekmannitiis stait. 


Arae hae exstant 









Leg . . dici Interae 




lovi Versorij 

lovi Pio Rectori, 

Herculi Cereali, 

Pandae Fidiae, 

Divae Genitae. 

In ara igniaria 

crematio sancta 

in altera quoque 


Lucus *Decuinaniis stat. 

Cf. especially Mommsen, Unterit. Dial., 128 fE. 

The inscription contains an inventory of the statues (A) and altars (B) in 
a sacred grove devoted to the worship of rural divinities. Kerrliii-, v^hich is 
used as an epithet of several of the divinities and of the grove itself, does not 
mean simply * pertaining to Ceres', though it is translated *Cerealis' for con- 
venience. It must have a wider sense, * pertaining to the powers of generation', 
such as were Ceres and Cerrus, and might also be translated (vnth Mommsen) 
*Genialis', since Genius was originally, like CerruSj a personification of the 
power of generation. 

Corresponding to the Floralia mentioned in 1. 20, we probably have in 
DekmanniiUs of 1. 48 the name of a December festival, like the Roman Consualia 
or Saturnalia. The phrase alttrei piitereipid akenei, in case jJcenei is *year' 
(169, a), must mean 'in every other year' (see 200, 2, a). Otherwise it is 

i'W^'i\ \^'t\^ Vl ^"V *'^ \.». -y- 

f *■ ■ 

266 0«tfaw Inscriptions 


[Nob. 45- 

*at each of the two festiyal8% referring to the Floralia and the Decumania. In 
1. 1 stattis p^s set means '(the gods) who are set up, i.e. honored with statues\ 
Cf. Hor. Odes 4, 1, 20. 

This is the earliest carefully written inscription of any size in the fully 
developed alphabet and, judging from the style of the letters, must be at least 
a century earlier than the Cippus Abellanus. We may take 260 b.c. as a con- 
servative date. 

46. Bovianum Vetus. Conway no. 171, v. PI. no. 189. 

Nv. VesuUieius Tr. f. meddix tuticus 

hoc templum 

ad Bovianum decreviU 

jt Nv. Vesullialis Tr. m. t. 
^ ekfk sakaralkliim 

,N^ Btiva ianiid alkdafed. 

\\i\ ' no. 190. 

47. Bovianum Vetus. On fragments of a cornice. Conway no. 174, v. PI. 

Gn. 5taiis Mh. Tafidins 
metd. t. dadikatted. 

48. Bovianum Vetus. Conway 

Steif meddi85 

tiiv[tik]5 iipQAVLVLam 
deded | in/m ^rd^ted. 

49. Bovianum Vetus. Conway 

. . d Stootiis L. Elar . . 
. . d pestldm iipsann[iim] 

50. Bovianum Vetus. Conway 

. . . p?]i^rtam Ills .... 
. . . d Safinim sak .... 
. . upam iak liin .... 
in]im keenzstur .... 
5 Mjaiieis Maraiieis .... 
pjaam essuf dmbif .... 
ajvt pdstiris esidu . . . 

djuunated fiis 

i]nim leigiiss sami . . . 
10 l?]iifrikiimi8s fif 

Cn. Staius Mh. f. Tafidiniis 
meddix tuticus dedicavit. 

no. 170, V. PI. no. 192. 

Stenius . . . meddix 
tuticus faciendam 
dedit et probavit. 

no. 173, V. PI. no. 193. 

. . . Statius L. f. Clar . . . 
. . . templum faciendum . . . 

no. 169, V. PI. no. 188. 

. . . portam . . . 
. . . Samnium sac . . 
. . . eam un . . 
et censor(es?) 
Maii Mareii 
quam ipse . . . 
at posterius idem . . 
donavit fan . . 


liherigenos . . . 

So much is lost that no certain restoration can be made. 

58] <-^^^' '^^- Oscan Inscriptiom 257 

51. Molise. Conway no. 163, v. PI. no. 185. 

Bn. Betitis Bn. 6n. Betitius Bn/ f. 

meddiss prdffed. meddix posuit. 

52. Aesernia. On a gold ring. Conway no. 167, v. PI. no. 187. ^ 

Stenis Kalaviis Stenius Calvius ^i>uus>«* < (is/^^ ^^^^ 

Anagtiai Dilviiai Angitiae Diae < J ^ ca^a/iZ-Si 

dunum deded. donum dedit. ./ f^^^' 

53. Near Agnone. About the neck of a round pedestal. Conway no. 176, 

V. PI. no. 201. ^ C(yt ^4. - 

Mz. Htirtiis Km. Mz. Hortius Cm. f . /^*^t^ ^W^ 

Her. diiniim. Herculi donum. tO^A^^a 

Her. for HerekliU or Herentatef ? 

54. Macchia di Valfortore. Conway no. 162, v. PI. 180. ^^4^ *^^^ ^p^ 
sakaraj^lum Maatreis templum Matris ^£v22< cmtA ^fcut^fti^ 
. . . las Futre[l8 . . . Genetricis ^^ 

Known only from a copy. The last word appears as Futre.e. 

55. Saepinum^ Conway no. 164, v. PI. no. 182. ■ = 

pis tiii ^aIuu# t*'C^;^ Quis tu? - . . ' ■ S 

livktiru U 4-M-.c^ (Mf)^ gi^^^ \l>.c./,., o"/, 5'/::. 

pdiiuBaiteis Ca^^^-^^^^ Baeti ^ ' '•''':- 

Aadiieis A/ifineis. &JL^ oiiLLK^' Adii Aedini. -' ' J ' ; - 7/ 

This is on an oval stone and is possibly an inscribed missile like the Roman 
glandesplumbeae. We have then a question * ' Who art thou and whose missile ? ' ' 
and the answer "(I am the missile) of Baetus Adius." But Ilv is hopeless and . 

k&iu is without known connection. ^ C^ Uju ) iul J 6 (iLfhJ^ \ ia^^va /imA^^C 

56. Aufidena. Conway no. 177, v. PI. no. foo. ^^'-<^-^'^^»-^ (^JUx^hA^ 

Pk. De. Pk. siivad Pc. Decius Pc. f. sua ^*^£^ ^ 

eitiv. upsed. pecunia fecit. <;^ WiMjl^ n.u^ 

57. Conway no. 181, v. PI. no. 203. ^tT' ' V^' 

Miti. Meltiis Mh. I Mitulus Mettius Mh^f. ^^^-^^^J^A^^h^ 

Fiml. ups. Fimulus fecit. •X f^^y^^^u^^AjA ^ ^ ^ 7 / ^ 

268 Oscan Inscriptions [Nod. 59- 

58. Near Histonium. Conway no. 190, v. PI. no. 204. 

Kaal. Hiisidiis Gaav . . . Cal. Hosidius Gavii f. 

Vilbis trhtavis iJf . . . Vibius Octavius Of. f . 

kenzsur pa// . . . censores patraverunt. 

59. Near Histonium. On the bottom of a bronze head. Conway no. 191, 
V. PI. no. 206. 

Iliveis I Ltivfreis. lovis Liberi. 

60. Conway no. 194, v. PI. no. 208. 

Pakis Tintiriis. Pacius Tintirius. 

61. Anxanum ? On a bronze tablet of peculiar shape. Conway no. 193, 
V. PI. no. 209. 

Vereias Liivkanateis luventutis Lucanatis 

aapas kaias Palaniid. Pallano. 

The evidence for a town called Pallanum and a district called Lucania in 
the territory of the Frentani is given by Mommsen, Unterit. Dial. p. 169, Con- 
way p. 210. The first two words of 1. 2 are wholly obscure. 


. ^ ' ' I - Inscriptions op Lucania, Bruttium, and Messana 

; "^ 62. Messana. Conway no. 1, v. PI. no. 1. 

Stci/49 Ka\LVL<; ^Tarrcqi^ Stenius Calinius Statii f. 

Mapa9 no/i7rT4€9 ^LVfiahr^Lf; Maras Pontius Numerii f. 

fieSSei^ ovTraev^ meddices fecerunt 

eivcifi TcofTo Mafieprivo et civitas Mamertina. SoUo2.>^ 

ATTTreWowTji aaKopo. ApoUini sacra (est). 

The text is made up from two fragments, and an early copy from which 

" '' ■ are supplied the letters at the beginning of the lines. The Mamertines were of 

Campanian origin. The last word is probably Nom. Sg. F. or Nom. PI. N., *is' 

or 'are' being understood. But possibly it is Nom. Sg. F. agreeing with rw/rro. 

63. On bricks in the museum at Messana. Conway no. 2, v. PI. no. 2. 
MafiepTivovfjL. Mamertinorum. 

64. Bronze plate found in Monteleone (Bruttium). Conway no. 6, v. PL 
no. 4. 

Aiovfei Fepaopet ravpofi. lovi Versori taurum. 

.5' J 

^ f ■ ^ . . f ■ n •>. 'i '^ ^» 

80] Oacan Inscriptions 259 

65. Bronze helmet of unknown provenance, now in the museum of 
Palermo. Conway no. 6, v. PI. no. 19. 

T/)€^49 2. S€o-T4€9 SeSer. Trebius S. f. i^estius dedit. 

66. Bronze helmet of unknown provenance, now at Vienna. Conway 
no. 7, V. PI. no. 18. 

SttcS^? MafiepcKie: Spedius Mamercius 

^aiiriv^ avaSaKCT. Saepinus dedicavit. 

For the value of the character S in these last two inscriptions, see 24, h. 


Of the numerous examples of coin-legends the following may serve as 

67. Aquilonia(?). Akudunniad. 

68. Atella. Aderl. 

69. Ausculum. a) avhJaKXi,, b) avaKXiv.., c) ava- 


70. Capua. Kapv. 

71. Compulteria. a) Kupeltemum, b) Kupeltemiim. 

72. Fistelia. - a) Fistdli, b) Fistluis, c) (f)taT€\ia^ 

reverse Fistluis. 

73. Frentrum. Frentrei. 

74. Messana. Mafieprivovfi. 

75. Lucania. AovKavofJL, 

76. Nuceria Alfaterna. Nuvkrinum Alafatemum. 

77. Teanum Sidicinum. Tianud Sidikinud. 

78. Teate. Tiiatium. 

79. Italia (coins of the Social War). 

a) G. Paapii G. Mutil, revei*se G. Papius G. f . Mutilus — Italia. 


6) G. Paapi G., reverse MutH G. Papius G. f . — Mutilus 

embratur. imperator. 

80. Samnium (coins of the Social War). 

G. Mutil, reverse Saiinim. G. Mutilus — Samnium. 


Iguvinian Tables 





Seven bronze tablets, varying from about 16 by 12 inches to 25 by 15 inches, 
found at Gubbio, the ancient Iguvium, in 1444. Tables I-IV and Va-V b 7 are 
in the native alphabet, V b 7-18 and YI, VII, in the Latin alphabet. See also 
8, 9, and below, p. 309; for the bibliography, see pp. ziii-zvi. 


Ita fratres Atiedii decreverant 
plenariis *urnariis *auctura 
T. Castrucii T. f. Flamen qui- 
cumque erit collegis Atiediis, 
is rem sacram curet, praebeat 
quidquid ad illam rem sacram 
sit oportet, et qui in sacrificiis 
sint (oportet). Hostias soUemnis 
deligito, revisito, cum datur, (ali- 
quae)earum accipiantur oportetne, 
et cum piaculorum temio fiet, 
ex agro revisito accipiantur 
oportetne. Flamen quicumque 
erit, is ad sacrificia sine igne 
holera arbitratu fratrum Atie- 

diorum praebeat, et ^pondiis 

singulis in capita. 

Fratres Atiedii ita decreverunt 
plenariis *urnariis *auctura 
C. Cluvii T. f. In conventu 

A Esuk frater Atiieriur | dtipes 
plenasier umasier uhtretie | 

3 T.T.Kastruciie. Afferturpisi 

4 pumpe I fust eikvasese Atiie- 

5 Her, ere ri esune I kuraia, pre- 
habia pife uraku ri esuna | 

6 si herte, et pure esune 

7 sis. Sakreu | perakneu 
upetu, revestu, pure tdrte, | 

8 era emantur herte, 

9 et pihaklu pune | tribfigu fu- 

10 lest, akratu revestu | emantu 
herte. Affertur pisi pumpe | 

11 fust, erek esunesku vepurus 

12 felsva I afputrati fratra Atiie- 

13 flu prehubia, | et nufpener 
prever pusti kastruvuf . | 

14 Frater Atiieriur esu eitipes 

15 plenasier | umasier uhtretie 
K. T. Kluviier. Kumnahlkle 

1 Table V is given first, as a convenient starting-point for the beginner ; then 
VI, VII, and with these are given at the bottom of the page the parallel passages 
of I, which is an earlier and shorter version of the same material; then I in a 
continuous text, for the sake of greater convenience for reference ; lastly II-IV. 
These last, especially III and IV, are so difficult that they might be omitted in a 
work of this kind, were it not for the convenience of having the complete texts for 

The translation is in the main that of Biicheler, but with not a few departures 
in the rendering of certain words. 


Iguvinian Tables 


16 Atiiefie ukre eikvasese Ati- 

17 iefier, | ape apelust, muneklu 

18 habia numer | prever pusti 
kastruvuf, et ape purtitu | 

19 fust, muneklu habia numer 

20 tupler I pusti kastruvu, etape 

21 subra spafu fust, | muneklu 
habia numer tripler pusti | 

22 kastruvu. Et ape frater cers- 

23 natur furent,^ | ehyeUdu feia 

24 fratreks ute kvestur, | sye 
rehte kuratu si. Sve mestru 

26 karu | fratru Atiiefiu, pure ulu 

26 benurent, | prusikurent rehte 

27 kuratueru,efek|prufesi. Sve 
mestru karu fratru Atiief|iu, 

28 pure ulu benurent, prusiku- 

29 rent | kutatu rehte neip era, 
B enuk fratra II ehveUdu feia 

2 fratreks I ute kvestur, panta 

3 muta I afferture si. Panta 

4 muta fratra I Atiieriu mestra 
6 kara, pure ulu | benurent, af- 

6 fertuie era pepurkurlent he- 

7 rifi, etantu mutu afferture I si. I 

8 Clauemiur dirsas herti 
fratrus Atiersir posti 

9 acnu I farer opeter p. UII 
agre Tlatie PiquierMartier 

10 et sesna \ homonus duir^ 

11 Clauemi \ dirsans herti 
frater^Atiersiur sehmenier 

12 dequrier \ pelmner sorter 

Atiedio in arce, eollegis Ati- 
ediis, ubi impenderit, sportulam 
habeat nummis singulis in 
capita^ et ubi porrectum 
erit, sportulam habeat nummis 
binis in capita, et ubi 
superiectum erit, sportulam 
habeat nummis trinis in 
capita. Et ubi fratres ce- 
nati erunt, sententiam roget 
magister aut quaestor, si 
recte curatum sit. Si maior 
pars fratrum Atiediorum,qHji illuc 
venerint, pronuntiaverint recte 
curatum esse, id probe sit. Si 
maior pars fratrum Atiediorum, 
qui illuc venerint, pronuntiave- 
rint curatum recte non esse, 
tum fratrum sententiam roget 
magister aut quaestor, quanta 
multa flamini sit. Quantam 
multam fratrum Atiediorum maior 
pars, qui illuc venerint, flar 
mini esse oportuerit poposcerint, 
tanta multa flamini sit. 

Clavernii dent oportet 
fratribus Atiediis in singulos 
annos farris lecti pondo IIII 
agri Latii Piquii Martii, 
et cenam hominibus duobus, 
qui far arcessierint, aut asses VI. 
Claverniis dent oportet 

fratres Atiedii sementivis 
decuriis pulpamenti suilli 

1 Aes furenf . 

2 Aea frateer with first e erased. 


Iguvinian Tables 



posti acnu uef X calrir 

13 ner uef V, pretra \ toco 

postra fahe, et iesna 

ote a, VI. Casilos dirsa her- 

. 14 ti fratruB \ Atiersir posti 

*^ acnu farer opeter p. VI ogre 

16 Casiler Piquier \ Martier et 





sesna homonus duvr^ puri 
far eiscurent^ ote a. VL \ 

16 Casilate dirsans hertifrateer 
Atiersiur sehmenier deqvr 

17 rier \pelmner sorser posti 
acnu uef XV cahriner uef 

18 VII «., et I iesna ote 
a. VI. 

in singulos awwo« partes X, capri- 
ni partes V, priores sale (condi- 

tas), posteriores , et cenam 

aut asses Y I. Casilas det oportet 
fratribus Atiediis in singulos 
annos farris lecti pondo VI agri 
Casili Piquii Martii, et 
cenam hominibus duobus, qui 
far arcessierint, aut asses VI. 
Casilati dent oportet fratres 
Atiedii sementivis decuriis 
pulpamenti suilli in singulos 
annos partes XV, caprini partes 
YII semissem, et cenam aut 
asses VI. 


1 ^{Este persclo aueis aser- 
later enetu^ parfa curnase 
dersua^ peiqu peica merstu. 

2 Poei angla aseriato \ eest, 
eso tremnu serse arsfer- 
ture ehueltu: ^stiplo aser- 
iaia parfa dersua^ curnaco 

3 dersua, \ peico merstOj peica 
mersta^ mersta auuei^ mersta 
angla esona\ Arfertur eso 

4 anstiplatu: \ 'ef aserio 
parfa dersua^ curnaco ders- 
ua^ peico mersto, peica mers- 
ta^ mersta aueif merstaf \ 

Istud sacrificium avibus obser- 
vatis inito, parra cornice 
prospera, pico pica iusto. 
Qui oscines observatum ibit, 
sic in tabemaculo sedens flami- 
nem iubeto : 'stipulare ut obser- 
vem parram prosperam, comicem 
prosperam, picum iustum, picam 
iustam, iusi^ avis, iustas 
oscines divinas'. Flamen sic 
instipulator : 'tum ibi observa 
parram prosperam, comicem pros- 
peram, picum iustum, picam ius- 
tam, iustas avis, iustas 



1 f Este persklum aves anzer- Istud sacrificium avibus obser- 

2 fates enetu | pernaies pusnaes. vatis inito anticis posticis. 

via 16 


Iguvinian Tables 


h anglaf esona mehe^ tote Eo- 
ueine^ esmei stahmei atah- 
meitei\ Serai pirsi sesuat^ 

6 pot angla \ aaeriato est, erse 
neip mugatu nep arsir ander- 
sistu, nersa courttist porsi 

7 angla anseriato \ iust. Sue 
muieto fust ote pisi arsir 
ander sesust^^disleralinsust, \ 

8 Uerfale piife arsfertur 
trebeit ocrer peihaner, erse 
stahmito eso tuderato est: 

9 angluto \ hondomu, porsei 
nesimei asa deusia est, 
anglome somo, porsei 
nesimeiuapersusauiehcleir \ 

10 est, eine angluto somo 
uapefe auiehclu todcome 
tuder^ angluto hondomu 
asame deueia todcome \ 

11 tuder. Eine todceir 
tuderus seipodruhpei se- 
ritu, I 

12 Tuderor totcor: uapersus- 
to auieclir ebetrafe, ooser- 
dome, presoliafe Nurpier, 

- , \ 13 uasirslome, \ smursime, tet- 
co pracatarum; uapersusto 

14 auieclir carsome \ Uestisier, 
randeme Rufrer, tettome No- 
niar, tettome Salier, carsome 
Soier, pertome Padellar. \ 

15 Hondra esto tudero porsei 

oscines divinas mihi,ciyitati Igu- 
yinae, huic statui sta- 
tute'. In sede cum sederit 
qui oscines observatum ibit, turn 
nee muttito nee alius *inter- 
sidito, donee revorterit qui 
oscines observatum ierit. Si 
muttitum erit aut quis alius 
*intersederit, inritum fecerit. 

Templum ubi flamen 
versatur arcis piandae, id 
statutum sic finitum est: 
ab angulo imo qui 

proxume ab ara divina est, 
usque ad angulum summum qui 
proxume ab sellis auguralibus 
est, deinde ab angulo summo 
iuxta sellas auguralis usque ad 
urbicum finem, ab angulo imo 
iuxta aram divinam usque ad 
urbicum finem. Tum in urbicis 
finibus seorsum utroque ser- 

Fines urbici: ab sellis 
auguralibus ad exitus, ad ^obser- 

vaculum, ad Nurpii, 

ad , ad , ad 

Miletinae, ad tertiam sae- 
pium saeptarum ; ab sellis 

auguralibus ad Vesticii, 

ad Rubri, ad No- 

niae, ad 

Hoii, ad — 
Infra istos 

Salii, ad 

finis qui 

^ Aes andersesusp. 


Iguvinian Tables 

rVI a 15- 
'- Ia2-3 

u. • 


subra screihtor sent^ parfa 
dersua^ curnaco dersua 

16 seritu. Svhra eato \ tudero 
peico mersto^ peica mersta 

Sue anclar procanurent^ 

17 esotremnuserse \ combifiatu^ 
arsferturo nomne car situ: 
^parfa dersua^ curnaco 
dersua^ peico mersto, peica 

18 meersta^ \ mersta aueif^mers- 
ta ancla eesona tefe^ tote 
Mouine, esmei stahmei stah- 
mitei\ Esisco esoneir seueir \ 

19 popler anferener et ocrerpi- 
hanerperca arsmatia habitu. 
Uasor uerisco Treblanir 

20 porsi ocrer \pehaner paca 
ostensendiy eo iso ostendu^ 
pusi pir pureto cehefi dia, 
Surur uerisco Tesonocir. \ 

21 Surur uerisco Uehieir, \ 

o 22 ^Pre uereir Treblaneir 

V I : luue Grabouei buf treiffetu. 

Esonaratuuesteis: ^teiosub- 

23 ocau suboco \ Dei Gra- 
boui^ ocriper Fisiuy totaper 
liouinaj erer nomneper^ 
erar nomneper; fos seij 

24 pacer sei ocre Fisei^ \ tote 
liouinej erer nomne^ erar 
nomne, Arsie^ tio subocau 

supra script! sunt, parram 
prosperam, comicem prosperam 
servato. Supra istos finis 
picum iustum, picam iustam 

Si oscines cecinerint, 
sic in tabemaculo sedens nuntiato, 
flaminem nomine appellato : 
'parram prosperam, comicem 
prosperam, picum iustum, picam 
iustam, iustas avis, iustas 
oscines sacras tibi, civitati 
Iguvinae, huic statui sta- 
tuto'. Ad haec sacra omnia 
populi lustrandi et arcis pi- 
andae virgam ritualem habeto. 
Vasa ad portam Trebulanam 
quae arcis piandae causa 
ostendentur, ea sic ostendito, 
ut ignis ab igne accensus sit f aciat. 
Item ad portam Tesenacam. 
Item ad portam Veiam. 

Ante portam Trebulanam 
lovi Grabovio boves tris facito. 
Sic narrato libans: 'te in- 
voco invocationes lovem Grar 
bo vium pro arce Fisia, pro ci vitate 
Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, 
pro civitatis nomine ; favens sis, 
propitius sis arci Fisiae, civitati 
Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis 
nomini. Sancte, te invoco 

3 f Preveres Treplanes | luve 
Krapuvi tre buf fetu. 

Ante portam Trebulanam lovi 
Grabovio tris boves facito. 





-t; V'^^-V y'^^i^i^ (c^A/' 



Iguvmian Tables 




mboco Dei Graboue^ 
26 arsier frite tio subocau \ 
suboco Dei Q-raboue. 
Di Grabouie^ tio esu bue 
peracrei pihaclu ocreper Fi- 
8i% totaper louina^ irer 

26 nomneper, \ erar nomneper. 
Dei Grabouie^ over 
ose^persei ocre Fisiepir orto 
e%t^ toteme louine armior 

27 der%ecor \ subator sent^pusei 
neip heritu. Dei Crabouie^ 
persei tuer perscler uaseto 
est^pesetom estyperetom est, | 

28 frosetom est, daetom est, 
tuer perscler uirseto auirseto 
uas est, Di Grabouie, persei 

29 merseiy esu bue \ peracrei 
pihaclu pihafeL Di Gror 
bouie, pihatu ocre Fisei, 
pihatu tota louina, Di 
Grabouie, pihatu ocrer \ 

30 Fisier, totar louinar nome, 
■ nerf, arsmo, ueiro, pequo 

castruo,fri pihatu ; futufos 
pacer pase tua ocre Fisi, \ 
tote Eouine, erer^ nomne, 
erar nomne, Di Grabo- 
uie, saluo seritu ocre Fist, 
salvxi seritu tota lioui- 
32 wa. Di I Grabouie, saluo 
seritu ocrer Fisier, totar 
Eouinar nome, nerf, arsmo, 
ueiro, pequo castruo, fri 

invocationes lovem Grabovium, 
sancti fiducia te invoco 
invocationes lovem Grabovium. 
luppiter Grabovi, te hoc hove 
opimo piaculo pro arce Fi- 
sia, pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis 
nomine, pro civitatis nomine, 
luppiter Grabovi, huius (piacuJi) 
opere, si in arce Fisia ignis ortus 
est, in civitate Iguvina ritus 
debiti omissi sunt, (facito) quasi 
non consul to. luppiter Grabovi, 
si tui sacrificii (quid) vitiatum 
est, peccatum est, peritum est, 
fraudatum est, delictum est, 
tui sacrificii visum invisum 
vitium est, luppiter Grabovi, si 
ius sit, hoc bove opimo 
piaculo piatum sit. luppiter Gra- 
bovi, piato arcem Fisiam, 
piato civitatem Iguvinam. lup- 
piter Grabovi, piato arcis 
Fisiae, civitatis Iguvinae nomen, 
principes, ritus, viros, pecuum 
capita, fruges piato ; esto favens 
propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, 
civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, 
civitatis nomini. luppiter Gra- 
bovi, salvam ser vato arcem Fisiam, 
salvam servato civitatem Iguvi- 
nam. luppiter Grabovi, salvum 
servato arcis Fisiae, civitatis 
Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus, 
viros, pecui^m capita, fruges 

i Aes erlr. 

\ ■ 


Iguvinian Tables 

[VI a 32- 

33 saliui I aeritu; futuf 08 pacer 
pase tua acre Fist, tote 
louine^ ever nomne^ erar 
nomne. Di Grabouie, tio 

34 e9U bue \peracri pihaclu 
ocreper Fisiu, totaper 
louina^ erer nomneper^ 
erar nomneper^ Di 
Q-rabouie^ tio subocau,^ \ 

36 ^Di Grabouiey tio esu bue 
peracri pihaclu etru ocreper 
Fisiu, totaper louina^ erer 
nomneper, erar nomneper. 

36 Di I Grabouicy orer 
ose^peraei ocre Fiaiepir orto 
est, tote louine arsmor 
dersecor svhator sent, pusei 

37 neip I hereitu, Di Crabouie, 
persi tuer perscler uasetom 
est, pesetom est, peretomest, 
frosetomest, daetomest, 

38 tuer \ perscler uirseto aui- 
rseto uas est, Di Grabouie, 
persi mersi, esu bue peracri 
pihaclu etru pihafi. Di 

39 Grabouie, \ pihatu ocre Fisi, 
pihatu tota louina. Di 
Grabouie, pihatu ocrer 
Fisier, totar liouinar nome, 

40 nerf, arsmo, ueiro, \ pequo 
castruo,fri pihatu; futufos 
pacer pase tua ocre Fisie, 
tote liouine, erer nomne, 

41 erar nomne, Di \ Gra- 
bouie, saluo seritu ocre 

salvas servato ; esto favens pro- 
pitius pace tua arci Fisiae, civitati 
Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis 
nomini. luppiter Grabovi, te 
hoc bove opimo piaculo 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate 
Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, 
pro civitatis nomine, luppiter 
Grabovi, te invoco.' 

'luppiter Grabovi, te hoc bove 
opimo piaculo altero pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, pro 
arcis nomine, pro civitatis nomine, 
luppiter Grabovi, huius (piaculi) 
opere, si in arce Fisia ignis ortus 
est, in civitate Iguvina ritus 
debiti omissi sunt, (facito) quasi 
non consulto. luppiter Grabovi, 
si tui sacrificii (quid) vitiatum 
est, peccatum est, peritum est, 
fraudatum est, delictum est, 
tui sacrificii visum invisum 
vitium est, luppiter Grabovi, 
si ius sit, hoc bove opimo 
piaculo altero piatum sit. luppi- 
ter Grabovi, piato arcem Fisiam, 
piato civitatem Iguvinam. lup- 
piter Grabovi, piato arcis 
Fisiae, civitatis Iguvinae nomen, 
principes, ritus, viros, pecuttw 
capita, f ruges piato ; esto favens 
propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, 
civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, 
civitatis nomini. luppiter Gra- 
bovi, salvam servato arcem 

VI a 49] 

Iguvinian Tables 


Fistniy salua aeritu totam 
liouina, Di Q-rahouie^ salu- 
uom seritu ocrer Fisier^, to- 

42 tar I liouinar nome, nerf^ 
arsmo^ uiro^ pequo castruo^ 
frifsaluua seritu; futufons 
pacer pase tuua ocre Fisi, 

43 tote I liouine^ erer nomne, 
erar nomne. Di Gra- 
bouie^ tiom essu bue peracri 
pihaclu etru ocriper Fissiu^ 

44 totaper louina^ erer \ nowr 
neper^ erar nomneper^ 
Di Grabouie^ tiom subocau.^ \ 

45 ^Di Grabouie, tiom esu bue 
peracri pihaclu tertiu ocri- 
per Fisiu^ totaper liouina^ 
erer nomneper^ erar nowr 

46 neper. Di \ Grabouie^ 
orer ose, pirse ocrem 
Fisiem pir ortom est, toteme 
louinem arsmor dersecor 
subator sent, pvM neip \ 

47 heritu. Di Grabouie, 
perse tuer pescler uasetom 
est, pesetom est, peretom est, 
frosetom est, * daetom est, 

48 tuer \ pescler uirseto aui- 
rseto uas est, Di Grabouie, 
pir si mersi, esu bue peracri 
pihaclu tertiu pihafi, Di 

49 Grabouie, \ pihatu ocrem 
Fisim, pihatu totam Ho- 
uinam. Di Grabouie, pi- 
hatu ocrer Fisier, totar 

Fisiam, salvam servato civitatem 
Iguvinam. IuppiterGrabovi,sal- 
vum servato arcis Fisiae, civi- 
tatis Iguvinae nomen, principes, 
ritus, viros, pecui^m capita, 
fruges sal vas servato; estofavens 
propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, 
civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, 
civitatis nomini. luppiter Gra- 
bovi, te hoc bove opimo 
piaculo altero pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis 
nomine, pro civitatis nomine, 
luppiter Grabovi, te invoco.' 

'luppiter Grabovi, te hoc bove 
opimo piaculo tertio pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine. luppiter Grabovi, 
huius (piaculi) opere, si in arce 
Fisia ignis ortus est, in civi- 
tate Iguvina ritus debiti 
omissi sunt, (facito) quasi non 
consulto. luppiter Grabovi, 
si tui sacrificii (quid) vitiatum 
est, peccatum est, peritum est, 
frau datum est, delictum est, 
tui sacrificii visum invisum 
vitium est, luppiter Grabovi, 
si ius sit, hoc bove opimo 
piaculo tertio piatum sit. lup- 
piter Grabovi, piato arcem 
Fisiam, piato civitatem Igu- 
vinam. luppiter Grabovi, pi- 
ato arcis Fisiae, civitatis 


Iguvinian Tablet 



Mouinar nome^ nerf, asmo^ 

60 uiro, pequo castmo, fri 
pihatu; futu fons pacer 
pase tua ocre Fisi^ tote 
liouine^' ever nomne^ erar 

61 nomne, Di \ Grabouie, sal- 
uo aeritu ocrem Fisim^ 
saluam seritu totam Ho- 
uinam, Di Grabouie^ sal- 
uom seritu ocrer Fisier^ \ 

62 totar liouinar nome^ nerf, 
arsmo, uiro^ pequo castruo^ 
frif salua seritu; futufons 
pacer pase tua ocre Fisi, \ 

63 tote liouine^ erer nomne^ 
erar nomne. Di Gra- 
houie^ tiom esu hue peracri 
pihaclu tertiu ocriper Fisiu, 

64 totaper \ liouina^ erer nom- 
neper^ erar nomneper, 
Di Grahouie^ tio comohota 
tribrisine buo peracrio^ pi- 

66 haclo I ocriper Fisi% totaper 
liouina^ erer nomneper^ 




Grabouie^ tiom subocau.^ 
66 \ Tases persnimu \ seuom, 
Surur purdouitu, proseseto 

Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus, 
viros, pecuwm capita, fruges 
piato; esto favens propitius 
pace tua arci Fisiae, civitati 
Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis 
nomini. luppiter Grabovi, sal- 
vam servato arcem Fisiam, 
salvam servato civitatem Igu- 
vinam. luppiter Grabovi, sal- 
vum servato arcis Fisiae, 
civitatis Iguvinae nomen, prin- 
cipes, ritus, viros, pecnum capita, 
fruges salvas servato ; esto favens 
propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, 
civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, 
civitatis nomini. luppiter Gra- 
bovi, te hoc bove opimo 
piaculo tertio pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis 
nomine, pro civitatis nomine, 
luppiter Grabovi, te commoto 
temione boum opimorum pi- 
aculorum pro arce Fisia, pro civi- 
tate Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, 
pro civitatis nomine, luppiter 
Grabovi, te invoco.' 

Tacitus pYecator totum. 
Item porricito, prosecta 

4 f Arvia ustentu, | vatuva fe- 
rine feitu, heris vinu heri puni, | 
6 ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Iku- 
6 vina feitu. Sevum | kutef 
pesnimu afepes arves. 

Frumenta ostendito, exta in 
ferculo f acito, vel vino vel posca, 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Igu- 
vina facito. Totum murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

1 Aes peracnio. 

la 13 ■■ 

Iguvinian Tables 



\*y naratUy prohesetir mefa spe- 

fa^ ficla arsueitu, aruio 

57 fetu. Este \ esono heri 

uinu heri pqni fetu, Uatuo 

ferine fetu. \ 

68 ^Post uerir Trehlanir 
si gomia trif fetu Treho 
louie ocriper Fisiu^ tota- 
per liouina. Persae 
fetu^ aruio fetu^ \ 

69 pone fetu^ tases persnimu. 
Surur naratu puse pre uerir 
Trehlanir. Prosesetir strusla^ 
ficla arsueitu. 

narrato, prosectis libum spar- 
sum, offam addito, frumenta 
facito. Istud sacrificium yel 
vino vel posca facito. JExta 
inferculo facito. 

Post portam Trebulanam 
sues gravidas tris facito Trebo 
lovio pro arce Fisia, pro civi- 
tate Iguvina. (Sacrificium) humi 
stratum facito, frumenta facito, 
posca facito, tacitus precator. 
Item narrato ut ante portam 
Trebulanam. Prosectis struem, 
oflfam addito. 


1 ^Pre uerir Tesenocir huf 
trif fetu Marte Crralouei 
ocriper Fisiu, totaper lioui- 
na. Aruio fetu, uatuo ferine 

2fetu,poni \ fetu, tases persni- 
mu. Prosesetir farsio, ficla 

Ante portam Tesenacam boves 
tris facito Marti Grabovio pro 
arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Frumenta facito, eocta in ferculo 
facito, posca facito, tacitus pre- 
cator. Prosectis farrea, offam 

7 fPusveres Tieplanes tref 

8 sif kumiaf fdtu | Trebe luvie 
ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvi- 

. 9 na. I Supa sumtu, anria usten- 
10 tu, puni fetu, | kutef 

pesnimu afepes ^ arves.^ 

11 jiPreveres Tesenakes tre 

12 buf fetu, Marte Krapuvi I fetu 
ukxipe Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina. 

13 Arviu ustentu, | yatuva ferine 
fetu, puni fetu, kutef 
pesnimu afpes arves. 

Post portam Trebulanam tris 
sues gravidas facito Trebo lovio 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvi- 
na. Suppa sumito, frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito, murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

Ante portam Tesenacam tris 
boves facito, Marti Grabovio faci- 
to pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Igu- 
vina. Frumenta ostendito,ea:fa in 
ferculo f acito,poscaf acito,murmu- 
rans precator adipibus frumentis. 

1 Aes afe*arv*es. 


Iguvinian TahUi 


a 14-17 



ar^ueitu. Sururnaratu puse 
pre uerir Trehlanir, \ 

3 ^Po%t uerir Tesenocir %if 
filiu trif fetu Fiao Sarme 
ocriper^ Fiaiu^ totaper Bo- 
uina. Poni feitu^ persae 
fetUy aruio fetu, \ 

4 Surur naratu puai pre uerir 
Trehlanir, Tases persnimu. 
Mandraclo difue desire habi- 

6 tu. ProBeBetir ficla^ \ struila 
armeitu. Ape 8opo postro pe- 
perscust^uestisia etmefa spefa 
Bcahie conegos^fetu Fisoui 

6 San8i\ocriper Fisiu^ totaper 
Iouina,F8oper8nimu uestisia 
uestis: ^tio 8uhocau suboco 
Fisoui Sansi^ ocriperFisiu, \ 

7 totaper liouina, erer nom- 
neper^ erar nomneper^ 
fons sir, pacer sir ocre 
Fisiy tote liouine^ erer 

8 nomne^ \ erarnomne. Arsie^ 
tiom suhoeau suboco Fisoui 
Sansi^ asier frite tiom suh- 
oeau suboco Fisoui SanW 

addito. Item narrato ut 
ante portam Trebulanam. 

Post portam Tesenaeam sues 
lactentes tris facito Fiso Sancio 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Igu- 
vina. Posca facito, (sacrificium) 
humi stratum facito, frumenta fa- 
cito. Item narrato ut ante portam 
Trebulanam. Tacitus precator. 
Mantele bifidum in dextra habe- 
to. Prosectis oflfam, struem 
addito. Ubi suppa retro po- 
suerit, libamento et libo sparso 
patera genu nixus facito Fisovio 
Sancio pro arce Fisia, pro civitate 
Iguvina. Sic precator libamentum 
libans: 'te invoco invocationes 
Fisovium Sancium, pro arce Fi- 
sia, pro civitate Iguvina, pro aov 
cis nomine, pro civitatis nomine, 
favens sis, propitius sis arci 
Fisiae, civitati Iguvinae, arcis 
nomini, civitatis nomini. Sancte, 
te invoco invocationes Fisovium 
Sancium, sancti fiducia te invoco 
invocationes Fisovium Sancium.' 

14 fPusveres Tesenakes tref 

15 sif feliuf fetu | Fise Sa;i 
ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Iku- 

16 vina. | Puni fetu, supa sumtu, 

17 arviu ustentu. Mefa, | ves- 
ti;a ustetu, Fisuvi^ fetu, 
ukriper Fisiu fetu, | 

Post portam Tesenaeam tris 
sues lactentis facito Fisio Sancio 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvi- 
na. Posca facito, suppa sumito, 
frumenta ostendito. Libum, liba- 
mentum ostendito,Fisovio facito, 
pro arce Fisia facito. 

1 Aes ocrifer. 

2 Aes confgos. 

> Aes fiittvi. 




Iguvinian Tables 


9 Surontlponipesnimu, Mefa 
spefa 680 persnimu: ^Fiso- 
uie Sansie^ tiom esa mefa 
spefa Fisouina ocriper 
Fisiu, totaper liouina^ \ 

10 erer nomneper^ erar nomr 
neper. Fisouie Sansie, 
ditu ocre Fisi^ tote 
louine^ ocrer Fisie, totar 

11 louinar dupursus \ petur- 
pursus fato fito^ peme post- 
we, sepse sarsite, uouse auie 
esone; futu fons^ pacer 
pase tua ocre Fisi, tote 

12 liouine^ \ erer nomne, erar 
nomne, Fisouie Sanhie^ sal- 
uo seritu ocrem Fisi^ 
totam louinam, Fisouie 

13 Sansie^ saluo seritu \ ocrer 
Fisier^ totar louinar nome^ 
nerfj arsmo^ uiro^ pequo 
castruo^ frif salua seritu; 

14 futu fonSy pacer pase \ tua 
ocre Fisi, tote liouine^ erer 
nomne^ erar nomne. Fisouie 
Sdnsie, tiom esa mefa spefa 
Fisouina ocriper Fisiu, \ 

15 totaper liouina^ erer nom- 
neper^ erar nomneper, 
Fisouie Sansie, tiom subocau^ 
Fisouie frite^ tiom subocauJ* 

16 Pesclu I semu uesticatu^ atri- 
pursatu. Ape eam pur- 
dinsust^ proseseto erus 

Item posca precator. Libo 
spar so sic precator: 'Fisovi 
Sanci, te hoc libo 

sparso Fisovino pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine. Fisovi Sanci, 

dato arci Fisiae, civitati 
Iguvinae, arcis Fisiae, civitatis 
Iguvinae bipedibus quadru- 
pedibus factum fitum^ ante post, 
sane sarte, voto augurio 
sacrificio; esto favens propitius 
pace tua arci Fisiae, civitati 
Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis 
nomini. Fisovi Sarici, sal- 
vam servato arcem Fisiam, 
civitatem Iguvinam. Fisovi 
Sanci, salvum servato arcis 
Fisiae, civitatis Iguvinae nomen, 
principes, ritus, viros, pecui^iw 
capita^ fruges salvas servato ; 
esto favens propitius pace tua 
arci Fisiae, civitati Iguvinae, arcis 
nomini, civitatis nomini. Fisovi 
Sanci, te hoc libo sparso 
Fisovino pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis 
nomine, pro civitatis nomine. 
Fisovi Sanci, te invoco, 
Fisovii fiducia te invoco.' 
In precatione media libato, tri- 
podato. Ubi id (libum) por- 
rexerit, prosectorum magmentum 

1 Aes erite. 


Igwoinian Tables 




ditu, Etw scaheto uestisiar 

17 eru8 conegos \ dirstu, 
Eno mefa^ uestisia sopa 
purome efurfatu^ subra spah- 
mu. Eno serse comoltu, cch 

18 matir persnihimu, \ f Capif 
purdita dupla aitu, sacra 
dupla aitu, \ 

19 \Pre uerir Uehier buf 
trif calersu fetu 
Uojione Grabouie ocriper 
Fisiu, totaper liouina, 
Uatuo ferine fetu, Herie 

20 uinu I herie poni fetu^ aruio 
fetu^ tases persnimu. Pro- 
seseter mefa spefa^ ficla 
arsueitu. Surontnaratupusi 

21 pre uerir \ Treblanir, \ 

22 ^Post uerir Uehier habina 
trif fetu Tefrei loui ocriper 

dato. Turn ex patera libamenti 
magmentum genu nixus dato. 
Turn libum, libamentum sub 
ignem expurgato, superiacito. 
Turn sedens commolito, com- 
molitis precator. Capides 
porrectas binas agito, sacras 
binas agito. 

Ante portam Veiam boves 
tris f rontem albam habentis f acito 
Voviono Grabovio pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Exta in ferculo facito. Vel 
vino vel posca facito, frumenta 
facito, tacitus precator. Pro- 
sectis libum sparaunij offam 
addito. Item narrato ut 
ante .portam Trebulanam. 

Post portam Veiam agnas 
tris facito Tefro lovio pro arce 

18 f kapif purtitaf sakref, etraf 

19 purtitaf, etraf | sakref, tu- 
taper Ikuvina. Kutef pes- 
nimu afepes arves. | 

20 jPreveres Vehiies tref buf 
kalehif fetu Vufiune | 

21 Krapuvi ukriper Fisiu, 

22 tutaper Ikuvina. | Vatuva ferine 
fetu, heri vinu heri puni, | 

23 arviu ustentu, kutef 
pesnimu afepes arves. | 

24 §Pusveres Vehiies tref hapi- 

25 naf fetu Tefre luvie | ukriper 

capides porrectas sacras, alteras 
porrectas, alteras sacras, pro civi- 
tate Iguvina. Murmurans pre- 
cator adipibus frumentis. 

Ante portam Veiam tris boves 
f rontem albam habentis facito Vo- 
viono Grabovio pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Exta in fer- 
culo facito, vel vino vel posca, 
frumenta ostendito, murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

Post portam Veiam tris ag- 
nas facito Tefro lovio pro arce 

VI b 271 
la 29 -^ 

Iguvinian Tables 


Fisiu^ totaper liouina. 
Serse fetu^ pehana fetu^ 

23 aruio feitu^ poni \ fetu^ 
tasis pesnimu. Proaesetir 
strusla^ficla arueitu, Suront 
naratu puse uerisco Tre- 
blanir. Ape habina pur- 

24 dimuB^ I eront poi habina 
purdinsust, destruco persi 
uestisia et pesondro Borsom 
fetu. Capirse perso 08at% 

26 earn mani | nertru tenitu, 
amipo vsstisia uestieos. 
Capirso mbotu^isec perstico^ 
eras ditu. E%oc persnimu 

26 uestis: ^Tiom \ svhocau sub- 
oco Tefro louiy ocriper 
Fisiu, totaper liouina, 
erer nomneper, erar nom- 
neper; fonsir pacer si 

27 ocre Fisi, tote \ louine, erer 
nomne, erar nomne. Arsie, 
tiom subocau suboco Tefro 

Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Sedens facito, sepeliendas facito, 
frumenta facito, posca facito, 
tacitus precator. Prosectis 
struem, offam addito. Item 
narrato ut ad portam Tre- 
bulanam. Ubi agnas por- 
rexerit, idem qui agnas 
porrexerit, ad dextrum pedem 
libamentum etfgmentum suillum 
facito. Capidi fossam facito, 
earn manu sinistra teneto, 
donee libamentum libaverit. 
Capidem deponito,item ad pedem 
magmentum dato. Sic precator 
libans: 'Te invoco invoca- 
tiones Tefrum lovium, pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine ; favens sis propitius sis 
arci Fisiae,civitati Iguvinae, arcis 
nomini, civitatis nomini. Sancte, 
te invoco invocationes Tefrum 

Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina. Puste 

26 asiane fetu, zefef fetu, | pelsana 
fetu, arvia ustentu, puni 

27 fetu, ta^ez pesnimju afiper 
arvis. Api habina purtiius, 

28 sufum pesuntru | fetu, esmik 
vestifam preve fiktu, 

29 Tefri luvi fetu ukri|per Fisiu, 
tutaper Ikuvina, testruku 
pdri kapife pdrum feitlu. 

Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Post 
— facito,sedensfacito,«epeZimc?a« 
facito, frumenta ostendito, posca 
facito, tacitus precator adipibus 
frumentis. Ubi agnas porrexeris, 
figmentum suillum facito, ei 
libamentum singillatim figito, 
Tefro lovio facito pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina, ad dextrum 
pedem capidi fossam facito. 

Probably persico. 


Iffuvinian Tables 



lout, arsier frite tiom subo- 
cau Buhoco Tefro loui. 

28 Tefre | louie, tiom esu sorsu 
persontru Tefrali pihaclu 
ocriper Fisiu^ totaper 
liouina, , erer nomneper, 
erar nomneper, Tefre \ 

29 louie^ over ose perse 
ocre Fine pir orto est^ tote 
liouine arsmor dersecor sub- 
ator sent^ pusi neip heritu, 

30 Tefre louie^ \ perse touer 
pescler uasetomest,^ pesetonir 
est^ peretomest, frosetom- 
est^ daetomesty touer pescler 
uirseto auirseto uas est^ \ 

31 Tefre louie^ perse mers est,, 
esu sorsu persondru pihaclu 
pihafi, Tefre louie, pihatu 
ocre Fisi, tota liouina, 

32 Tefre louie,, pihatu \ ocrer 
Fisiery totar liouinar nome^ 
nerf arsmo^ uiro, pequo^ 
castruOy fri pihatu; futu 
fons pacer pase tua ocre 

33 Fisiy tote \ liouine^ erer 
nomne, erar nomne, Tefre 
louie^ saluo seritu ocre Fisi, 
totamliouinam. Tefre louie^ 
saluom seritu ocrer Fisier^ \ 

34 totar louinar nome^ nerf 
arsmoy uiro, pequo castruo^ 
fri salua seritu; futu fons 
pacer pase tua ocre Fisi, 

lovium, sancti fiducia te invoco 
invocationes Tefrum lovium. 
Tefer lovi, te hoc suillo 
figmentOy Tefrali piaculo, 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate 
Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, 
pro civitatis nomine. Tefer 
lovi, huius (piacuU) opere si in 
arce Fisia ignis ortus est, in civi- 
tate Iguvina ritus debiti omissi 
sunt, (facito) quasi non con- 
sulto. Tefer lovi, si tui 
sacrificii (quid) vitiatum est, pec- 
catum est, peritum est, f raudatum 
est, delictum est, tui sacrificii 
visum invisum vitium est, 
Tefer lovi, si ius est, 
hoc suillo figmento piaculo 
piatum sit. Tefer lovi, piato 
arcem Fisiam, civitatem Iguvi- 
nam. Tefer lovi, piato arcis 
Fisiae, civitatis Iguvinae nomen, 
principes, ritus, viros, pecuww 
capita^ fruges piato; esto 
favens propitius pace tua arci 
Fisiae, civitati Iguvinae, arcis 
nomini, civitatis nomini. Tefer 
lovi, salvam servato arcem Fisiam, 
civitatem Iguvinam. Tefer lovi, 
salvum servato arcis Fisiae, 
civitatis Iguvinae nomen, prin- 
cipes, ritus, viros, pecuwm capita^ 
fruges salvas servato ; esto favens 
propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, 

1 Aes uasetomesf. 

2 Aes pfquo. 

■^ x^.i 5 Uii^x^ 

■ -i ^ ^ ^- V \ 


VI b 401 
la 30-34-' 

Iguvinian Tables 


35 tote liouine^ ever \ nomne^ 
erar nomne, Tefre liouie^ 
tiom esu sorsu persondru 
Tefrali pihaclu ocriper 
Fisiu^ totaper liouina^ 

36 ever nomneper^ erar \ nom- 
neper. Tefre louie, tiom 
subocau,^ Persclu sehemu 
atropusatu, \ 

37 jfPesondro staflare ner- 
truco persi fetu. Suront 
capirse perso osatu^ %uror 
persnimu puse sorsu. Ape 

38 pesondro purdinhus^ \pro- 
seseto erus dirstu, Enom 
tiestisiar soraalir destnico 
persi persome erus dirs- 
tu^ pue sorso purdin- 

39 8U8, Enom I uestisiam 
staflarem nertruco persi^ 
sururont erus dirstu. Eno^n 
pesondro sorsalem persome^ 

40 puepersnis fust^ ife \ enden- 
du^ pelsatu, Enom pesondro 

civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, 
civitatis nomini. Tefer lovi, 
te hoc suillo jigmento 
Tefrali piaculo pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro» arcis nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine. Tefer lovi, te 
invoco.' In precatione media 

Figmentum ovillum ad sinis- 
trum pedem facito. Item 
capidi fossam facito, itidem 
precator ut cum suillo, Ubi 
figmenta porrexerit, prosecto- 
rum magmentum dato. Tum 
libamenti suilli ad dextrum 
pedem in fossam magmentum da- 
to, ubi (figmentum) suillum por- 
rexerit. Tum libamentum 
ovillum ad sinistrum pedem, 
itidem magmentum dato. Tum 
figmentum suillum in fossam 
ubi precatus erit ibi impo- 
nito, sepelito. Tum figmentum 

30 f Api drek^ purtiius, enuk 
surum pesuntrum feitu staf |lii^ 

31 uve, e8mik^ve8ti9aafiktu,ukri- 
32 per Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina^ fei- 
tu, nertruku pdri kapifepdrum 

33 feitu. Puni feitu. | Api su- 
fuf purtiius,^ enuk hapinaru 

34 erus titu, zdref | kumultu, 
zefef kumates ^ pesnimu. 

Ubi id porrexeris, tunc 
figmentum facito ovillum, 
ei libamentum infigito, pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina facito, 
ad sinistrum pedem capidi fossam 
facito. Posca facito. Ubi fig- 
menta porrexeris, tum agnarum 
magmentum dato, sedens commo- 
lito, sedens commolitis precator. 

1 Aes efel. 3 Aes stafli ittvesmik. 8 Aes ikuvinpla. ^ Aes purtitius. ^ Aes kumats. 

' '' 1 I 

A> .^*/u ^U^ss^. ^a>4.^v^-k 


Iguvinian Tables 



staflare persome^ pue pesnis 
fu8, ife endendu^ pelsatu. 
Enom uaao porsepesondrisco 

41 haJmB^ I %er8e subra spahatu, 
Anderuomu sersitu^ amipo 
eomatir pesnis fust, Serse^ 
pisher comoltu^ serse eomatir 

42 persnimu, \ Purditofust, \ 

43 ^Uocucom louiu^ ponne 
oui furfant, uitlu torn trif 
fetu, Marte Horse fetu 
popluper totar liouinar^ 
totaper liouina. Uatuo 

44 ferine \ fetu^ poni fetu^ 
aruio fetu^ tases persnimu, 
Prosesetir fasio^ ficla ars- 
ueitu, Suront naratu puse 
uerisco Trehlanir, \ 

45 ^Uocucom Coredier uitlu 
toru trif fetu. Sonde Serfi 
fetu popluper totar Ho- 
uinar^ totaper liouina} 

ovillum in fossam, ubi precatus 
erit, ibi imponito, sepelito. 
Turn vasa quae ad figmenta 
habuerit, sedens superiacito. 

Inter sedeto, donicum 

commolitis precatus erit. Sedens 
quilibet commolito, sedens com- 
molitis precator. Porrectum erit. 

Ad aedem loviam, cum 
ovis purgant^ vitulos tauros tris 
facito. Marti Hodio facito 
pro populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Exta 
in ferculo facito, posca facito, 
frumenta facito, tacitus precator. 
Prosectis farrea, offam ad- 
dito. Item narrato ut 
ad portam Trebulanam, 

Ad aedem Coredii vitulos 
tauros tris facito. Honto Cerrio 
facito pro populo civitatis Igu- 
vinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 

I B 

1 f Vukukum luviu, pune uvef 

2 furfad, tref vitluf turuf | Marte 
Hufie fetu pupluper tutas 
liuyinas, tutaper Ikuvina. | 

3 Vatuva ferine fetu, puni 
fetu, arvia ustentu, kutep 

4 pesnimu | afepes arves. 


5 turup Hunte Qe|fi feitu pu- 
pluper tutas liuvinas, tutaper 

Ad aedem loviam, cum ovis 
purgant,tris vitulos tauros Marti 
Hodio facito pro populo civitatis 
Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Exta in ferculo facito, posca 
f acito,f rumenta ostendito,murmu- 
rans precator adipibus frumentis. 

Ad aedem Coredii tris vitulos 
tauros Honto Cerrio facito pro 
populo civitatis Iguvinae, pro 

1 Aes liouinar. 

VI b 491 
lb 11 ^ 

Iguvinian Tables 


Uatuo^ ferine fetu^ aruio 

46 fetu^ heri uinu heri poni 
fetu^ tasea persnimu. Pro- 
sesetir tesedi^ jicla araueitu,^ 
Suront naratu puse ueriseo 

47 . jfUno oear \ pihos fust. 
Suepo esome eaono ander- 
uacose^ uasetome fust ; 
auif aseriatu^ uerofe Tre- 
hlano couertUy reste esono 
feitu. I 

48 JPowg poplo afero heries^ 
auif aseriato etu. Sururo 
stiplatu puai ocrer pihaner, 
Sururont comhifiatu, Erir- 

49 ont tuderus auif \ seritu. 
Ape angla combifiansiust, 
perca arsmatiam anouihimu. 

Exta in ferculo facito, fnimenta 
facito, vel vino vel posca 
facito, tacitus precator. Pro- 

sectis , offam addito. 

Item narrato ut ad portam 

Turn arx piata erit. 
Sive horum sacrificiorwm inter- 
vacatio sit, in vitiatum erit; 
avis observato, ad portam Tre- 
bulanam revertito, instaurans sa- 
crificium facito. 

Cum populum lustrare volet, 
avis observatum ito. Itidem 
stipulator ut arcis piandae. 
Itidem nuntiato. Isdem 

finibus avis servato. 

Ubi oscines nuntiaverit, 
virgam ritualem induitor. 

6 liuvina. Vatuva | ferine 
fetu, arvia ustentu, tenzitim 

7 anreitu, heris vinu heris | puni 
feitu, kutef persnimu afi- 
pes arvis. 

8 flnukukarpihazfust. | Svepu 
esumek esunu antervakaze, 
vacetumi se ; ^ avif azeriatu, | 

9 verufe Treplanu kuvertu, 
restef esunu feitu. | 

10 :|:Punepuplumaferumherie8, 
avef anzeriatu^ etu pernaialf 

11 pustnaiaf. Pune kuvurtus. 

civitate Iguvina. Exta in ferculo 

facito, frumenta ostendito, 

addito, vel vino vel posca 
facito, murmurans precator adi- 
pibus frumentis. 

Tunc arx piata erit. Sive 
horum sacrificiorMm intervacatio 
sit, in vitiatum sit ; avis observa- 
to, ad portam Trebulanam reverti- 
to, instaurans sacrificium facito. 

Cum populum lustrare voles, 
avis observatum ito anticas 
posticas. Cum reverteris, 

1 Aes Uatue. 

2 Ae8 Jidmrsueitu, 

3 Aes vakazeva^etumiseavif . 

4 Aes anzYriattt. 


Iguvinian Tables 



^Cringatro hat% destrame 
scapla anouihimu, Pir en- 
60 dendu. Pone \ esonome^ 
yerar} pufe pir entelustj 
ere fertu poe perca are- 
matiam habiest. Erihont aso 
desire onse fertu. Erucom 

51 prinuatur dur \ etuto^ perca 
ponisiater habituto. Ennom 
stiplatu parfa desua seso^ 
tote liouine. Sururont comr 
bifiatuuapefeauieclu. Neip \ 

52 amboltu, prepa desua 
eomffifiansi. Ape desua 
combifiansiustj uia auiecla 
esonome etuto com peracris 
sacris. \Ape Acesoniame \ 

63 hebetafe benust^ enom terwr 
nuco stahituto. Poi percam 
arsmatia habiest^ eturstahmu, 
Eso eturstahmu: ^pisest 

64 totar I Tarsinater^ trifor 

Cinctum capito, in dextram 
scapulam induitor. Ignem im- 
ponito. Cum in sacrificium 
feratur, id in quo ignem impo- 
suerit, is ferto qui virgam ritu- 
alem habebit. Idem arsum 
in dextro umero ferto. Cum 
eo legati duo eunto, virgas 
calatoris habento. Turn 

stipulator parram prosperam sibi, 
civitati Iguvinae. Itidem nun- 
tiato ad sellas auguralis. Neve 
ambulato, priusquam prosperam 
nuntiaverit. Ubi prosperam 
nuntiaverit, via augurali 
in sacrificium eunto cum opimis 
hostiis. Ubi in Acedoniam 
ad exitus venerit, tum ad ter- 
minum stanto. Qui virgam 
ritualem habebit, exterminato. 
Sic exterminato: 'quisquis est 
civitatis Tadinatis, tribus 

f krenkatrum hatu. Enumek 

12 pir ahtimem ententu. 
Pune pir entelus ahtimem, | 

13 enumek steplatu parfam 

14 tesvam tefe, tute Ikuvine. | Va- 
pefem aviekluf e kumpifiatu. Vea 

16 avieklaesunumeetu. iPrinuvatu 
etutu, perkaf habetutu puni^ate. 

16 :|:Pune menes | Akefuniamem, 
enumek etufstamu tuta 

17 Tafinate, trifu | Tarinate, 

cinctum capito. Tunc 

ignem ad caerimonium imponito. 
Cum ignem imposueris ad caeri- 
monium, tunc stipulator parram 
prosperam tibi, civitati Iguvinae. 
Ad sellas auguralis nuntiato. Via 
augurali in sacrificium itp. Lega- 
ti eunto, virgas habento calatoris. 
Cum venies in Acedoniam, 
tunc exterminato civitatem 
Tadinatem, tribum Tadinatem, 

lAes esonomf ffrar. 

. .1 I ^ t •.' ^.'^-' > ^' 

VI b 591 
Ib22 ■■ 

Iguvinian Tables 


Tarsinater^ Tuscer Ndharcer 
labuscer nomner^ eetu ehesu 
poplu. Nosue ier ehe esu pa- 
ss plu, sopir habe \ ernne^ 
pople^ portatu ulo pue 
mersest, fetu nru pirse mers 
est^ Trioper eheturstahamu. 
Ifont termnuco com prinu- 

66 atir I stahitu^ eno deitu: 
^arsmahamo caterahamo lo- 
uinur\ Eno com prinuatir 
peracris sacris ambretuto. * 

67 Ape ambrefurent^ I termnoms 
benurent^ termnuco com 
prinuatir eso persnimumo 
tasetur: ^SerfeMartie^Pre- 

68 stota Serfia ^erfer \Martier, 
Tursa Serfia SerferMartier^ 
totam Tarnnatem^ trifo 
Tarsinatem^ Tuscom Nahar- 

69 com labuscom nome^ \ totar 

Tadinatis, Tusci Narci 

lapudici nominis, ito ex hoc 
populo. Nisi itum sit ex hoc po- 
pulo, siquis restat in hoc 
populo, (eum) portato illuc quo 
ius est, facito illo quod ius 
est.' Ter extenninato. 

Ibidem ad terminum cum lega- 
tis stato, turn dicito: 
'ordinamini *catervamini Igu- 
vini'. Tum cum legatis 
opimis sacris ambiunto. 
Ubi ambierint, ad terminum 
venerint, apud terminum cum 
legatis sic precantor 

taciti: 'Cerre Martie, Prae- 
stita Cerria Cerri Martii, 
Torra Cerria Cerri Martii, 
civitatem Tadinatem, tribum 
Tadinatem, Tuscum Narcum 
lapudicum nomen, civitatis 

Turskum, Naharkum numem, 

18 lapuzkum numem : | 'svepis 
habe, portatulu pue mdrs 
est, feitu uru pdre mers est'. | 

19 Pune prinuvatus staheren term- 
nesku, enumek ^armamu^ I 

20 kateramu Doivinu'. Enumek 
apietu tures et pure. Puni 

21 amprefuluSfpersnimu. Enumek 
' etatu Ikuyinus'. Triiuperam- 

22 prefatu, |triiuperpesnimu,triiu- 
per'etatuIkuyinus'T Enumek 

Tuscum, Narcum nomen, 
lapudicum nomen : 'siquis 
restate (eum) portato illuc quo ius 
est, facito illo quod ius est'. 
Cum legati stabunt ad ter- 
minos, tunc 'ordinamini 
*catervamini, Iguvini'. Tunc 
ambito tauris et igne. Cum 
ambieris, precator. Tunc 

'itatote, Iguvini'. Ter am- 
bito, ter precator, ter 
'itatote, Iguvini'. Tunc 


2 Aes armanu. 




Iguvinian Tables 


b so- 
fa 23- 

Tarshmter^ trifor Tarsinater^ 
, (M hs^ ( ^vj>J^^u8cer Naharcer labuscer 
(joufic^ ^ -^^Hiiomner nerf Hhitu ansihi- 
^ .i"w\60 tu^ iouie hostatu \ anhoa- 
^. lU >'* ^ ^^^ tursitu tremitu^ hondu 
,^^ t( AoZ^w, ninctu nepitu, sonitu 

sauitu, preplotatu preui- 

61 latu. I ASfer/*(e Martie^ Pre- 
stota Serfia Serfer Martier^ 
Tursa Serfia SerferMartier^ 
fututo foner pacrer pase 
uestra pople totar liouinar^ \ 

62 tote Eouine^ ero nerus 
sihitir amihitir^ iouies 
hostatir anostatir^ ero 
nomne, erar nomne.^ Ape 

63 este dersieurent^ eno \ deitu 
^etato Iiouinur\ porse perca 
arsmatia hahieat. Ape este 
dersicust^ duti ambretuto 

64 euront. Ape termnome \ couor- 
tuso^ sururont peBuimumo, 
Sururont deitu, etaians dei- 
tu, Enom tertim ambretuto. 
Ape termnome benuBo, \ 

66 sururont pesnimumo, Burur- 
ont deitu etaias. fJSno pri- 
nuatur ^imo etuto erafont 
uia, pora benuso. 


Tadinatis, tribus 
Tusci Narci 

nominis principes cinctos incinc- 
tos, iuvenes hastatos inhastatos 
terreto tremefacito, pessumdato 
aboleto, nmgxyitoinundato^ sonato 
sauciatOj *praeplauditato *prae- 
tinculato. Cerre Martie, Prae- 
stita Cerria Cerri Martii, 
Torra Cerria Cerri Martii, 
estote faventes propitii pace 
vestra populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
civitati Iguvinae, eorum prin- 
cipibus cinctis incinctis, iuveni- 
bus hastatis inhastatis, eorum 
nomini, eius nomini.' Ubi 
istud dixerint, turn dicito 
'itatote Iguvini', qui virgam 
ritualem habebit. Ubi istud 
dixerit, iterum ambiunto 
iidem. Ubi ad terminum rever- 
sum erit, itidem precantor. 
Itidem dicito, ut eant di- 
cito. Turn tertium ambiunto. 
Ubi ad terminum ventum erit, 
itidem precantor, itidem 
dicito ut eant. Tum le- 
gati retro eunto eadem 
via, qua ventum erit. 

vn A 

1 Sururont pesnimumo, bu- Itidem precantor, itidem 
ruront deitu etaias, Eno dicito ut eant. Tum 

23 fprinuvatu89imuetutu,erahunt legati retro . eunto, eadem 
vea jimu etutu prinuvatus. | via retro eunto legati. 

lb 30 -" 

Iguvinian Tables 


prinuatur iimo etuto erafont 

2 uia^ pora \ benuso.^ | 

3 jfFondlire abrof trif fetu 
Tieriei rofu heriei peiu, 
^erfe ^ Martiefeitu popluper 
totar liomnar, totaper \ 

4 liouina, Uatuo ferine feitu,, 
poni fetu^ aruio fetu^ 
tasea persnimu, Prosesetir 
mefa spefa^ ficla arsueitu. \ 

5 Suront naratu puse uerisco 
Treblanir, Ape traha Saha- 
ta cowhifianiustj enom erua 
dirstu, I 

6 %Rubine porca trif r of a ote 
peia fetu Prestote tSerfie 
Serfer Martier popluper to- 

7 tarliouinar^ totaper I louina, 
Peraaia fetu^ poni fetu^ 
aruio fetu, Suront naratu 
puai pre uerir Treblanir.- 

legati retro eunto eadem 
via, qua ventum erit. 

In Fontulis apros tris facito 
vel rufos vel piceos. 
Cerro Martio facito pro populo 
civitatis Iguvinae, pro civitate 
Iguvina. JExta m /er^o facito, 
posca facito, frumenta facito, 
tacitus precator. Prosectis 
libum sparsum^ offam addito. 
Item narrato ut ad portam 
Trebulanam. Ubi trans Sanc- 
tam nuntiaverit, turn magmentum 

In Rubinia porcas tris ruf as aut 
piceas facito Praestitae Cerriae 
Cerri Martii pro populo civitatis 
Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Humi Btratas facito, posca facito, 
arvia facito. Item narrato 
ut ante portam Trebulanam. 

24 f Funtlere trif apruf rufru 
ute pdu feitu ^erfe Marti. | 

25 Vatuvu ferine ^ fetu, anriu 

26 ustentu, puni fetu,^ | tagez 
pesnimu afepe arves. | 

27 :|:Rupinie e tre purka rufra 

28 ute peia fetu Prestate | ^er- 
fie §erfe Marties. Pefaia fei- 

29 tu, anriu ustentu, | kapi 
sakra aitu, vesklu vetu atru 

30 alfu, puni fetu, | tagez pesnimu 
afeper arves. 

In Fontulis tris apros rubros 
aut piceos facito Cerro Martio. 
Exta in ferculo facito, frumenta 
ostendito, posca facito, tacitus 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

In Rubinia tris porcas rubras 
aut piceas facito Praestitae Cerri- 
ae Cerri Martii. Humi stratas fa- 
cito, frumenta ostendito, capides 
sacras agito, vascula dividito atra 
alba, posca f acito,tacitus precator 
adipibus frumentis. 

1 Repetition of last sentence of VI b to show connection of VII -with VI. 
3 Aes Seree. ^ Aes ferime. * Aes feiu. 


Iguvinidn Tables 

[ vn a 7- 

8 Tases persnimu, \ Proaesetir 
struila^ficla arsueitu. Ape 
8upo postro pepescus^ enom 
pesclu ruseme uesticatu 

9 PrestoteiSerfie I Serf er Mar- 
tier popluper totar louinar^ 
totaper louina. Enomuesclir 
adrir ruseme esopersnihimu: 

10 'Prestota | tSterfia jSerfer 
Martier^ tiom esir uesclir ad- 
rir popluper totar liouinar^ 
totaper liouina, erer nom- 

11 neper^ \ erar nomneper, 
t Prestota tSerfia tSerfer Mar- 

s'^12 te^ I Tursce Naharce labusce 

tier^ preuendu uia ecla aterg 
\- ,K,. V, tote Tarsinate, trifo Tarsina- 

y^ ^$iomne^ totar Tarsinater, 



►^v I tt>^ trifor Tarsinater^ Tuseer 
\ / Naharcer lahuBcer nomner \ 

r- > 13 neruB iitir ansihitir. iouies 

hostatir anostatir^ ero nom- 
ne, Prestota Serfia Serfer 

14 Martier^futufons \pacerpa%e 
tua pople totar liouinar^ 
tote liouine, erom nomne, 
erar nomne^ erar nerus hihi- 

15 tir anUhitir^ iouies \ hostatir 
anostatir, Prestota Serfia 
SerferMartier^ saluom seritu 
poplom totar liouinar^ salua 

16 serituu \ totam liouinam, 
Prestota Serjia Serfer Mar- 
tier^ saluo seritu popler totar 
Jiouinar^ totar Bouinar 

Tacitus precator. Prosectis 
struem, offam addito. Ubi 
suppa retro posuerit, turn 

precatione in libato 

Praestitae Cerriae Cerri Mar- 
tii pro populo civitJatis Iguvinae, 
pro civitate Iguvina. 'Turn vas- 

culis atris in sic precator: 

'Praestita Cerria Cerri Mar- 
tii, te his vasculis atris 
pro populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
pro civitate Iguvina, pro populi 
nomine, pro civitatis nomine. 
Praestita Cerria Cerri Martii, 
advertito via omni malum 
civitati Tadinati, tribui Tadi- 
nati, Tusco Narco lapudico 
nomini, civitatis Tadinatis, 
tribus Tadinatis, Tusci 

Narci lapudici nominis 

principibus cinctis incinctis, iuve- 
nibus hastatis inhastatis, eorum 
nomini. Praestita Cerria Cerri 
Martii, esto favens propitia pace 
tua populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
civitati Iguvinae, eorum nomini, 
eius nomini, eius principibus cinc- 
tis incinctis, iuvenibus hastatis 
inhastatis. Praestita Cerria 
Cerri Martii, salvum servato 
populum civitatis Iguvinae, sal- 
vam servato civitatem Iguvinam. 
Praestita Cerria Cerri Martii, 
salvum servato populi civitatis 
Iguvinae, civitatis Iguvinae 


Iguvinian Tables 


17 nome^ nerf^ •aramo^ uiro^ 
pequo castruo^ frif salua 
seritu; f utu fons pacer pase 
tua pople totar liouinar, \ 

18 tote Iwuine^ ever nomne^ 
erar nomne. Prestota oer- 
fia SerferMartier^ tiom esir 

19 uesclir adrer popluper\ totar 
Houinar^ totaper louina^ 
erer nomneper^ erar nomne- 
per. Prestota ^erfia Ser- 

20 fer Martier, tiom \ subocauii^ 
Prestotar iSerfiar Serfer 
Martier f oner f rite tiom sub- 
oeanu^ Ennom persclu eao 

21 deitu : | 'Prestota ^erfia Ser- 
fer Martier^ tiom isir uesclir 
adrir^ tiom plener popluper 
totar liouinar^ totaper \ 

22 liouina^ erer nomneper^ 
erar nomneper. Prestota 
jSerJia^ t§erfer Martier^ tiom 

23 subocauu. Prestotar \ Serfiar 
Serfer Martier foner frite 
tiom subocauu, JEnomuesti- 
catu^ ahatripursatu, Enom 

24 ruseme \ persclu uesticatu 
Prestote Serfie Serfer Marti- 
er popluper totar liouinary 
totaper louina, Ennom ues- 

25 clir\ alfir persnimu^ supeme 
adro trahuorfi andendu^ eso 
persnimu: 'Prestota Serfia 

26 Serfer Martier^ tiom \ esir 

nomen, principes, ritus, viros, 
pecuwm capita, fruges salvas 
servato; estofavenspropitiapace 
tua populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
civitati Iguvinae, populi nomini, 
civitatis nomini. Praestita Cer- 
ria Cerri Martii, te his 
vasculis atris pro populo civitatis 
Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro populi nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine. Praestita Cerria Cer- 
ri Martii, te invoco, 
Praestitae Cerriae Cerri 
Martii faventis fiducia te in- 
voco.' Turn precatione sic 
dicito: 'Praestita Cerria Cerri 
Martii, te his vasculis 
atris, te plenis pro populo 
civitatis Iguvinae, pro civitate 
Iguvina, pro populi nomine, 
pro civitatis nomine. Praestita 
Cerria Cerri Martii, te 
invoco. Praestitae Cerriae 
Cerri Martii faventis fiducia 
te invoco. Tuin li- 

bato, tripodato. Turn 

in precatione libato 

Praestitae Cerriae Cerri Martii 
pro populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Turn vas- 
culis albis precator, super 
atra transverse imponito, sic 
precator : ' Praestita Cerria 
Cerri Martii, te his 

1 Aes herfiar. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[VII a 26- 

uesclir alfir popluper totar 
liouinar^ totaper liouina^ 
ever nomneper^ erar nomne- 

27 per. Prestota \ tSerfia Serfer 
Martier^ ahauendu uia ecla 
atero pople totar liouinary 
tote Houine, popler totar 

28 louinar, \ totar Eouinar 
nerus Hhitir an^ihitir^ to- 
uies hostatir anhostatir^ ero 
nomne^erarnomne, Prestota 

29 fSerfia \ Serfer Martier^ sal- 
uom 8eritu poplo totar Ho- 
Ulnar, salua seritu totam 
liouinam, Prestota Serfia 

30 §erfer\Martier,saluom seritu 
popler totar liouinar, totar 
liouinar nome, nerf, arsmOj 
uiro, pequo castruo, frif \ 

31 salua seritu, futu fons pacer 
pase tua pople totar lio- 
uinar, tote liouine, erer 
nomne, erar nomne. Pre- 

32 stota I Serjia SerferMartier, 
tiom esir uesclir alfer poplvr 
per totar liouinar, totaper 
liouina, erer nomneper, erar \ 

33 nomneper, Prestota Serfia 
Serf er Mar tier, tiom su bocauu, 

34 tier f oner f rite tiom \suboeauul 
Ennom persclu eso persni- 
mu: ^Prestota Serjia Serfer 
Martier, tiom isir uesclir al- 

35 fer, tiomplener \ popluper to- 

vasculis albispr© populo civitatis 
Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro populi nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine. Praestita Cerria Cerri 
Martii, avertito via omni 
malum populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
civitati Iguvinae, populi civita- 
tis Iguvinae, civitatis Iguvinae 
principibus cinctis, incinctis, iu- 
venibus hastatis inhastatis, eorum 
nomini, eius nomini. Praestita 
Cerria Cerri Martii, salvum 
servato populum civitatis Igu- 
vinae, salvam servato civitatem 
Iguvinam. Praestita Cerria 
Cerri Martii, salvum servato 
populi civitatis Iguvinae,civitatis 
Iguvinae nomen, principes,ritus, 
viros, pecuwm capita, fruges 
salvas servato, esto favens propi- 
tia pace tua populo civitatis Igu- 
vinae, civitati Iguvinae, populi 
nomini, civitatis nomini. Prae- 
stita Cerria Cerri Martii, 
te his vasculis albis pro popu- 
lo civitatis Iguvinae, pro civitate 
Iguvina, pro populi nomine, pro 
civitatis nomine. Praestita Cerria 
Cerri Martii, te invoco, 
Praestitae Cerriae Cerri Mar- 
tii faventis fiducia te invoco.' 
Tum precatione sic preca- 
tor : 'Praestita Cerria Cerri 
Martii, te his vasculis albis, 
te plenis pro populo civitatis 

VII a 421 
lb 31-33^ 

Iguvinian Tables 


tarliouinar, totaper Tiouina, 
erer nomneper^ erar nomne- 
per, Prestota Serjia Serfer 

36 Martier^tiom\Bubocauu^Pre' 
stotar Serfiar Serfer Martier 
f oner f rite tiom 8ubocauu\ 
Enom ueBticatu^ahatripurBa- 

37 tu. I UeBtiBU et mefa Bpefa 
Bcahie conegoB fetu FiBoui 
SariBii popluper totar 
liouinar^ totaper liouina, 

38 Suront \ naratu puBe poBt ue- 
rir Tesonocir. UeBtisiar 
eruB ditu, Enno uestiBia 
mefa Bpefa Bopam purome 

89 efurfatu^ \ Bubra Bpahamu, 
traf Sahatam etu. Ape traha 
Sahata couortuB^ ennom co- 
moltu^ comatir perBnihimu, 

40 Capif I Bacra aitu, \ 

41 t Trahaf Sahate uitla trif 
feetu TurBe Serfie Serfer 
Martier popluper totar lio- 
uinar^ totaper liouina, 

42 PerBaea fet% poni \fetu^ 
aruio fetu^ taBeB persnimu. 
ProBeBetir BtruUa^ ficlam 
arBueitu, Suront naratu pu- 
Be ueriBco Treblaneir. Ape 

Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro populi nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine. Praestita Cerria Cerri 
Martii, te invoco, Prae- 
stitae Cerriae Cerri Martii 
faventis fiducia te invoco'. 
Tum libato, tripodato. 

Libamentum et libum BparBum 
in patera genu nixus facito Fiso- 
vio Sancio pro populo civitatis 
Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Item narrato ut post por- 
tam Tesenacam. Libamenti 
magmentum dato. Tum libamen- 
tum, libum Bparsum sub ig- 
nem expurgato^ superiacito, 
trans Sanctam ito. Ubi trans 
Sanctam reverterit, tum com- 
molito, commolitis precator. 
Capides sacras agito. 

Trans Sanctam vitulas tris 
facito Torrae Cerriae Cerri 
Martii pro populo civitatis Igu- 
vinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Humi BtrataB facito, posca facito, 
frumenta facito, tacitus precator. 
Prosectis struem, offam 

addito. Item narrato ut 
ad portam Trebulanam. Ubi 

31 fTra Sate tref vitlaf feitu 
Tuse 9erfie ^erfe Marties. | 

32 Pdraia feitu, arviu us- 
tetu, puni fetu, tacez pes- 

33 nimu | afeper arves. Pune 

Trans Sanctam tris vitulas faci- 
to Torrae Cerriae Cerri Martii. 
Humi BtrataB facito, frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito, tacitus pre- 
cator adipibus frumentis. Cum 


Iguvinian Taller 

r vn a 4a- 

^ Ib33- 

43 -fpurdivMust^ caraitUj pufe 
abrons facurent^ puse erus 
dersa. Ape erus dirsust^pos- 
tro comhifiatu Ruhiname^ 

44 era% \ dersa, Enem traha 
Sahatam combifiatu^ erus 
dersa. EnemRuhiname pos- 
tro couertu^ eomoltu^ comatir 

45 persnimu et \ capif sacra aitu. 
Enom traha Sahatam couer- 
tu^ comoltu^ comatir persnihi- 
mu. Enom pur ditom fust \ 

46 Postertio pane poplo 
andirsafust^ porse perca ars- 
m^atia hahiest et prinuatur 
dur tefruto Tursar eso tasetur\ 

47 persnihimumo:^TursaIouia^ 
totam Tarsinatem^ trifo Ta- 
rsinatem^ Tuscom Naharcom 

48 lapusco nome^ totar \ Tarsi- 
nater^ trifor Tarsinater^ 
Tuscer Naharcer lapuscer 
nomner nerf sihitu ansihitu. 

porrexerit, vocato, quo loco 
apros fecerint, ut magmentvjn 
det. Ubi magm^ntum dederit, 
retro nuntiato in Rubiniam, 
ut magmentum det. Turn trans 
Sanctam nuntiato, magmentum 
det. Turn in Rubiniam retro 
revertito, commolito, commolitis 
precator et capides sacras agito. 
Turn trans Sanctam revertito, 
commolito, commolitis precator. 
Turn porrectum erit. 

Postquam tertium populum 
lustraverit, qui virgam ritu- 
alem habebit et legati 
duo ex rogo Torrae sic taciti 
precantor: 'Torra lovia, 
civitatem Tadinatem, tribumTa- 
dinatem, Tuscum Narcum 
lapudicum nomen, civitatis Ta- 
dinatis, tribus Tadinatis, 
Tusci Narci lapudici 

nominis principes cinctos incinc- 

fpurtingus, kafetu,pufe apruf 

34 fakurent, puze erus tefa. Ape 

35 erus tefust, pustru | kupifia- 
tu Rupiname, erus tdra. 
Ene tra Sahta kupifiaia, | 

36 erus tefa. £nu Rupiname 

37 pustru kuvertu, antakre I ku- 
mate pesnimu. £nu kapi 
sakra aitu, vesklu vetu. | 

38 £nu Satame kuvertu, anta- 
kre kumate pesnimu. £nu 

39 esunu I purtitu fust. | 

porrexeris, vocato, ubi apros 
iQCQTmt,\itrnag7nentumA.Qt. Ubi 
magmentum dederit, retro nuntia- 
to in Rubiniam, magmentum det. 
Turn trans Sanctam nunties, 
magmentum det. Turn in Rubi- 
niam retro revertito, integris com- 
molitis precator. Tum capides 
sacras agito, vascula dividito. 
Tum in Sanctam revertito, inte- 
gris commolitis precator. Tum 
sacrificium porrectum erit. 

VII a 541 
lb 46 -' 

Iffuvinian Tables 


iouie hostatu anostatu \ 
40 tursitu tremitu^ hondu 
holtUj ninctu n^itu^ sunitu 
aauitu^ preplohotatu pre- 
uiilatu. Tursa louia^ futu 

60 fon9 I pacer pase tua pople 
totar louinar^ tote lout- 
ne, erar nerus iihitir 
anUhitir, iouies hostatir an- 

61 hostatir^ erom \ nomne^ erar 
nomne,^ Uste trioper deitu. 
fUnom iuenga peracrio tur- 
situtOj porse perca arsmatia 

62 habiestet \ prinuatur. Hon- 
dra furo sehemeniar hatuto 
totar pm heriest. JPafe 
trif promom haburent^ eaf 

63 Acersoniem \fetu Turse Io- 
uie popluper totar liouinar^ 
totaper louina. Suront na- 
ratu puse ueriaco Treblanir. 

64 Arulo fetu^ \ persaea fetu, 
struila^ficla prosesetir arsuei- 
tu^ tases peranimu^ponifetu. 

tos, iuvenes hastatos inhastatos 
terreto tremefacito, peasumdato 
aboletOy ninguito mwndafo, sonato 
sauciatOj *praeplauditato *prae- 
vinculato. Torra lovia, esto 
favens propitia pace tua populo 
civitatis Iguvinae, civitati Igu- 
vinae, eius principibus cinctis 
incinctis, iuvenibus hastatis in- 
hastatis, eorum nomini, eius 
nomini.' Istud ter dicito. 
Turn iuvencas ex opimis fugan- 
to, qui virgam ritualem 
habebit et legati. Infra 
forum seminarium capiunto 
civitatis quisquis volet. Quas 
tris primum ceperint, eas 
in Acedonia facito Torrae loviae 
pro populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Item nar- 
rato ut ad portam Trebulanam. 
Frumenta facito, humi stratas fa- 
cito, struem, offam prosectis addi- 
to, tacitus precator, posca facito. 

40 f Pustertiu pane puplu 
atefafust, iveka perakre tusetu^ | 

41 super kumne affertur, prinuva- 

42 tu tuf tusetutu, I hutra furu 
sehmeniar hatutu. Eaf iveka | 

43 ire Akdrunie fetu Tuse 

44 luvie. Arviu ustetu, | puni 
fetUy pdraia fetu, tagez 
pesnimu afepe arves. I 

46 Kvestretieusaie svesu Vuvgis 
Titis Teteies. 

Postquam tertium populum 
lustra verit, iuvencam opimam f u- 
gato super comitio flamen, lega- 
ti duas fuganto, infra forum 
seminarium capiunto. Easiuven- 
cas tris Acedoniae facito Torrae 
loviae. Frumenta ostendito, pos- 
ca facito, humi stratas facito, taci- 
tus precator adipibus frumentis. 

Quaestura sua Lucius 

Tetteius Titif, 

1 Aes tttseitt. 


Iguvinian Tables 

rvii b 1-4 
*- lal- 


1 Pisi panupeifratrex fra- 
truBAtiersUrfust^ erec sueso 
fratrecate portaia seuacne 

2 fratrom \ Atiersio desendufj 
pifi reper fratreca parsest 
erom ehiato^ ponne iuengar 

3 turaiandu hertei^ \ appei ar- 
fertur Atiersir poplom an- 
dersafust. Sue neip portust 
iasoc pusei subra screhto est^ \ 

4fratreci motar sins a, CCC. 

Quisquis q^uandoque magister 
fratribus Atiediis erit, is suo 
magisterio portet hostias 
fratrum Atiedium duodecim, 
quas pro re collegii par est 
esse emissas, cum iuvencae 
fugentur oportet, ubi flamen 
Atiediis populum lustrave- 
rit. Si non portaverit 

ita, uti supra- scriptum est, 
magistro multae sint asses CCC. 

1 Este perskLum aves anzer- 

2 iates enetu | pemaies pusnaes. 

3 Preveres Treplanes | luve 
Krapuvi tre buf fetu. 

4 Arvia ustentu, | vatuva fe- 
rine feitu, heris vinu heri puni, | 

5 ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Iku- 

6 Vina feitu. Sevum | kutef 
pesnimu afepes arves. | 

7 Pusveres Treplanes tref 

8 sif kumiaf feitu | Trebe luvie 
ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvi- 

9 na. I Supa sumtu, arvia usten- 

10 tu, puni fetu, | kutef 
pesnimu afepes ^ arves. ^ | 

11 Preveres Tesenakes tre 

12 buf fetu, Marte Krapuvi I fetu 
ukripe Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina. 

13 Arviu ustentu, | vatuva ferine 


Istud sacrificium avibus obser- 
vatis inito anticis posticis. 

Ante portam Trebulanam lovi 
Grabovio tris boves facito. 

Frumenta ostendito, exta in 
ferculo facito, vel vino vel posca, 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Igu- 
vina facito. Totum murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

Post portam Trebulanam tris 
sues gravidas facito Trebo lovio 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvi- 
na. Suppa sumito, frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito, murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

Ante portam Tesenacam tris 
boves facito, Marti Grabovio faci- 
to pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Igu- 
vina. Frumenta ostendito, exta in 

1 Aes afe»arv*e8. 


la 30] 

fetu, puni fetu, 

pesnimu afpes arves. 
14 Pusveres Tesenakes tref 
16 sif feliuf fetu I Fise Sa;i 

ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Iku- 

16 vina. | Puni fetu, supa sumtu, 

17 arviu ustentu. Mefa, | ves- 
ti§a ustetu, Fisuvi^ fetu, 

18 ukriper Fisiu fetu, | kapif 
purtitaf sakref, etraf pur- 

19 titaf , etraf | sakref, tutaper 
Ikuvina. Kutef pesnimu 
afepes anres. | 

20 Preveres Vehiies tref buf 
kalefuf fetu Vufiune | 

21 Krapuvi ukriper Fisiu, 

22 tutaper Ikuyina. | Vatuva ferine 
fetu, heri vinu heri puni, | 

23 arviu ustentu, kutef 
pesnimu afepes arves. | 

24 Pusveres Vehifes tref hapi- 

25 naf fetu Tefre luvie | ukriper 
Fisiu, tutaiper Ikuvina. Puste 

26 asiane fetu, zefef fetu, | pelsana 
fetUy arvia ustentu, puni 

27 fetu, ta^z pesnimlu afiper 
arvis. Api habina purtiius, 

28 sufum pesuntru | fetu, esmik 
vestijam preve fiktu, 

29 Tefri luvi fetu ukrilper Fisiu, 
tutaper Ikuvina, testruku 
pdri kapife pefum feitlu. 

30 Api efek^ purtiius, enuk 
sufum pesuntrum feitu staf|lii 

Iffuvinian Tables 


ferculo f acito,poscaf acito,murmu- 
rans precator adipibus fru mentis. 

Post portam Tesenacam tris 
sues lactentis facito Fisio Sancio 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvi- 
na. Posca facito, suppa sumito, 
frumenta ostendito. Libuin,liba- 
mentum ostendito,Fisovio facito, 
pro arce Fisia facito, capides 
porrectas sacras, alteras porrec- 
tas, alt§ras sacras, pro civitate 
Iguvina. Murmurans precator 
adipibus frumentis. 

Ante portam Veiam trislboves 
f rontem albam habentis f acito Vo- 
viono Grabovio pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Exta in fer- 
culo facito, vel vino vel posca, 
frumenta ostendito, murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

Post portam Veiam tris ag- 
nas facito Tefro lovio pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Post 
— facitOjSedens facito, «ep6Keric?a« 
facito, frumenta ostendito, posca 
facito, tacitus precator adipibus 
frumentis. Ubi agnas porrexeris, 
jigmentum suillum facito, ei 
libamentum singillatim figito, 
Tefro lovio facito pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina, ad dextrum 
pedem capidi fossam facito. 

Ubi id porrexeris, tunc 
jigmentum facito ovillum, 

1 Acs fiiuvi. 

2 Aes efel. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[I a 31- 

31 uve, e8mik^yesti9aafiktu,ukri- 
32 per Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvinla^ fei- 
tu, nertruku peri kapifepdrum 

33 feitu. Puni feitu. | Api su- 
fuf purtiius,^ enuk hapinaru 

34 eras titu, zdref | kumultu, 
zefef kumates ^ pesnimu. 

ei libamentum infigito, pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina facito, 
ad sinistrumpedemcapidi fossam 
facito. Posca facito. Ubi fig- 
menta porrexeris, turn agnarum 
magmentum dato, sedens commo- 
lito, sedens commolitis precator. 


1 Vukukum luviu, pune uvef 

2 furfa6,tref vitluf turuf tMarte 
Hufie fetu pupluper tutas 
liuvinas, tutaper Ikuvina. | 

3 Vatuva ferine fetu, puni 
fetu, arvia ustentu, kutep 

4 pesnimu | afepes arves. 

Vukukum Kureties tref vitlup 

5 turup Hunte 9^|fi feitu pu- 
pluper tutas liuvinas, tutaper 

6 Huvina. Vatuva | ferine 
fetu, arvia ustentu, tenzitim 

7 arveitu, heris vinu heris | puni 
feitu, kutef persnimu afi- 
pes arvis. 

8 Inuk ukar pihaz fust. | Svepu 
esumek esunu antervakaze, 
vacetumi se;^ avif azeriatu, | 

9 verufe Treplanu kuvertu, 
restef esunu feitu. | 

10 Pune puplum aferum heries, 
avef anzeriatu^ etu pemaia|f 

11 pustnaiaf. Pune kuvurtus, 
krenkatrum hatu. Enumek 

Ad aedem loviam, cum ovis 
purgant,tris vitulos tauros Marti 
Hodio facito pro populo civitatis 
Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Exta in ferculo facito, posca 
facito,frumenta ostendito,murmu 
rans precator adipibus f rumen tis. 

Ad aedem Coredii tris vitulos 
tauros Honto Cerrio facito pro 
populo civitatis Iguvinae, pro 
civitate Iguvina. Exta in ferculo 

facito, frumenta ostendito, 

addito, vel vino vel posca 
facito, murmurans precator adi- 
pibus frumentis. 

Tunc arx piata erit. Sive 
\iorum sacrificiorwrn intervacati(? 
%it^ in vitiatum sit; avis observa- 
to, ad portam Trebulanamreverti- 
to, instaurans sacrificium facito. 

Cum populum lustrare voles, 
avis observatum ito anticas 
posticas. Cum reverteris, 

cinctum capito. Tunc 

1 Aes stafli iuvesmik. 
3 Aes ikuvinpla. 

8 Aes purtitius. 
^ Aes kumats. 

s Aes vakazevagetomiseayif . 
Aes anzyriatu. 


Iguvinian Tables 


12 pir ahtimem ententu. 
Pune pir entelus ahtimem, | 

13 enumek steplatu parfam 

14 tesvam tefe, tute Ikuvine. | Va- 
pefem aviekluf e kumpifiatu. Vea 

15 ayieklaesunumeetu. iPrinuvatu 
etutu, perkaf habetutu punicate. 

16 Pune menes | Akminiamem, 
enumek etuf stamu tuta 

17 Tafinate, trifu | Tarinate, 
Turskum, Naharkum numem, 

18 lapuzkum numem : | < svepis 
habe, purtatulu pue mefs 
est, feitu uru pdre mers est'. | 

19 Pune prinuvatus staheren term- 
nesku, enumek 'armamu^ | 

20 kateiamu Ikuvinu'. Enumek 
apretu tures et pure. Puni 

21 amprefu|us,persnimu. Enumek 
* etatu Ikuvinus'. Triiuperam- 

22 prehtu, |triiuperpesnimu,triiu- 
per ' etatu Ikuvinus' . Enumek | 

23 prinuvatus 9imu etutu, erahunt 
vea 9imu etutu prinuvatus. | 

24 Funtlere trif apruf rufru 
ute peiu feitu (^t Marti. | 

26 Vatuvu ferine^ fetu, arviu 

26 ustentu, puni fetu,^ | tacez 
pesnimu afepe arves. | 

27 Rupinie e tre purka rufra 

28 ute peia fetu Prestate | Cer- 
fie ^erfe Marties. Pefaia fei- 

29 tu, arviu ustentu, | kapi 
sakra aitu, vesklu vetu atru 

ignem ad caerimonium imponito. 
Cum ignem imposueris ad caeri- 
monium, tunc stipulator parram 
prosperam tibi, civitati Iguvinae. 
Ad sellas auguralis nuntiato. Via 
augurali in sacrificium ito. Lega- 
ti eunto, virgas habento calatoris. 
Cum venies in Acedoniam, 
tunc exterminato civitatem 
Tadinatem, tribum Tadinatem, 
Tuscum, Narcum nomen, 
lapudicum nomen : 'siquis 
restate (eum) portato illuc quo ius 
est, facito illo quod ius est'. 
Cum legati stabunt ad ter- 
minos, tunc 'ordinamini 
*catervamini, Tguvini'. Tunc 
ambito tauris et igne. Cum 
ambieris, precator. Tunc 

'itatote, Iguvini'. Ter am- 
bito, ter precator, ter 
'itatote, Tguvini'. Tunc 

legati retro eunto, eadem 
via retro eunto legati. 

In Fontulis tris apros rubros 
aut piceos facito Cerro Martio. 
Uxta in ferculo facito, frumenta 
ostendito, posca facito, tacitus 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

In Rubinia tris porcas rubras 
aut piceas facito Praestitae Cerri- 
ae Cerri Martii. Humi stratus fa- 
cito, frumenta ostendito, capides 
sacras agito, vascula dividito atra 

1 Aes armanu. 

2 Aes ferime. 

8 Aes feiu. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[I b 2&-46 

30 alfu, puni fetu, | tagez pesnimu 
afeper aires. | 

31 Tra Sate tref vitlaf feitu 
Tuse 9^rfie ^erfe Marties. | 

32 Pefaia feitu, arviu us- 
tetu, puni letu, tacez pes- 

33 nimu | afeper aires. Pune 
purtingus, kafetu, pufe apruf | 

34 fakurent, puze ems tefa. Ape 

35 ems terust, pustm | kupifia- 
tu Rupiname, ems tefa. 
£ne tra Sahta kupifiaia, | 

36 ems tefa. £nu Rupiname 

37 pustm kuvertu, antakre I ku- 
mate pesnimu. Enu kapi 
sakra aitu, vesklu vetu. | 

38 Enu Satame kuvertu, anta- 
kre kumate pesnimu. . Enu 

39 esunu I purtitu fust. | 

40 Pustertiu pane puplu 
atdrafust, iveka perakre tusetu^ | 

41 super kumne affertur, prinuva- 

42 tu tuf tusetutu, I hutra fum 
sehmeniar hatutu. Eaf iveka | 

43 tre Akefunie fetu Tuse 

44 luvie. Arviu ustetu, | puni 
fetu, pefaia fetu, tacez 
pesnimu afepe arves. I 

45 Kvestretieusaie svesu Vuv9is 
litis Teteies. 

alba,posca facito,tacitus precator 
adipibus frumentis. 

Trans Sane tarn tris vitulas f aci- 
to Torrae Cerriae Cerri Martii. 
Humi atratas f acito, frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito, tacitus pre- 
cator adipibus frumentis. Cum 
porrexeris, vocato, ubi apros 
f ecerint, ut magmentum det. Ubi 
magmentum dederit, retro nuntia- 
to in Rubiniam, magmentum det. 
Tum trans Sanctam nunties, 
magmentum det. Tum in Rubi- 
niam retro revertito, integris com- 
molitis precator. Tum capides 
sacras agito, vascula dividito. 
Tum in Sanctam revertito, inte- 
gris commolitis precator. Tum 
sacrificium porrectum erit. 

Postquam tertium populum 
lustraverit, iuvencam opimam f u- 
gato super comitio flamen, lega- 
ti duas fuganto, infra forum 
seminarium capiunto. Easiuven- 
cas tris Acedoniae facito Torrae 
loviae. Frumenta ostendito, pos- 
ca facito, humi stratas facito, taci- 
tus precator adipibus frumentis. 

Quaestura sua LuciuB 

Tetteius Titif. 

1 Aes tuseiu. 


n a 1-17] 




Iguvinian Tables 


/ • 



1 Pune kame speturie Atiiefie 

2 aviekate naraklum | vurtus, 
estu esunu fetu fratrusper 

3 Atiiefie. £u esunu | esu 
naratu : 'pefe kame spetu- 

4 rie Atiiefie aviekate | aiu 
f^ .J urtu fefure, fetu puze neip 

^1 ^ 6 eretu'. Vestije Sage | sa- 
kre, luvepatre bum perakne, 
Speture perakne restatu. | 

6 luvie unu erietu sakre 
pelsanu fetu. Arviu usten- 

7 tu, I puni fetu, tacez pes- 
nimu afepe arves. Pune 

8 purtiius, | unu sufu pesu- 
tru fetu tikamne luvie, 

9 kapife | pdru preve fetu. 
Ape purtiius sufu,^ ems 

10 tetu. £nu kumalltu, ku- 
mate pesnimu. Ahtu luvip. 

11 uve peraknem | pefaem 
fetu, arviu ustentu, puni 
fetu. Ahtu Marti abrunu | 

12 perakne fetu, arviu uste- 
tu, fasiu prusecete afveitu, | 

13 pefae fetu, puni 
fetu, tra ekvine fetu. | 

14 Acetus perakne fetu. | 

15 Huntia katle ticel stakaz 

16 est sume ustite | anter- 
menzaru gersiaru. Heriiei 

17 fagiu affertur, avis | anzeriates 
menzne kurclasiu fagia tigit. 

Cum carni*spectoriae Atiediae 
auspicatae nuntiatio mutaverit, 
ista sacrificia facito pro fratri- 
bus Atiediis. Ea sacrificia sic 
nuntiato: 'si cami *spectoriae 
Atiediae auspicatae agitationes 
ortae fuerint^ facito quasi non 
consulto'. Vesticio Sancio hosti- 
am, lovi patri bovem soUemnem, 
Spectori hostiam instaurato. 
lovio unum arietem sacrificum 
sepeliendum facito. Frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito, tacitus pre- 
cator adipibus frumentis. Cum 
porrexeris, unum suillum figmeri' 
turn facito dedicatione lovio, 
capidi fossam singillatim facito. 
Ubi porrexeris suillum^ magmen- 
turn dato. Tum commolito, com- 
molitis precator. Actui lovi patri 
ovem soUemnem humi stratum 
facito, frumenta ostendito, posca 
facito. Actui Marti aprum 
sollemnemfacito,frumenta osten- 
dito, farrea prosectis addito, (sac- 
rificium) humi stratum facito, pos- 
ca facito, trans equinum facito. 
Andtihus hostiam facito. 

Hontia catuli dedicatio statuta 
est summa tempestate intermen- 
struarum *cenariarum. Voluerit 
facere flanien, avibus observatis 
mense ultimo faciat decet. 

1 Aes purtiiusufu. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[n a ir- 

is Httntia fertu | katlu, ar- 
via, struh^la, fikla, pune, 

19 vinu, saltt^ maletu, | mantrah- 
klu, veskla snata asnata, 

20 umen fertu. Pir ase | an- 
tentu. Esttnu puni feitu. 

Httnte luvie ampentu ka- 

21 tltt, I sakre sevakne, Petrunia- 
per natine fratru Atiiefiu. 

22 Esunu I pdrae futu. 
Katies supa hahtu, sufafiaf 

23 supaf hahtu. | Berus aplenies 
prusecia kartu, krematra 

24 aplenia sutentju. Peru seri- 
tu.^ Arvia puni purtuvitu vesti- 

25^katu ahtrepufaitu, pustin ancif 
vinu. Nuvis ahtrepufatu, 'tiu 

26 puni tiu vinu' | teitu, berva 
frehtef fertu. Pure nuvime 

27 ferest, krematruf | sumel fertu. 
Vesticia perume persnihmu. 

28 Katies tuva tefra, | terti 
ems prusekatu. Isunt 
krematru prusektu. Struhcla | 

29 fikla afveitu. Katlu purtuvitu, 
amparia persnihmu, ase^eta | 

30 kame persnihmu, venpersun- 
tra^ persnihmu. Supaspantea| 

31 pertentu. Veskles vufetes 
persnihmu vestikatu ahtrepu- 

32 fatu I afpeltu statitatu. Supa 
pustra perstu. lepru ems 
mani kuveitu. 

Hontia ferto catulum, fru- 
menta, struem, offam, poscam, 
vinum, salem molitmn, mante- 
le, vascula umecta non umecta, 
unguen ferto. Ignem arae im- 
ponito. Sacrificium posca facito. 

Honto lovio impendito catu- 
lum, hostiam soUemnem, pro Pe- 
tronia natione fratrum Atiedium. 
Sacrificium humi stratum esto. 
Catuli suppa ceipito, partis exser- 
fa«suppascapito. Veribus imple- 
tis prosicias distribuito,*crematra 
impleta supponito. Pedem serva- 
to. Frumenta posca porricito, li- 
bato, tripodato, in vices 
vino. Noviens tripodato, 'te 
posca te vino' dicito, verua, 
fricta ferto. Cum nonum 
feret, *crematra simul ferto. 
Libamento in fossam precator. 
Catuli duo carnes cremandas, ter- 
tium magmentum prosecato. Item 
*crematra prosecato. Struem, 
offam addito. Catulum porricito, 

precator, non secta 

carne precator, (came) fie- 
ticia precator. Suppa lateralia 
protendito. Vasculis votis 
precator, libato, tripoda- 
to, admoveto, statuito. Suppa 

retro ^om^o. magmevr 

turn manu congerito. 

1 s expressed by the san (26, a) . 

2 Aes eenpersuntra. 


Iguvinian Tables 


33 Spinamaf etu. Tuvere 
kapifus pune fertu. Berva, 

34 klavlaf a|aiifehtaf , vesklu sna- 
tu asnatu, umen fertu. 

35 Kapife Hunte | luvie vesti- 
katu Petruniaper^ natine fratru 

36 Atiieriu. Berus | sevaknis 
persnihmu pert spinia. Isunt 

37 klavles persnihmu. | Veskles 
snate asnates sevaknis 
spiniama persnihmu vestikatu | 

38 ahtrepufatu. Spina umtu, 
umne sevakni persnihmu. 

39 Manf easa | vutu. 

Asama kuvertu. Asaku 
yinu sevakni tacez persnihmu. | 

40 Esuf pusme herter, ems 
kuveitu tdrtu. Yinu, pune 

41 teftu. I Struhglas, fiklas, sufa- 
fias kumaltu. Kapife punes 

42 vepuratu. | Antakres kuma- 
tes persnihmu.^ Amparihmu, 
statita subahtu. Esunu | 

43 purtitu futu. Katel asaku 
pelsans futu. | 

44 Kvestretie usage svesu Vuv- 
cis Ti Teteies. 


Ad columnam ito. Duabus in 
capidibus poscam ferto. Verua, 
clunis non coctas, vascula umec- 
ta non umecta, unguen ferto. 

Capide Honto lovio libato 
pro Petronia natione fratrum 
Atiedium. Veribus soUemnibus 
precator trans columnam. Item 
clunibus precator. Vasculis 
umectis non umectis soUemni- 
bus ad columnam precator, libato, 
tripodato. Columnam iinguito, 
unguine soUemni precator. 
Manus ex ara lavito. 

Adaramrevertito. Apudaram 
vino sollemni tacitus precator. 
Ipse quern oportet, magmentum 
congerito, dato. Vinum, poscam 
dato. Struis, offae, partis exser- 
tae commolito. Capide poscae 
(igne7n)re8tinguito. Integris com- 
molitis precator. Surgito, 

statuta deponito. Sacrificium 
porrectum esto. Catulus apud 
aram sepeliendus esto. 

Quaestura sua Lucius 

Tetteius Ti, /. 


\ : 


1 Semenies tekuries sim ka- 

2 pram upetu. Tekvias | famdri- 
as pumperias XII. * Atiidriate, 

3 etre Atiieriate, | Klaveraiie, 
etre Klaverniie, Kureiate, etre 

Sementivis decuriis suem, ca- 
prum deligito. Decuriales fami- 
liae *quincuriae XII. ' A tiediati, 
alteri Atiediati, Claverniis, 
alteris Claverniis, Curiati, alteri 

1 Aes petroniapert. 

3 Aes persmlmia. 

- ^ « 


' \ 

i. ■ A 


Jffuvinian Tables ^ /lc t \ , tf^ew^jx [Hb 3-(;/^ 

■■•■■\(p 3 

r{. d ; • '.- 

v^J »\^ 

4 Kureiate, | Satane8,etxeSatane, 
Peidriate, etre Peieriate, Tale- 

5 nate, | etre Talenate, Museiate, 

6 etre Museiate, luieskane, | etre 
luieskanes, Kaselate, etre Kase- 

7 late, tertie Kaselate, | Peraz- 
nanie' teitu. 

Afmune luve patre fetu. 

8 Si peralkne, sevakne upetu 
eveietu. Seyakne naratu. 

9 Arviu I ustetu, eu naratu 
puze fa9efele^ sevakne. Heri 

10 puni I heri vinu fetu. Va- 
putu Sa9i ampetu. Kapru 

11 4)erakne, sevajkne upetu, eve- 
ietu, naratu. ^ive ampetu, 

12 fesnere purtuletu. Ife fertu, 
tafle e pir fertu, kapres pru- 

13 se^etu I ifeafveitu. Persutru 
vaputis, mefa, vistifa feta 

14 fertu. I Sviseve fertu pune, 
etre sviseve vinu fertu, tertie | 

16 sviseve utur fertu. Pistu 
niru fertu, vepesutra fertu, | 

16 mantraklu fertu, pune fertu. 

17 Pune fesnafe benus, | kabru 
purtuvetu. Vaputu Sagi luve- 

18 patre prepesnimu. | Vepesu- 
tra pesnimu, veskles pesnimu, 

19 atrepufatu, | afpeltu,statitatu. 
Vesklu pustru pestu, ranu | 

20 pesnimu, puni pesnimu, vinu 

21 pesnimu, une pesnijmu. £nu 
ems tetu. 

Curiati, Satanis, alteris Sataxiis, 
Peiediati, alteri Peiediati, Tale- 
nati, alteri Talenati, Musiati, 
alteri Musiati, luiescanis, alteris 
luiescanis, Casilati, alteri Casi- 
lati, tertiae Casilati, Peras- 
naniis' dicito. 

Admoni lovi patri facito. 
Suem sollemnem, hostiam deli- 
gito, voveto. Hostiam nuntiato. 
Frumenta ostendito, ea nuntiato 
quasi *sacrificabilem hostiam. Vel 
posca vel vino facito. Ture (su- 
em) Sancio impeiidito. Caprum 
sollemnem, hostiam deligito, vo- 
veto, nuntiato. Citra impendito, 
in fano porricito. Eo ferto, 
in tabula ignem ferto, capri pro- 
seeta eo addito. Figmentum 
turibus^ libo, libamento facto 
ferto. In sino ferto poscam, 
in altero sino vinum ferto, in ter- 
tio sino aquam ferto. Pistum 
— ferto, (carnem) fictidam ferto, 
mantele ferto, poscam ferto. 
Cum in fanum veneris, caprum 
porricito. Ture Sancio lovi 
patri praefator. (Carne) ficticia 
precator, vasculis precator, 
tripodato, admoveto, statuito. 

Vascula retro ponito^ 

precator, posca precator, vino 
precator, aqua precator. Turn 
magmentum dato. 

1 Aes facefete. 

•.. 5.... 



/ Kd'- VV'Jl ; 


/ 1 


>'» / 






Vitlu vufru pane heries 

22 fagu, eruhu tiglu sestu 

23 Ittvepatre. Pune seste, { urfeta 
manuve habetu. £stu iuku 

24 habetu : | 'lupater Sa^e, tefe 
estu vitlu Yufru sestu'. | 

25 Purtifele triiuper teitu, triiu- 

26 per vufru naratu, | fetu ^ lu- 
vepatre Vu9iiaper natine fratru 

27 Atiieriu. | Pune anpenes, kri- 
katru testre e uze habetu. 

28 Ape apellus, mefe atentu. 
Ape purtuvies, testre e uze 

29 habetu | krikatru. Arviu us- 
tetu, puni fetu. 

Vitulum votivum cum voles 
facere, eadem dedicatione sistito 
lovi patri. Cum sistis, orbitam 
in manu habeto. Istas preces 
habeto: 'luppiter Sanci, tibi 
istum vitulum votivum sisto'. 
*Porricibilem ter dicito, ter 
votivum nuntiato, facito lovi 
patri pro Lucia natione fratrum 
Atiedium. Cum impendes, cinc- 
tum in dextro umero habeto. 
Ubi impenderis, libo imponito. 
Ubi porricies, in dextro umero 
habeto cinetum. Frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito. 

m, IV <, Z 

H7 7 n ? 

j> >■ 

III Esunu fuia herter sume 
2 ustite sestentasiaru | uma- 
siaru. Huntak vuke prumu 

4 pehatu. I Inuk uhturu urtes 

5 puntis I frater ustentu- 

6 ta, pure | fratru mersus 

7 fust I kumnakle. Inuk 

8 uhtur vapdre | kumnakle sistu. 

9 Sakre, uvem uhtur | teitu, 
puntes terkantur. Inumek 

10 sakre, | uvem urtas puntes 

11 fratrum upetuta. | Inumek 
via mersuva arvamen etuta. | 

12 £rak pir persklu ufetu. 

13 Sakre, uvem | kletra fertuta 
aituta. Arven kletram | 

14 amparitu. £ruk esunu futu. 

Sacrificium fiat oportet summa 
tempestate sextantariarum*uma- 
riarum. Puteum in aede primum 
piato. Tum auctorem, surgenti- 
bus quinionibus, fratres osten- 
dunto, quomodo fratrum ex 
moribus erit in conventu. Tum 
auctor in sella in conventu con- 
sidito. Hostiam, ovem auctor di- 
cito, quiniones Buffragentur, Tunc 
hostiam, ovem surgentes quini- 
ones fratrum deligunto. Tunc 
via solita in arvum eunto. 
Ea ignem cum precatione ado- 
leto. Hostiam, ovem lectica fe- 
runto, agunto. In arvo lecticam 
conlocato. Illic sacrificium esto. 

1 Aes feiu. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[III 14- 

15 Kletre tuplak | prumum an- 
tentu, inuk 9ih9efa ententu, | 

16 inukkaziferimeantentu. Isunt 

17 fefehtru | antentu, isunt sufe- 

18 faklu antentu. Seples | ahesnes 
tris kazi astintu, fefehtru 

19 etres tris | ahesnes astintu, 

20 sufdraklu tuves ahesnes | an- 
stintu. Inenek vukumen esu- 

21 numenetu. Ap | vuku kukehes, 
iepi persklumaf kafitu. Vuke 

22 pir I ase antentu. Sakie 
sevakne upetu. luvepatre | 

23 prumu ampentu testru sese 

24 asa fratrusper | Atiiefies, 
ahtisper eikvasatis, tutape 

25 liuvina, | trefiper liuvina. 
Ti9lu sevakni teitu. | 

26 Inumek uvem seyakni upetu. 

27 Puemune | Pupfike apentu. 
Ti^lu sevakni naratu. | 

28 luka mersuva uvikum habetu 

29 fratruspe | Atiiefie, ahtisper 

30 eikvasatis, tutaper | liu- 
vina, trefiper liuvina. Sakre | 

31 vatra ferine feitu, eruku 

32 aruvia feitu. Uvem | pe- 
faem pelsanu feitu. Ererek 

33 tuva tefra | spantimaf 
prusekatu, efek pefume purtu- 

34 vitu, I stru^la afveitu. Inumek 
etrama . spanti tuva tefra | 

35 prusekatu, drek ere9luma 
IV Puemune Puiwrike || purtuvitu, 

erarunt struhglas eskamitu 

Lecticae furcam primum im- 
ponito, turn cancellos imponito, 

turn imponito. Item 

imponito, item 

tribus — 

Simpulis ahenis 


alteris tribus ahenis distinguito, 

duobus ahenis distin- 

guito. Tum in aedem in sacri- 
fieium ito. Ubi aedem incendetj 
Hi ad preeationem vocato. In 
aede ignem arae imponito. Hos- 
tiam sollemnem deligito. lovi pa- 
tri primum impendito dextrorsus 
ab ara pro f ratribus Atiediis, pro 
caerimoniis collegialihuB^ pro civi- 
tate Iguvina, pro tribu Iguvina. 
Dedicationem sollemnem dicito. 
Tunc ovem sollemnem deligito. 
Pomono Publico impendito. De- 
dicationem sollemnem narrato. 
Preces solitas apud ovem habeto 
pro fratribus Atiediis, pro caeri- 
moniis collegialibus, pro civitate 
Iguvina, pro tribu Iguvina. Hos- 
tiam in extari ferculo facito, cum 
ea frumenta facito. Ovem humi 
stratum sepeliendum facito. Eius 
duo cames cremandas ad latus 
prosecato, tum in fossam por- 
ricito, struem addito. Tunc 
alterum ad latus duo carnes 
cremandas prosecato, tum ad 
sacrarium Pomono Publico por- 
ricito, eiusdem struis 

IV 22] 

Iguvinian Tables 


2 aveitu. | Inumek tertiama 
spanti triia tefra prusekatu, | 

3 efek sttpru sese ere^luma 

4 Vesune Puemunes | PujHrices 
purtuvitu, struhcla petenata 

5 isek I afyeitu. Ererunt ^ ka- 

6 pifus Puemune, | Vesune pur- 
tuvitu. Asamaf eie9lumaf ^ | 

7 asecetes kamus, iseceles et 

8 yempesuntres, | supes sanes per- 

9 tentu, persnimu, afpeltu, | sta- 
titatu. Veskles snates asnates 

10 sevakne | erecluma persnimu 
Puemune Pupfike, Vesune | 

11 Puemunes Puprikes. Klavles 

12 persnihmu | Puemune Puprike^ 

13 et Vesune Puemunes | Puinrikes 
pustin ere9lu. Inuk ere- 

14 ^u umtu, I putrespe erus. 
Inuk vesticia, mefa 

15 Purtupite | skalgeta kunikaz 

16 apehtre esuf testru sese | asa 
asama purtuvitu, sevakne 

17 sukatu. I Inumek vestega,^ 
persuntru supu ere^le Hule | 

18 sevakne skalceta kunikaz 

19 purtuviOu. Inumek ^ | vesticia 
persuntru Turse super erecle 

20 sevakne | skalceta kunikaz 
purtuvitu. Inumek tehterim | 

21 etu veltu, arek persuntre an- 

22 tentu. Inumek | arclataf vasus 
ufestne sevaknef purtuvitu. 

addito. Tunc tertium ad 
latus tris carnes cremandas pro- 
secato, turn sursus ad sacrarium 
Vesonae Pomoni Publici 
porricito, struem pectinatam 
item addito. Isdem capidibus 
Pomono, Vesonae porricito. 
Ad aram ad sacrarium 
non sectis carnibus, insectis et 
ficticiis^ suppis sanis protendito, 
supplicato, admoveto, statuito. 
Vasculis umectis non umec- 
tis sollemnibus ad sacrarium pre- 
cator Pomono Publico, Vesonae 
Pomoni Publici. Clunibus 
precator Pomono Publico et 
Vesonae Pomoni Publici in sin- « 
gulis sacrariis. Tunc sacrarium 
unguito, utriusque magmentum 
(dato). Tunc libamentum, libum 
Porricienti ex patera genu nixus 
extrinsecus ipse dextrorsus ab 
ara ad aram porricito, soUemne 
declarato. Tunc libamentum, 
figmentum sub sacrario Hulae 
sollemne ex patera genu nixus 
porricito. Tunc libamentum, 
figmentum Torrae super sacrario 
sollemne ex patera genu nixus 
porricito. Tunc tegumentum 
ito deligito, tum figmentum im- 
ponito. Tunc arculatas vasis 
operculatis soUemnis porricito. 

1 Aes erererunt. ^ Aes ere9lamaf. ^ Aes puphkes. ^ Aes vesveca. ^ Aes inuntek. 


Iffuvinian Tables 

[IV 23-33 

23 Inumk pruzufe kebu sevakne 

24 persnihmu | Puemune Pupfioe. 
26 Inumek kletra, veskles | vufetes 

26 sevaknis, persnihmu^ | Vesune 
Puemunes Pupfces. Inumek 

27 svepis heri, | ezariaf antentu. 

28 Inumek ems ta^ez | tertu. 
Inumek kumaltu, afkani | 

29 kanetu, kumates persnihmu. 

30 Esuku I esunu ufetu, tapis- 

31 tenu habetu, pune | frehtu 
habetu. Ap itek fakust, 

32 purtitu I futu. Huntak pifi 

33 prupehast, erek | ures punes 

Tunc praestante cibo sollemni 
precator Pomono Publico. 
Tunc lectica, vasculis votis 
soUemnibus, precator Veso- 
nae Pomoni PublicL Tunc 
siquis vult, eacaa imponito. 
Tunc magmentum tacitus dato. 
Tunc commolito, cantum 
canito, commolitis precator. 
Cum hoc sacrificium adoleto, cal- 
dariolam habeto, poscam calidam 
habeto. Ubi ita fecerit, 
porrectum esto. Puteum cum 
ante piabit, tum illis poscis 
ne adhibeant. 

1 Aes persihmu. 

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 301 

Brief Commentary^ on the Iguvinian Tables 

V a 1-13. First Decree. The flamen is to provide what- 
ever is essential for the ceremony, and select the victims. 

Va2. urnasier. Probably ' Festival of the Urns'. The plenasier urnasier 
are distinguished from the sestentasiaru umasiaru (III 2). But it is not certain 
whether the adjectives refer to the capacity of the vessels used, or to the time 
of year at which the festivals were held. In the latter case plenasier would refer 
to those occurring at the end of the year, and sestentasiaru to those occurring 
at the end of one sixth of the year, that is two months from the beginning. 

V a 2-3. uhtretie etc. The uhtur, as appears from III 4-8, was not a 
regular official like the kvestur or fratreks, but one selected for a special occasion, 
perhaps a sort of chairman. 

V a 4. eikvasese, perhaps related to L. aequus (29, a), but of obscure 
suffix-formation, probably means * members of the brotherhood', equivalent to 
fratros, or else, taken as Gen. Sg., denotes the brotherhood itself. In the Acta 
Arvalium we find both magister fratrum Arvalium and magister cordegi fratrum 

Arvalium. Cf. also eikvasatis III 24, 29. 

Va 7ff. "Let him select the sacrificial victims, and when they are 
given over let him inspect them to see if (see 316) they (lit. any of them; 
see 266) are to be accepted, and in case of a triple offering let him inspect them 
in the country to see if they are to be accepted." pure tefte is best taken as an 
impersonal construction, pure being the conjunction *quod, cum' (202, 1). 

Vail, felsva, if connected with L. holus (149, 6), might denote the 
'garlands', or, more probably, the vegetables used in the case of 'fireless offer- 
ings' (263, 2), that is those which were not burnt-offerings. 

Va 13. See 263, 1, 299, 7, footnote p. 236. 

V a 14-b 7. Second Decree. Statement of the fees for the 
performance of certain rites (cf . CIL. VI 820). When the banquet 
of the brotherhood takes place (cf. the banquets of the Arval 
Brothers), the magister (fratreks) or quaestor (cf. magister collegi 
and quaestores collegia CIL. Ill, p. 925) is to take a vote as to 
whether the banquet has been properly arranged, and, in case 
the majority of those present, declare that it has not been 
properly arranged, a further vote must be taken to determine 
the penalty for the flamen. 

1 Hardly more than a summary of contents. For most points the student must 
rely on the translation and the glossary, with the references there given. 

302 Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 

Va 15-16. kanmahkle and ukre may be Loc. Sg., or Dat. Sg. with the 
following verbs ; eikvasese is Dat. PI. with the following verbs, or Gen. Sg. 
(see note to 1. 4) with ukre. 

y a 17. apelust. This verb, as is clear from the succession of events here 
and in II b 27, is used of the initial ceremony in the sacrifice, preceding the lay- 
ing of the victim upon the altar (partita 1. 18). But it is not clear precisely 
what the ceremony referred to is, whether the formal devotion of the victim 
to the god, or its preparation, or even the actual slaughter (cf . ivier caeaa et 
porrecta, Cic. Att. 5, 18, 1), though this last gets no support from the use of 
L. imperido. The object expressed or understood is always an animal.^ 

y a 20. sabra spala, see 308, h. 

y a 23 ff. See 312, 316 ; on prufe si 1. 27, see 307 ; on peparkorent herifi 
b 5, 6, see 315. 

V b 8-18. Statement of contributions to be made regularly 
by certain gentes to the Atiedian brothers, and of portions of 
flesh to be awarded them by the brothers on the occasion of the 
decurial festivals. The two gentes mentioned here are among 
the ten (making up the decuria) enumerated in II b, and this 
passage is doubtless only the conclusion of a decree fixing the 
contributions and allotments of flesh for all ten, the main part 
being on one of the lost tables. 

VI, Vn a, and I 

Purification of the Sacred Mount 
yi a 1— yi b 47 = I a 1— I b 9 

VI a 1-21 (I a 1-2). Introductory Auspices. The sacrifice 
is to be preceded by the taking of auspices (so in I and VI). 
Further details (only in VI) : the formulae passed between the 
augur and flamen ; warning against interruption ; boundaries of 
the ' templum' ; formula of announcement of the auspices ; some 
general prescriptions applicable to all the following sacrifices. 

yia 6-7. It is quite possible that arsir is not 'alius', but Dat.-Abl. PI. 
of arsie 'sancte', meaning 'ceremonies'. In this case the subject of mngaJtu as 
well as of andersistu is indefinite, and the use of pisi in 1. 7 and not in 1. 6 is due 
to the change from the passive impersonal construction. The meaning would 

1 In II b 10 vaputu is commonly regarded as the object of ampetu, but it is 
better to understand si ' suem' and take vaputu as Abl. Sg. used like vaputls n b 13 (893). 

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 303 

then be *' One shall not make a noise or interrupt the ceremonies until the augur 
returns. If there is a noise or any one interrupts the ceremonies, it will make 
the sacrifice void". 

VI a 8-11. In spite of the most exhaustive discussion and comparison of 
passages in Latin authors bearing on the same subject, as Livy 1, 18, 6-9, there 
is the widest divergence of opinion as to the relations of the points mentioned. 
It seems clear however that 1. 10 means not 'from the uppermost comer to the 
augural seats (and further) to the city limits^ but *from the uppermost comer 
at the augural seats to the city limits'. For 1. 11, see 288. 

VI a 12-14. The words designate buildings and localities in the city and, 
naturally, are for the most part obscure. 

VI a 20. See 315. 

VI a 22-57 (I a 2-6). First Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
oxen to Jupiter Grabovius in front of the Trebulan gate. A 
sort of preamble or opening prayer is followed by three long 
prayers in identical words for each of the three offerings, and 
these again by a brief general prayer in conclusion. All tliese 
prayers are given only in VI. Then come prescriptions for 
various rites connected with the sacrifice (also in I). For the 
phraseology of the prayers compare those given by Cato, De 
Agric. 132, 134, 139, 141 ; e.g. luppiter, te hocferto ommovendo 
bonaa preces precor^ uti sies volens propitiua mihi^ domo^ liberisque 
meisy familiaeque meae mactus hocferto. 


Via 22. sohocau svboco. The interpretation 'invoco invocationes^ (279) 
is, in spite of the unusual order, far more probable than *invocavi invoco', which 
involves various grammatical difficulties. 

Via 26. over ose. The interpretation is very doubtful. It has been 
taken as ^his (donis) macte\ going with the preceding, as 'illius anni' going 
with the following, and as *cuiuspiam opere' *by any one's work'. This last 
suggestion gives the easiest solution for ose (cf . osatu * operator') and suits well 
the context (if, by any one's doings, through any one's fault, etc.). But one 
hesitates to separate orer from the pronominal forms wru, ures, etc. , for which 
the meaning 'any' cannot be maintained. The translation given in the text 
adopts the comparison of ose with opere^ but retains for orer the meaning *■ illius' 
or in this case better *huius'. This could only refer to the piaculum, and the 
phrase would be an anticipation of what is given at the close of the sentence, 
esu hue etc. But no great confidence in this view is entertained. 

pir orto esL The Arval Brothers institute a piaculum if the trees of the 
sacred grove are struck by lightning. 

VI a 27. pusei neip Jieritu, See 294, a. 

304 Brief Commentary on the Iffuvinian Tables 

VI a 30. For castruo the usual translation *■ f undos' is in this passage 
more attractive than 'capita', but see footnote, p. 2361 

VI a 32. See 322. 

VI a 64. See 17, 17. 

Via 66. The m^a spefa (see 110, 3 with a), for which mefa alone is 
used in the older tables, may mean simply 4ibation cake,' but more probably 
*cake besprinkled (with salt ?)\ Cf. L. mola salsa. 

VI a 67. The meaning of the frequently recurring uatuo ferine fetu is 
very uncertain, the translation given representing only one of several possi- 
bilities {for ferine see 178, 6, note). Where the phrase is used, the victims are 
oxen, bull-calves, or boars. 

VI a 58-59 (I a 7-10). Second Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
pregnant sows to Trebus lovius behind the Trebulan gate. The 
prayers used in the first sacrifice are to be repeated. 

The sacrifice is to be made persae, a word which probably means * stretched 
on the ground ' (cf . persom ' solum, fossam'), referring to the manner in which the 
victims were slain. It is used of sows, sucking pigs, heifers, and heifer-calves, 
alsQ of a sheep, a boar, and a dog. An accompanying operation in such cases 
was the removal of the sopo 'under parts' (Grk. wrna), the mention of which 
is nearly always preceded by the statement that the sacrifice is to be person (pefae 
etc.). Cf. especially II a 22-32. But one act implies the other, and VI a 68-69 
has only persaefetu, while the parallel I a 7-10 has only sa|>a sumtu. 

VI b 1-2 (I a 11-13). Third Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
oxen to Mars Grabovius in front of the Tesenacan gate. The 
prayers used in the first sacrifice are to be repeated. 

VI b 3-18 (I a 14-19). Fourth Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
sucking pigs to Fisus Sancius behind the Tesenacan gate. 
Prayers of the first sacrifice to be repeated. Then comes an 
offering of cakes etc. to Fisovius Sancius, accompanied by a 
prayer differing in some phrases from those used before. This 
is followed by some further special ceremonies. 

VI b 4. mandraclo etc. At Rome the flamen sacrificed to Fides with 

the right hand wrapped in white cloth (Livy 1, 21, 4 ; Serv. ad Aen. 1, 292). 

Some Umbrian coins of Tuder bear the device of a right hand wrapped with a band 

about the wrist and base of fingers, crossing on the back (see Lepsius, Insc. Um- 

. bricae et Oscae, table xxix). The difue doubtless refers to the manner of binding. 

VI b 5. For sopoy see above, on VI a 68 ; for the use of postrOy see 306. 

VI b 11. See 325. 

VI b 16. erus. This denotes a supplementary offering by which the cere- 
mony was completed. Sometimes it is used alone, sometimes with a Genitive 

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 305 

designating the kind of offering to which it forms the complement, as here. 
Cf . especially VI b 38 ff . and VII a 43 ff. with notes. The word is probably 
from *aisus^ related to O. aisusis 'sacrificiis', U. esono-, etc. See 112, a. The 
lack of rhotacism in the final may be attributed to the dissimilating influence of 
the preceding r. 

VI b 17. uestisia sopa purome. See 806. The meaning of efurfatu (and 
fwrfard VI b 43) is uncertain, but some such sense as * purify' or 'consecrate ' 
is probable. There is no plausible etymology. 

VI b 19-21 (I a 20-23). Fifth Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
oxen with white foreheads to Vovionus Grabovius in front of 
the Veian gate. Prayers of the first sacrifice to be repeated. 

VI b 22-42 (la 24-34). Sixth Sacrifice. Sacrifice of 
three lambs (?) to Tefer lovius behind the Veian gate. Prayers 
of the first sacrifice to be repeated. Then follow supplementary 
offerings, consisting probably of cakes made in the form of 
animals, with the usual prayers and various accompanying 
rites with the cups, the trench, etc. 

VI b 22. pdsana. The most probable explanation is that this word refers 
to the burial of the remains of the victims. It is used also of a ram (II a 6), 
a dog (II a 43), and a sheep (III 32). And in YI b 40 the offerings called 
pesondro are to be put in the trench and buried. For the form see 262, 1, a. 

VI b 24 ft. pesondro sorsom. The first word, the etymology of which is 
wholly obscure, is most plausibly explained as referring to a symbolic offering, 
a sort of 'animal cracker' offered as a substitute for the animal itself. Cf. 
^Et sciendum., in sacris simulata pro veris accipi. Unde cum de animalibus, 
quae difficile inveniuntur, est sacrificandum^ de pane vel cera fiuni et pro veris 
accipiuntur, Serv. ad Aen. 2, 116 ; Tauri verbenaeque in commentario sacrorum 
significat ficta farinacea, Festus ed. Thevnrewk, p. 648. 

sorsom (suhim) is probably the same word as sorser 'suilli', Vb 12, 17, while 
the contrasting staflare (VI b 37) refers to some animal kept in a stall, probably 
a sheep (cf . staflii uve I a 30 1). But the ' gingerbread pig' was the favorite form 
of the symbolic offering, so much so that in I a 30 suhiin pesuntrum is used as a 
generic term equivalent to the simple pesondro of VI b 40, the kind of animal to be 
represented, in this case not a pig, being shovni by the following adjectives. 
Similarly Ace. PI. sufuf la 33 is used substantively, equivalent to pesondro 
VI b 37, of the two kinds of cakes which had been mentioned, only one of 
which was in the form of a pig. The term sorsom is also found in its specific 
sense, as in VI b 37, 38 ; but in VIb 38, 39, we find also the extended form 
sorsalir^ sorsalem, contrasted with s^aflarem. 

1 Aes stafli iuvesmik. To correct this to staflare esmik is entirely unnecessary, 
for staflii can be Ace. Sg. of a stem *8tafliio-^ like tertim, terti, from Hertio- (91,1, 172) . 

306 Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 

The order of events in this, the most complicated series of 
ceremonies, is as follows. 

Sacrifice of the lambs with the usual prayers. 

Offering of the j^esondro aoraom at the right foot, with accompanying libation. 

Making trench for the cup. 

Offering of the libation and the ems. 

Prayer to Tefer lovius. 

Offering of the pesondro stqflare at the left foot. 

Making trench for the cup. 

Prayer repeated. 

Offering of the eras of the prosecta (of the lambs). 

Offering of the erus of the libation accompanying the pesondro sorso, in the 
trench at the right foot, where the pesondro sorso was offered. 

Offering of the libation accompanying the pesondro staflare at the left 
foot, and offering of its erus. 

Placing the pesondro sorsalem in the trench. 

Placing the pesondro stqflare in the trench. 

Throwing on the vessels used in connection with the pesondro. 

Breaking of cakes with prayers. 

VI b 43-44 \I h 1-4). Seventh Sacrifice. Sacrifice of 
three bull-calves to Mars Hodius at the Jovian temple (?). 
Prayers of the first sacrifice repeated. 

VI b 45-46 (I b 4-7). Eighth Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
bull-calves to Hontus Cerrius at the temple (?) of Coredius. 
Prayers of the first sacrifice repeated. 

VI b 47 (lb 7-9). Conclusion. Then shall the Mount 
be purified. In case of any omission the ceremony is vitiated 
and one must return to the Trebulan gate and begin anew. 

The sentence suepo esome etc. is perfectly clear in its general meaning, 
but the exact construction is difficult. The most natural translation would be 
'If this ceremony through any omission is vitiated, take auspices, etc.', taking 
anderuacose as a compound in the ablative. But there is no reasonable explana- 
tion of iLacose as an ablative. This is rather to be taken (with Binigmann, Ber. 
sachs. Gesells. 1890, 217 ff.) as uacos-se 'vacatio sit', uacos being Nom. Sg. from 
*udkati-s. uasetom-e will then be an adverbial phrase 'in vitiatum', like L. 
incassum. The corresponding phrase in I b va^etumise is probably to be sepa- 
rated va^tum-i se, the only difference being that the Present Subjunctive instead 
of the Future Indicative is used. But some take ise as a form of the verb ' to go'. 
esome esono (esomek esunu) is probably Gen. PI. , ander going with uacos, mak- 
ing a compound ' intervacatio'. But it has also been taken as Ace. Sg. governed 
by the following ander. 

Brief Oommentary on the Iguvinian Tables 307 

Lustration of the People 
VI b 48— VII a 54 = lb 10-46 

Compare the description of the Roman Lustration, Dionys. Hal. Antiq. 
Rom. 4, 22, which we quote here from the Latin translation of the Didot edition 
as follows : Tunc igitur TulliuSj censu perfectOj postquam iussit omnes cives cum 
armis adesse in campoy eorum qui sunt ante urhem maximo, et equites in turmas 
8cripsit etpedites in acie collocavit^ et milites levis armaturae in suia quosque cen- 
turii8y lustrationem instituit taurOj ariete, et hirco. Has hostias postquam ter 
circa exercitum circumagi iussit Marti, cui campus is sacer est, immolavit, 

. VI b 48 — VII a 2 (I b 1 0-23). Introductory Ceremonies. 
Expulsion of the Aliens. Circuit of the People. The auspices 
are taken in the same ways as for the Purification of the Sacred 
Mount. After assuming the proper paraphernalia, the flamen 
and two assistants march with the victims by the Augural Way 
to the suburb Acedonia. Proclamation is made expelling the 
aliens. The Iguvinians are ordered to form in companies. The 
flamen and assistants march about them three times with the 
victims (bulls) and the fire. At the end of each circuit a 
prayer is made invoking misfortune upon the aliens and blessings 
upon the Iguvinians. 

VI b 49-60. '* One shall put on the fire. When it is carried to the cer- 
emony, the one with the official staff shall carry the receptacle for the fire. He 
shall carry it lighted on his right shoulder. ' ' As stated in I b 20 the fire is carried 
about the people. 

VI b 54-55 (I b 18). nosue ier^ etc. There are widely different interpreta- 
tions of this passage. Some take ?iabe as meaning ' has possessions^ and assume 
a concession to the metics or resident foreigners, who are to remove to a certain 
place and perform separate ceremonies. But in lb the proclamation begins 
with svepis habe, and it is more natural to take this as a threat than as a conces- 
sion. The translation given in the text seems best suited to the two versions. 

VI b 56 (lb 19-20). arsmahamo caterdhamo. Compare the disposition 
of the Roman people in the passage quoted above. 

VI b 60. For the verbs, some of which are obscure, see the Glossary. 

VII a 3-5 (I b 24-26). Sacrifice of three bulls to Cerrus 
Martins at Fontuli, accompanied by the prayers used at the 
Trebulan gate. 

VII a 5. The eroB is not to be added until announcement is made of the 
third sacrifice. Cf. 1. 43. 

308 Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 

Vila 6-40 (lb 27-30). Sacrifice of three sows to Praes- 
tita Cerria at Rubinia, with the prayers used at the Trebulan 
gate. Ceremonies with the black vessels and the white vessels. 
With the former the prayer is to bring misfortune to the aliens^ 
with the latter to avert misfortune from the Iguvinians. Offer- 
ing to Fisovius Sancius accompanied by the prayer used behind 
the Tesenacan gate. 

VII a 11, 27. (dero clearly means ruin, though of uncertain etymology. 
Perhaps from *ap4erom (by 121), a * rubbing away' (L. tero)^ and so 'destruc- 
tion'. Cf. L. meQ *rub off, destroy*. i 

VII a 41-45 (I b 31-39). Sacrifice of three calves toTorra 
Cerria across the Sacred Way, with* the prayers used at the 
Trebulan gate. When this is completed the order is given to 
add the ems at the place where the boars were sacrificed, then 
at Rubinia, then across the Sacred Way. Then they return to 
Rubinia and pray with the broken cakes, after which they come 
back to the Sacred Way and do the same. 

VII a 46-51. Prayer to Torra lovia in the same words 
as that made at the end of each circuit. To be repeated three 

VII a 46. tefm-to, * From (the place of) the bumt-offering', that is, the 
place where the sacrifice mentioned in 1. 41 took place. 

VII a 51-54 (I b 40-44). Pursuit and sacrifice of the 

In the older version three heifers are let loose, one by the flamen, two by 
the assistants, and then caught and sacrificed. In VII more than three (apparently 
twelve ; cf. VII b) are let loose and the first three caught are sacrificed. 


VII b 

Provision that the magister shall provide the victims. 

VII b 1-2. seuacne . . . desenduf . . . ehiato. The general word for vic- 
tims is used in the masculine (cf. ehiato) in spite of the fact that the heifers 
(iuengar) are meant. * He shall furnish the twelve victims which are to be let 
out on the occasion of the pursuit of the heifers. ' 

1 Cf. I.F. 11, 14. 

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 309 


II a 1-14, Sacrifices to be made in case of unfavorable 

II a 1-2. naraklum yortus. Cf . extorum mvtatiOy Cic. de div. 2, 35. 
II a 3 f. Parallel with VI a 26 etc. See 128, a. 

II a 15-43. Dog-sacrifice to Hontus lovius. Hontus was 
doubtless a divinity of the lower world and the rite one of 

krematra, krematruf , II a 23, 26, probably denote some sort of vessels used 
in roasting the meat (cf . L. cremo). But in II a 28 krematru as object of 
prusektu must be used of the meat itself. 

II b. Sacrifices at the decurial festivals of the federated 
families. Ten genteB are named, some subdivided, making 
twenty families. 

II b 14-16. sviseve evidently denotes some sort of vessel for holding 
liquids, so that connection v^th L. mium is attractive. The latter might be 
from *5(w)it-s-no- (cf. also aitvXa)^ and the first part of U. sviseve might be from 
*9t^U-8-^ but the suffix is wholly obscure. 


The more private annual ceremonies of the brotherhood, 
like the festival of Dea Dia among the Arval brothers. Owing 
to the great number of technical terms not occurring elsewhere, 
the meaning of a considerable portion of these tables is obscure. 

Relative Chronology of the Tables 

The universally adopted numbering of the Tables is that of 
Lepsius, though opinions vary as to the correctness of this 
order for I-IV. The probability, however, is that these tables 
were actually inscribed in this order. For in the form of the 
letters III and IV occupy a position midway between I and II 
on the one side and V a-b 7 on the other. But, as some or all 
may be copies of older inscriptions, this does not necessarily 
mean the same order of composition. Judging by orthographi- 
cal peculiarities there is some evidence that III and IV are 

310 Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian TableB 

copies of inscriptions earUer than I and II, and that II a 15-end 
(dogHsacrifice) is earlier in composition than II a 1-14. Within 
I and II various divisions are to be noted, corresponding to 
subject-matter, namely I a-b 9 (Purification of Sacred Mount), 
I b 9-end (Lustration of People), II a 1-14 (offering in case of 
bad omens), II a 15-end (dog-sacrifice), II b (ceremonies of the 
Decurial Festivals). The order of composition is possibly, 
though by no means certainly, III-IV, II a 15-end, I a, b, II a 
1-14, II b, V a-b 7, V b 8-end, VI, VIL 


82. Tuder. On a bronze statue of a warrior. Conway no. 362, v. PI. 
no. 292. 

ahaltrutitis dunum dede. — Tr. Titius V.f. donum 'dedit. 

For S =;: d not f, see 27, 131, c. 

83. On a bronze tablet found at Fossato di Yico, near the ancient 
Helvilhim. Conway no. 354, v. PI. no. 296. 

Cubrar Matrer bio eso; Bonae Matris saeellum hoc ; 

oseto ciaterno n. C>LV facta cisterna n. CL Villi 

%u maronato TTTT sub *maronatu 

U. L. Uarie T. 0. Fulonie. V. Varii L. f ., T. FuUonii C. f . 

84. On a limestone block found near Assisi. Conway no 366, v. PI. 
no. 296. 

Ager emps et Ager emptus et 

termnas oht terminatus auct. 

0. U. Uistvnie Ner, T, Bahr. C. Vestinii V.f., Ner. Babrii T. f. 

maronatei in *maronatu 

Uois. Ner, Propartie Vols. Propertii Ner. f., 

T, U. Uoiaiener. T. Volsieni V. f. 

Sacre stahu. Sacrum sto. 

Cf. CIL. XI 6390 Post. Mimesim C. /., T. MimesiiLS Sert. /., Ner. 
Capidas Cf. Bvf., Ner. Babrius T. /., C. Capidas T.f.C. n., F. Volsienus T.f,, 
marones murum ab fornice ad circum et fornicem cistemamq. d. 8. 8. fdciundum 
coiravere. Maron- was an official title among the Umbrians and Etruscans. 



aa-'ab-\ 77,2,264, 1. 

Aadiiels ^Adii', gen. sg., gent., no. 55. 

Aadirans ^^Adiranus^ , gent. , no. 4. 81. 
Aadirils, Aadiriis * Atrius% gent., nos. 

14, 15. 81, 174. 
aamanaffed ^mandavit, (faciendum) 

locavit', nos. 5, 6, 8, 9, 11. Cf. 

manafum. 77, 2, 80, 2, 88, 3, 223, 

264, 1, 2. 
aapas, meaning uncertain, no. 61. 
aasal *in ara', loc. sg., no. 45 16, 44 ; — 

nom. pi. aasas, no. 4526. 38. 
Abellanu- *Abellanus% no. 1. Dat. sg. 

m. -nul, ace. sg. f. -nam, nom. pi. m. 

-niis, gen. pi. m. -ni^m, dat. pi. m. 

[-ndis]. 91,2,108,3,167,1,266,4. 
akkatus ^ advocati% nom. pi., no. 40. 

89, 3, 102, 3, 189, 1. 
akenel 4n anno* (3, loc. sg. , no. 45 18, 47; 
1^^ \ — gen. pi. acu/iwm, no. 2 3i; — abbr. 


akun., no. 13. 81, 169, a. 

akrid * acriter', no. 19 4. 99, 3, 190, 4. 

actud *agito', imperat., no. 2 15 ; 82, 1, 
148; — infin. acum^ no. 2 24; 169, 

Akudunniad, name of a Samnite town, 
abl. sg., no. 67. 144, a (nn by 162, 
1). For the question of the identi- 
fication with Aquilonia or modem 
Lacedogna see Conway, I, p. 172. 

acurn^ see actud. 

Bicunum, akun., see akenel. 

Akviiai *Aquiae', dat. sg., gent, f., 
no. 1910. 268, 3. 

ad-* ad-'. 299,1. 

Aderl. *Atella' or * Atellanorum', no. 
68. 91, 2, 108, 3, 167, 2. 

adfust*aderit% no. 29. 299, 1. 

adpdd* quoad', no. 31. 202, 9. 

aeteis * partis', gen. sg., no. 2 12, 18, etc. ; 
— [a]lttlum, no. 1 53 ; 162, 1. 
16, 1, 62, 187, 1, a. 

4/"anes *Afarius', gent. 174. 

1 The references with **no." refer to the numbers of the preceding collection. 
Where no number is given, the form is from some fragment not included in the 
collection. The references in black type are to the sections of the grammar. Where 
several inflectional forms are included under one heading, references for the particular 
forms, when given, are put after each, while the references to the word as a whole are 
put at the end of the article. But it is not intended, of course, to give references for 
each inflectional form, except in special cases. References inclosed in ( ) refer to 
the particular form immediately preceding. Under compounds are sometimes given 
references to sections in which only the simplex is mentioned. And occasionally 
elsewhere reference is made to a section in which the word itself is not mentioned, 
but where parallel examples are given. 

Besides the abbreviations used elsewhere, note praen. = praenomen, and 
gent. = gentile. 

2 Alphabetical order as in Latin, but with k under c. u is given under o ; like- 
wise u =ii, o, when forms with ti or o also occur, otherwise under u. v is given after 
u, but consonantal u is given with v, and au and av, ou and 6v, are treated as identical. 



Glossary and Index — Osean ^ ^ ^ [aflukad- 

aflukad ^deferat, adferat, direct 

against' (?), no. 19 3 ; — fut. perf. 

2 sg. aflakus, no. 19 lo, ii ; 224. 

97, a, 139, 1. 
Ahydiu, see Avdiis. 
alkdafed*decrevit'(?), no. 46; 227. 

264, 8. 
aldil * aedilis\ nom. sg., no. 12; 119, 

2; — nom. pi. aldilis, no. 3; 178, 7. 

21, 62. 
A//fiifels**Aedinr, gen. sg., cogn., 

no. 55. 186. 
aisusis ^sacrificiis\ no. 19 7. 15, 8, 

Alafaternum'Alfatemorum', no. 76. 

80, 1, 124. 
aUo 'alia, cetera', nom. sg. f., no. 2 22. 

32, 1, 100, 8, c. 

alttram * alteram', no. 1 53 ; — dat. sg. 
m. altreij no. 2 13; 187, 1, a; — loc. sg. 
alttrel, no. 45 17, 46 ; — abl. sg. atrud, 
no. 2 24 ; 106,2, a ; — nom. pi. alttr[iis, 
no. 1 53. 88, 4, 162, 1, 188, 2, a, 

am-'amb-'. 89, 1, 161, a. 

amfret *ambiunt', no. 1 32, 45. 161, 
217, 4. 

amiricatud '*immercato, without re- 
muneration', adv., no. 2 22. 38, 2, 
80, 1, 190, 2. 

Ammal ' *Ammae, Matri', no. 45 6, 23, 

33. Cf. Hesych. *A/x/xds' ij Tpo<f>6s 
* Apr^fiidoSf Kal if fJii^Tfjp. Germ. Amme 
'nurse', also, dialectic, 'mother'. 

amniid 'circuitu', no. 1 17; 291; — 

amnud ' causa', no. 2 6 ; 804. 16,2, 

ftn. p. 70, 161, a, 261, 2. 
ampert 'dumtaxat', no. 2 12, 18. 16, 9, 

269, 299, 5. 
ampn^d 'improbe', no. 2 30. 86, 6, 

102, 2, 190, 1, 263, 2. 
ampt 'circum', no. 18. 161, a, 800, 

ampu[l]ulum 'anculum, ministrum' (?), 

no. 19 3. 161, a. 

amylannud ' clrcuitu, detour', abl. sg., 

nos. 15, 18, amylanud, nos^ 14, 16, ^ j 

17. 161, a, 168, 266, 4, a. ^mAA^ 
an- 'in-', negative prefix. 98, 263, 

avaSa/cer, i.e. a»'(n/aicer 'dedicavit*, no. 

66. 24, 6, 80, 2, 224, 264, 1. 
Anafrlss 'Imbribus'(?), no. 46 9, 37. 

80, 2, 98, b. 
Anagtiai^Angitiae', dat. sg., no. 52. 

80, 2. 
ancensto 'incensa', no. 2 22. 98, 211, 

244, 1, a, 263, 2. 
Anei, no. 44. Probably abbr. of 

proper name, 
angreiw^e^ 'proposuerint', no. 2 20; — 

ant 'usque ad', no. 8 (tv^icp). 17, 6, 

82, 1, 92, 299, 2. T P. iSjfX ^^'""^^fT^I^' 

Antkadum^ no. 19 2. Possibly a cpd. 

connected with L. cadOj meaning 

'destruction, ruin', 
anter 'inter', nos. 1 14, 54, 14, 15; — 

an[ter, no. 17. 98, c, 801, 1. 
Anterstatal'*Interstitae', dat. sg., no. 

45 5, 31. Doubtless a protectress of 

boundaries ; cf . L. Stata, protectress 

of streets and public places. 82, 8. 
Appellunels'ApoUinis', no. 6; — dat. 

ATTTreWovvrjL, no. 62 (24). 21, 162, 3. 
aragetud'argento', abl. sg., no. 48, 

ara^^[ud, no. 42. 80, 1, 108, 2. 
Arkiia ' Archias' . 1 69 , 12. 
Arentika[i, Arent[ikai, Aret[ikai, etc. 

'*Arenticae, Ultrici', dat. sg., no. 19. 

21, 108, 2. 
aserum 'adserere', no. 2 24. 187, 2, 

299, 1. 
Atinils 'Atinius', gent., no. 5. 174. 
Aukll'*Aucilus', cogn., no. 41. 68, 

171, 1. 


OloBBary and Index — Oscan 


Aydiis 'Audius% gent., no. 10, also 
AfSeui ; 174 ; — Ahydiu, no. 13, 
probably dat. sg. (-u for -ui; see 
171, 3, a). 61,2, a. 

Ai//-i/<ncX(., Ai/<ncX(v. ^Ausculinorum\ 
Av<ncXa. *Ausculanorum\ no. 69. 61, 
2, a. 

auti *aut% no. 2 (passim). 68, 92, 
202, 17. 

avt * at, autem^ nos. 1 (passim), 29, 31 
(corrected from aet), 60 (a]vt); — 
ant ' at, autem' , no. 2 20 ; — avt * aut' , 
no. 19 (passim). 68, 92, 202, 17. 

az*ad% no. 45so. 187,2,299,1. 

Baltels ^Baeti% gen. sg., praen., no. 56. 

J?an«ae^Bantiae% loc. sg., no. 2 (pas- 
sim). 100, 3, c. 

BarUins ^ Bantinus^ , no. 2 19. 47, 25 5 , 5. 

Beriis 'Berius', gent., no. 44. 

Betitis ^ Betitius% gent. , no. 61. 259, 1. 

Biyellis*Bivellias% gent., no. 20. 

biviis*vivi',,no.l99. 101,151. 

Blaisiis ^Blaesius', gent., no. 40. 

BMs8ii(el8) ^Blossil*, gen. sg., gent, 
no. 26. 

Bn., abbr. praen., no. 61. 

Bdyaiandd ^ad Bovianum% no. 46. 
61, 3 with a and ftn., 253, 1, 298. 

hrateis *gratiae', gen. sg., no. 2 6. See 
p. 235 with ftn. 

Buttis 'Bottius', gent., no. 40. 

-c, -k. 201, 1. 

Kaal., abbr. praen., no. 68. 

ca(2m * inimicitiae% gen. sg., no. 2 6. 
See p. 235 with ftn. 

kahad ^ capiat% no. 19 6, 8 (in 1. 6 prob- 
ably 'incipiat'). 99, 3, 149, 218, 1, a. 

kalas, meaning uncertain, no. 61. 

kalla * aedem, templum^ ace. sg. , no. 3. 
L. caelum(?), 

Kalsilliels * Caesilii', gen. sg., gent, 
no. 25 a, b. 

kaispatar *caedatur, glebis tunda;^ w3^^ , 
tur'(?), no. 19 6. 288, 2, c. ^^ ^^c*H 

Kalaviis *• Calvius', gent. , no. 62. 80, 1, 
258, 3. 

EaXtrts ' Calinius% gent., no. 62. 

KaluYis ^*Caloyius, Calvius', gent, 
(fragment); — gen. sg.Kaldvieis,nos. 

27-28. 258, 4. ''^^--^^ 

Kamp[anii8] ^ Campanius% gent , no. 6. 

Kapv., abbr. for Kapv(ad) * Capua', 
abl., or Kapv(andm) ^Capuanorum', 
no. 70 ; for Kapv(anai) or (anei)^ loc. 
sg., no. 31 ; for Kapv(ans) ^ Capua- 
(nus', no. ^9 (but reading not cer- 
tain). ^fiuOl*.^^^ 

karanter * vescuntur', no. 19 9. 97.) ^'^jT' [^ 

caria * panis' . ' * Carensis, pistoribus a X^iv^ 
caria quam Oscorum lingua panem 
esse dicunt." Flacidus ed. Deuer- 
ling, p. 25. 97. 

camci5*partis',no.2 3,7. 17,3,1 81, c. 

kasit *decet', no. 31. 17, 1, 78, 3, 112, 
204,7, 212,3. 

cflwnar * senex'. ** Casnar senex Osco- 
rum lingua." Festused.Thewrewk, 
p. 33. **Item significat in Atellanis 
aliquot Pappum senem quod Osci 
casnar appellant." Varro L. L. 7, 
29. 114. 

Kastrikilels ' Castricii', gen. sg., cogn., 
no. 17. 174, 256, 3. 

cosfr id 'capite'(?), no. 2 8; 59; — gen. 
sg. castrous^ no. 2 13; 71. 17, 2, 
32, 1, 138, 184, 248, 4, a, p. 236. kZ H,^ 

cebnust * venerit', no. 2 20. 88, 3, 224, 
264, 1. 

ceTwawm^censere', infin., no. 2 20; — 
fut. 3 pi. censazet^ no. 2 19 ; 221 ; — 
imperat. pass, censamur^ no. 2 19 ; 
287, 279. 210, 3. 

Kenssurinels ^Censorini', gen. Sg., 
cogn., no. 26. 21, 246, 1. 

censt(ym-en, ^ in censum', no. 2 20. 244, 
1, a. 


Q-lozzary and Index — 0%can 


censtur *■ censor', no. 2 27, 28 ; — nom. pi. 

censtur, no. 2 18, 20, kenzsur, no. 58 

(21); 90, 1, 117; — nom. sg. or pi. 

keenzstur, no. 50; 162, 2. 41, 6, 

68, 78, 110, 1, 244, 1, a, 246, 1. 
Kerrl*Cereri*, no. 453,32, Keri, no. 19 

(passim). 115, 2, 186, b. 
Kerriid- * Cerealis, Grenialis', no. 45. 

Dat. sg. m. -Ml, -iidf ; — dat. sg. f. 

-liaf; — loc. sg. m. -filn; 171, 7; — 

dat. pi. m. -iiuls ; — dat. pi. f . -lials. 

61, 3, 258, 8. 
kersnaiias^^cenariae^ nom. pL, no. 

31b. 258,1. 
kersnu^cena% nom. sg. (fragment be- 
longing with no. 40); — abl. pi. 

kerssnals, no. 29. 114, 116, 2, 

162, 2, 251, 2, a. 
kerssifasias ' *cenariae\ nom. pi., no. 

27. 116,2, 162,2,254. 
ceu8 *civis', no. 2 19. 64, a. 
Kilpils * Cipius', gent. 174. 
Kll., abbr. praen. (* Clemens* or 'Cli- 

tus' ?), no. 10. 
Klum., abbr. cogn.(?), probably *Clu- 

menus', no. 20. 
Kluyatiis ' Clovatius', gent. , no. 19 9 ; — 

dat. sg. Kluyatiuf, no. 19 2 (p. 244, 

ftn.); — ace. sg. Kluyatiium, no. 19 

10; — gen. pi. Kluyatiium, no. 23 a,b. 

174, 269, 1. 
Km., abbr. praen. (*Comius'?), no. 53. 
kiiinlks * x®* "t^ ' » fragment. 2 1 . 
com, con 'cum', prepos., no. 2 15, 16, 23. 

COWI-, kum- *con-\ 800, 2. 
ktimbened 'convenit*, no. 1 lo. 151, 

k^mbenniels 'conventus', gen. sg., nos. 

4, 5, kdmbenn[iels], no. 6. 162, 1, 

250, 1. 
comono 'com itia', ace. pi. neut., no. 2 

(passim) ; — also comonom, 1. 17, prob- 

ahly mistake for comono, otherwise 

ace. fig. neut.; — loc. sg. comenei^ 

no. 2 5, 21. 15, 4, 81, 107, 2 with 

ftn., 251,2. 
kii]mparakineis *consilii', gen. sg., no. 

11. 81, a, 97, 146, 1. 
comparasciLster ^ consalta. erit', no. 2 4. 

16, 3, 81, a, 97, 116, 1, 145, 1, 218, 5, 

224. ■ ... ■;■ ^- ■ . 
contryd 'contra*, no. 2 (passim). 188, 2, 

190, 2, 808. 
ktoi'glans, missile* (?), no. 55. 
KoTTcifjii * Cottii^, fragment. 64. 

Kupeltemum,-dm 'Compulterinorum*, 

no. 70. 
kyafsstur 'quaestor', nos. 4, 5, 6, 11, 

ic/rat<r[Top], [ic/r]a«rTop (fragments); — 

dat. sg. kyaisturei, no.l2; — nom. 

pi. kyalzstur, no. 10 ; 162,2; — abbr. 

q., no. 2 2, 28, 29. 21, 58, 62, 162, 


da(cO-*de-*. 168, 800,3. 

da[da]d 'dedat, reddat*, pres. subj., 

no. 19 3 ; — perf. subj. dadid, no. 19 4 ; 

224. 218,4, a, 800,3. 
dadlkatted 'dedicavit*, no. 47. 44, 

168, 210, 3 and 6, 228. 
damia. 'damnum*(?), no. 192. 
damsennias, no. 31 ; — damu . . , damu- 

se . . , no. 24. See note, p. 251. 
dat ' de*, no. 2 (passim). 190, 3, a, 

800, 3. 
/>kuya, praen., no. 40. Form unex- 
Dekkyiarf m ' Decurialem* , no. 3. 81, a, 

102, 1, 162, 1, 191, 10, a, p. 240. 
deketasidl '*decentario, ordinario'(?), 

dat. sg., title of the meddix at Nola, 

no. 1 5 ; — nom. sg. degetasis, no. 43 ; 

172 ;— nom. pi. degetasiiis, no. 42. 

108, 2, 158, 191, 10, 254, p. 229. 



elseis] Glossary and Index — Oscan 316 

Dekis *Deciu8\ praen., nos. 10, 40 

(passim); — gen. sg. Dekkieis, no. 40 

(passim). 162, 1, 174. 
Dekmanniuls * *Decumaniis% probably 

name of a festival, no. 4548. 88, 8, 

162, 1, 191, 10, 266, 4, p. 256. 
deded, see didest. 
degetas-, see deketasidi. 
deicum ^dicere', infin., no. 2io, delkum, 
. no. 20; — pres. subj. 3 pi. deicana, 

no. 29; — f ut. perf . 3 sg. diciist, no. 

214; 46,224. 64,96. 
DelyaPDivae^ dat. sg., no. 45 15, 43. 

deiuatud^\ imperat., no. 2 5; — 

pres. subj. 3 sg. deiuaidy no. 2 ii; 

282; — fut. 3 sg. deiuast^ no. 2 3; 

221; — perf. pass, partic. nom. pi. 

detuotund 4urati^ no. 2 9; 244, 2, a, 

808, a. 16, 4, 262, 1. 
deiyinais^divinis*, dat. pi. f., no. 34. 

47, 64, 101, 265, 5. 
destrst ^dextra est% no. 21. 84, 89, 1, 

145, 1, 188, 2. 
dicustf see deicum. 
didest ^dabit', fut. 3 sg., no. 2 16 ; 46, 

221, 218, 4; — perf. 3 sg. deded, 

nos. 4, 7, 48, 52, 5c5ct, no. 65 ; 223. 
d]iikiilus, see zicolom. 
Dilviiai 'Diae', dat. sg., no. 52. 96, a, 

ftn. p. 52. 
Diuyel, Aiou/ret, see liiyels. 
Diuyia . . , see Idyiass. 
diuyilam, see iuyilam. 
Diumpals * Lumpis^ . 56. 
doiom *dolum', ace. sg., no. 2 5, 14, 

dolunij no. 2 21 ; — abl. sg. dolud, no. 

2 11, 30. 
dihidm ' donum\ ace. sg., no. 53, 

dunum, no. 52. 68, 107, 1, 251, 

dante. . , meaning uncertain, no. 19 4. 
d]uunated *donayit', no. 50. 58, 


ekak ^hanc\ nos. 3, 4, 7, abbr. ek., no. 
22; 108, 2, a; — ace. sg. n. ekik, 
no. 46; 196, a; — nom. pi. f. ekas, 
nos. 25 a, b, 26, ekask, no. 45 26 ; — 
ace. pi. f . ekass, no. 3 ; — abbr. ek. 
for nom. sg. f., no. 27. 196. ^ -» 

ekkum 4tem' no. 1 27,41. 189, 1, a, k4<'^ *"• 

201,5. ^^^Ha;^^^;^^- " ^ ^ 

ekss * ita, sic' , no. 110, «, no.'2 7. 1 96 , 6. -Jt^ ^"^ 
eksuk ^ hoc', abl. sg. n., nos. 14-18; — 

abl. sg. f . exac, no. 2 8, 23 ; — loc. sg^tUl^M* 

n. exeic, no. 2 (passim); dat. abl. pi. 

f . exaisc-erij no. 2 25. 146, 8, 196. 
edum^edere', no. 198. 86, 1. 
ee-, eh- 'e-'. 77, 1, 142, a, 800, 4. 
eehiianasiim 'emittendarum\ no. 31 a, 

yehiian.) no. 31 b (2 by mistake 

for 3). 77, 1, 149, 168. 
eestint ^exstant', no. 45 S6; — ee[8tit 

'exstat', no. 1 52. 41, 6, 77, 1, 89, 2, 

egmo 'res', nom. sg., no. 2 4 ; — gen. sg. 

egm[a8], no. 2 6 ; — abl. sg. egmad, no. 

2 10; — gen. pi. egmazum^ no. 2 24; 

270. 16,5,261,3. 
ehpeilatas 'erectae, set up', perf. pass. 

partic. nom. pi., no. 26. 64, 142, a, 

262, 1. 
ehprelyf^. 142, a. 
ehtrad ' extra', no. 1 31. 142, 188, 2, 

190, 3, 299, 3. 
eA[trul8? 'exterioribus', no. 1 14. 
eidiiis 4dibus', name of a festival, no. 

29, eiduis, no. 21. 171, 14, p. 247. 
eiveifi,, see Inim. 
elseis 'eius', no. 1 20, eiseis, no. 19 4, 

eizeis, no. 2 22 ; — loc. sg. n. elsel, 

no. 1 46, e[isel, no. 1 51, esel, mistake 

for else!, no. 1 49, eizeic, no. 2 7, 21 ; — 

loc. sg. f. eilsal, no. 1 57; — abl. sg. n. 

elstid, no. 1 13, eiztic, no. 2 29, 30, 

eizuc-en, no. 2 16 ; — abl. sg. f. elsak, 

no. 4, eiz<ic, no. 2 10; — gen. pi. m. 

eisunk, no. 40 ; — gen. pi. f. eizazunc, 


Glossary and Index — Osoan 


s ^ 

no. 2 24 ; — abl. pi. m. &,zoi8^ no. 
2 23 ; — abl. pi. f . eizaaCy mistake for 
eizaisCf no. 2 9. 195. See also 
eltiuyam ^pecuniam', no. 4, eituam, 
no. 2 19 ; — gen. sg. eituaa, no. 2 (pas- 
sim); — abl. sg. eltiuyad, nos. 4, 5, 
eltiu[vad], no. 6, abbr. eltiv., no. 
66 (81, 6); — ace. pi. eituas, no. 29; 
^ — abbr. ei. for nom. sg., no. 2 22. 
eituns *eunto'(?), nos.l4,17,18,eltu[ns, 
J- no. 16, abbr. eit., no. 16. 286, 2, 

/ame2 *famalus\ ** Famuli origo ab 
Oscis dependet, apud quos servus 
famel nominabatur, unde et familia 
vocata." Festus ed. Thewrewk, 
p. 62. Cf. also Pael. famel inim 
lovfir * famulus et liber*. 86, 2, 91, 
2, a, 119, 2. 

/ameZo* familia*, no 2 22. 100, 3, c, 
250, 2. 

far 'far', no^ 19 8. 117, 182. 

fatium*fari*, infin., no. 20. 88, 1, 
99, 2, 212, 1, 262, 2. 

feihdss 'muros', no. 1 3i ; — abl. pi. 

p. 242 

!. AM*.i^'<v»*-^''>^44vij^^ felhdls, no. 1 45. 16, 7, 64, 95, 

eizeis^ eizewj etc., see elseis. 
embratur * imperator*, no. 79 b. 89, 2, 

157, 1, 246, 1. 
en Mn', no. 29, postpos. -en. 801, 2. 
Entral ' *Interae*, dat. sg., no. 46 8, 35. 

188, 2, 801, 2. 
esel, see elseis. 
esidum, see isidum. 
essuf 4pse*, no. 60, emf, no. 2 19, 21. 

110, 6, 122, 2, 197, 6. 
est, estud, estud, see sdm. 
etanto 'tanta*, nom. sg. f., no. 2 ii, 26. 

201, 7. 
Eykliii, dat. sg., no. 46 3, 25, 29. 21, 

ex, exac, etc., see eks, eksuk. 
ezum, see sum. 

faamat ^habitat, tendit, holds com- 

186, 149. 
fertalis, ceremonies celebrated with 

sacrificial cakes (L. fertum), nom. 

pi. or dat. pl.(?), no. 26. 178, 7, 

257, 4, p. 249. 
S6<rTt€s'Festius% no. 66. Also taken 

as 'Sestius'. 24, h. 
fifikus'decreveris*(?), no.^19 6. 22^ 

with a. 
filet, fiiet'fiunt^ 
Filslais '*Fisiis*, adj., no. 28, Fii8lai8,A4 

no.27,Fislais,no.21. 187,1,252,1. 
fllsnd*fanum*, nom. sg., no. 1 30; — 

ace. sg. fllsnam, no. 1 32, f Isnam, 

no. l45; — fil..., no 1 24, flls..., 

no. 60. 41, 99, 1, 114, 186, 251, 2. 
Flml. **Fimulus*, no. 67. 91, 2, a. 
Flsanls**Fisanius', no. 16. 
FlsteM **Fistelia*, no. 72 a;— Fistluis 

{<f>iffTe\iaj no. 

\ no. 31 a, b. 216, 2.4^/^^ 

f akiiad 

perat. 3 ag.factud, no. 29; :^48,216; 

— perf. subj. 3 sg. fefacld, no. 2io; 

228 ; — f ut. perf. 3 sg. fefacust, no. 

2X1,17; 228. 82, 1, 99, 1, 186, 

214, 2, 219. 
/acMS 'f actus', no. 2 30. 91, 1, 258, 1. 
Faler. *Falerniis', no. 32; — nom. pi. 

Falenias, no. 33. 103, 2, a. 

name of a 

festival, no. 4620. 105, 1, a, 254.' 
Flagiul'*Flagio', dat. sg., no. 26 a, b. 

See note, p. 249. 
Fluusal 'Florae', dat. sg., no. 46 24. 

58, 105, 1. 
fortis *potius', no. 2 12. 91, 1, 146, 

188, 1. 
fratrum ' f ratrum', nos. 27,28. 88, 124. 


GHossary and Index — Oaean 


Frentref **Frentri', loc. sg., no. 73. 
fruktatiuf fructus', no. I21. 58, 88, 

3, 168, 247, 1. 
fufans, fufens, fuid, fusid, fust^ see 

Fuutrel*Genetrici', dat. sg., no. 4630, 

Futrel, no. 46 4 ; — gen. sg. Futre[ls], 

no. 64. 68, 180, a with ftn. 
Fuvfdis * Fufidius', gent., no. 40. 

Gaaviis *Gavius\ gent., no. 42, Gayiis, 

no. 20 ; — gen. sg. Gaay . . . , praen. , 

no. 68. 
Genetal * Genitae\ dat. sg., no. 46 15, 43. 

Gnaiys ^ Gnaeus\ praen. (on fragment 

belonging with no. 40), [Gn4i]vs, no. 

40; — abbr. Gn., no. 47. 147, 2. 

hafiesb *habebit', no. 2 8 (probably for 

^pies^); 218, note ; — perf. subj. 3sg. 

hipid^ no. 2 (passim); 41, 218, 226 ; — 

fat. perf. 3 sg. hipust, no. 2 11; 226. 

99, 1, 218. 
Helrennis * Herennius'(?), gent., no. 42; 

cf. praen. Heirens. 
Helleyiis *Helvius', gent., no. 20, 

Helevi., no. 32 ; — Heleyiieis, 

no. 33. 80, 1, 162, 3, 174, 268, 3. 
Her., no. 63, abbr. for Hereklul or 

Hereklels ' Herculis', no. 1 (passim); — 

dat. sg. Hereklul, no. 46 13,41. 21, 

78, a, 80, 1. 
Hereiis * Herius', gent. , no. 40 ; — gen. 

sg. Heriieis, no. 40. 176, 6. 
Heientatels * Veneris*, no. 41; — dat. 

sg. Herentatel, no. 41. 16, 1, 261, 6. 
herest ' volet' , no. 2 (passim) . 1 00 , 3, c, 

heriam*vim', no. 19 1. 16, 1, 260, 1. 
heriiad 'capiat', no. 20; 44, a; — im- 

perf. subj. 3 pi. hjerrlns, no. I54; 

116,2,216,288. 149,214,2. 

Heriieis, see Hereiis. 
Herukinal'Erycinae', dat. sg., no. 41. 

Epithet of Herentatel. 21, 149, a. 
hipid, hipuat, see hafiesU 
Hurtiis * Hortius', gent., no. 63. 
hurz *hortus, lucus', no. 46 48; — ace. 

sg. hurtdm, no. 46 20 ; — dat. sg. 

hiirtdl, no. 46 27 ; — loc. sg. hurtln, 

no. 46 1 ; 41, a, 82, 1, 171, 7. 49, 

Husidiis'Hosidius', gent., no. 68. 

260, 2. 
humuns ' homines', nom. pi., no. 19 9. 
. 90, 1, 149, 181. 
hu[n]truis 'inferis', no. 19 7. 16, 6, 

149, 188, 2. 
huntrus 'infra'(?), no. 19 11 ; 299, 4, a. 

lF3^,<Tt Sr>>^-»KA^« 

lak, see izic. 

'ic, -Ik, enclitic. 201, 2. 

tdic, Idlk, see izic. 

lelis. 176, 1, 3. 

lly, no. 66. ? ? 

imad-en'ab imo', no. 3. 47, 114, (2, 

189, 1. 
Inlm'et', no. 1 (passim), Inl, nos. 3, 

14-17, inlm, nos. 27, 28, inim, nos. 

19 (passim), 40, inim^ no. 2 6, eiveifx^ 

no. 62 (44), abbr. in., no. 2 (passim). 

16, 8, 202, 16. 
ioc, luk, see izic. 
iiiklel*the formula of consecration', 

* consecration' (?), loc. sg., no. 31 a, b. 

249, 1. 
Iuykilul**Iovicio', dat. sg., gent., no. 
.. 14. 174,266,3. 
Iiivels 'lovis', nos. 3, 69; — dat. sg. 

luvel, no. 26 a, b, Diuyel, no. 46 

(passim), Atov/ret, no. 64 (24). 101, 

134, 183 with a. 
I^viass '*Iovias', ace. pi., name of a 

festival, no. 29; — here probably 

Diuyia. . , no. 24 a, b. 
Idviia *Ioviam', adj., no. 3. 262, 1. 


Gloaaari/ and Index — Oscan 


idyilam '*iovilam% no. 33, iuvil, no. 32, 
older diuyilam, no. 21, diuvil., no. 
22 ; — nonL sg. iuvilu (on two frag- 
ments not included), idhil., no. 27 
(h by mistake); — nom. pi. iuyilas, 
nos. 25 a, 26, iuyilas, no. 25 b, iuyi- 
las, no. 29, idyiX, no. 30. 184, 
257, 5, p. 247. 

Ip *ibi', no. 1 34. 196, /. fkijh - 

IsidumMdem^ nom. sg. m., no. 4, 
Isidu, nos. 7, 8, eureidofi (fragment), 
esidum (fragment), esidu[m], no. 50 ; 
44, c; :— nom. pi. m. Imssu, li#su, 
no. 3; 53, a, 139, 1, a. 44, c, 50, 
195, 201, 5. 

ist, see sum. 

li#S8U, see Isidum. 

izic^ia\ no. 2 (passim); — nom. sg. f. 
ioc, no. 2 4, Mk, no. 1 37, 42, iiuk, no. 
21; 31, a; — nom. ace. sg. n. idic, 
no. 2 6, 9, 30, idik, no. 1 17, 18, idik, 
no. 19 3,5; — ace. sg. m. i(mc, no. 
2 12, 17, 26 ; 49 ; — ace. sg. f . lak, no. 
50; 108, 2, a; — nom. pi. m. iusc, 
no. 2 20; — nom. ace. pi. n. ioc, no. 
2 5. See also eiseis. 195. 

L.f see Luykis. 

iama^ir *caedatur'(?), no. 2 21, lama- 

tir, no. 19 4. 228, 238, 2, 239, p. 

Aairows ' Lamponius'. 108, 2, a. 
leginum ' legionem, cohortem', no. 193, 

legin[um, no. 19 1 ; — dat. sg. leginei, 

no. 19 4,11, 12. 181. 
lelguss, meaning uncertain, no. 60. 
licitud ^\\ceto\ no. 2 (passim), likltud, 

no. 136. 41,44, 104, 212, 8. 
Llganakdikei, name of a goddess, dat. 

sg., no. 458, 35. 80, 2, 263, 1. 
llgatdls 'legatis', dat. pi., no. 1 6, 7; — 

nom. pi. llgat[tis], no. 1 9. 41. 
ligud ^\ege\ abl. sg., no. 2 19, 24; — 

Ioc. pi. ligis, no. 2 25. 41, 104. 

liiiiiltd[m] Mimitum\ gen. pi., no. 1 29. 

Ills.., no. 50. ?? 
limu ^ famem% no. 10 8. 21. 
I?]iifrikdnii88 ^*liber]genos'(?), no. 50. 

Formation and meaning uncertain. 
AovKavo/i * Lucanorum' , no. 76. 24, 7 1 . 
Ldykanatels * ^Lucanatis', no. 61 . 71, 

259, 3. 
liiykei^in luco\ Ioc. sg., no. 26. 71, 

Ldykis ^Lucius', praen., no. 20 (Uyi- 

kis, 1. 5, probably mistake); — gen. 

sg. Luycies; 64, 6; — abbr. L., nos. 

17, 27-28, 41, 49. 71. 
loyfir'\e\\ no. 2 8. 16,9, 71, 96, 104, 

124, 202, 18, 238, 2, 239. 
Luyf rels * Liberi' , gen. sg. , no. 69. 71, 

104, 136. 
luisarifs * lusoriis'(?), no. 21. 124, 188, 

178, 9, 267, 4, p. 248. 

M., abbr. praen. (Mais?), no. 3. 
m., see meddikkiai. 
Ma., abbr. praen. (Mais?), nos. 11, 17. 
Maatiifs ^*Matis% dat. pi., no. 45 10, 38. 

Cf. L. Matuta. 
Maatrels 'Matris', no. 54. 88, 81. 
Maesius *• mensis Mains*. ^^ Maesius 

lingua Osca mensis Maius. * * Festus 

ed. Thewrewk, p. 109. 147, 3, a, 
Magiium ^ Magiorum\ gent., no. 21. 

174, 176, 1. 
Mahii[s^Maius\ 176, 1. 
maimas *maximae', gen. sg., no. 23, 7. 

114, 6, 147, 3, a, 189, 3. 
maia *magis, plus\ adv., no. 2 5, 15, 9S. 

91,1, 147,3, 188, 1,289. 
Mais, Mais ^Maius% praen. (fragments) ; 

— dat. sg. Maiiul, no. 1 1,3; — gen. 

sg. [M]aliels ?, no. 50 ; — abbr. Mai., 

no. 1 1, 4, Mh., nos. 47, 57 ; 176, 1. 

Here also perhaps M. and Ma. 61, 

3,91,1, 147,3, 176,1,3. 


Glossary and Index — Oscan 


inalaks*maleyolos^(?), no. 19 3. 178, 

10, 256, 6. 
maUom * malum% ace. sg., no. 2 5, 15, 23 ; 

— abl. sg. mallud, no. 2 so, malud, 
no. 2 11. 100, 3, c. 

Ma/i6/)6Jct€s^Mamercius% gent, no. 66. 
Cf. praen. Mamercus quoted under 
Mamers. 80, 1, 174. 

Jfamers ^ Mars'. ^^ Mamers Mamertis 
facit, id est lingua Osca Mars Mar- 
tis, unde et Mamertini in Sicilia 
dicti, qui Messanae habitant. Ma- 
mercus praenomen est Oscum ab eo 
quod hi Martem Mamertem dicunt.^^ 
Festus ed. Thewrewk, pp. 98, 99. 

MafiepTipo ' Mamertina\ adj . nom. sg. f . , 
no. 62 ; — IdaftepTivovfi ^ Mamertino- 
rum% no. 63 (24). 47, 255, 6. 

Mamerttiais ^Martiis', adj., nos. 27-29. 
162, 1, 252, 1, p. 247. 

manafum *mandayi% no. 19 3. 204, 5, 
228, 264, 2. 

mamm ^manum% ace. sg., no. 2 34. 
185, 3. 

Marahis 'Marius'(?), praen., no. 40; — 
gen. sg. Marahieis (fragment), abbr. 
Marai., no. 43 (implying a spelling 
Maraiiels, as Mai. for Maiiels; cf. 
foil.). 176, 4. 

Maraies *Marius'(?), gent, (fragment) ; 

— gen. sg. Maraiiels, no. 50. 61, 3, 
176, 4, 258, 1. 

Maras **Maras\ praen., no. 40, Mapas, 
no. 62; — ?gen. sg. Maraheis, no. 
40 (and fragments) ; — abbr. Mr., 
nos. 4, 14, 15, 17. 169, 12, 176, 

Markas. 169, 12. 

meddikkiai '*in meddicia, in the med- 
dixship^ loc. sg., no. 28, meddikiai, 
no. 27, medikkiai, no. 33, medikia[i], 
no. 32 ; <rvir /lediKiai (fragment), 802 ; 
abbr. medikit, medik., no. 31, m., 
no. 26. 16, 6, 162, 1. 

meddlss ' meddix\ nos. 41, 48, 51, 
meddls, nos. 29, 43, meddia, no. 2 
(passim) ; 146, 2 ; — gen. sg. medikeis, 
no. 3 ; — dat. sg. medikei, no. 1 5 ; — 
nom. pi. meddlss, no. 42, fieddei^, no. 
62(24); 90,1,146,2; — abbr. medd., 
no. 30, metd., no. 47, med., nos. 7-9. 

15, 6, 44, 168, 268, 1, p. 229. 
medicattnowi ' iudicationem', no. 2 16. 

15,6, 163. 
medicatiid ^ iudicBXo*, abl. sg., no. 2 34. 

16, 6, 168. 

medicim **meddicium, magistracy % 
nom. ace. sg., no. 2 30-33; 172; — 
abl. sg. meddixud, no. 2i3,3i; 100, 
3, c; — abl. sg. ffiedikid, no. 31b; 
178, 5. 16, 6, 168, 260, 2. 

Meeilikiiels ^ M6(Xtx^>'% no. 3. 21. 
mefi[u] * media', nom. sg. f . , no. 1 30 ; — 

loc. sg. f. mefial, no. 1 57. 86, 1, 186. 
memnim * monumen tum' , no. 20. 172, 

Mener. *Minervio'(?), ho. 18. 21. 
menvum ^minuere% no. 19 8. 44, c. 
mess/mass 'medioximas, midmost' (?), 

no. 29. 86, 1, 188, a, 189, 1 (with 

Metiis^Mettius', gent., no. 57. 
Mh., see Mais. 
Mi. , abbr. praen. (cf . the two following) , 

no. 26. 
Minaz 'Minatus', praen. (fragment); — 

gen. sg. Minatels, no. 25. 259, 1, 
Minis ^Minius', praen., no. 44 ; — gen. 

sg. Minniefs, Miniels, no. 25, Mif- 

nieis, no. 35, Minies, no. 36. 
minive, no. 31 b. See note, p. 251. 
min[8] 'minus', adv., no. 2 lo. 90, 1, 

min8^ret8 ^minoris', gen. sg. m., no. 

2 13, 37, mistreis, no. 2 18 (108, 2, a). 

89, 1, 187, 1, a, 188,3. 
Mitl/ Mitulus', praen., no. 57. 91, 2, 



Glo%%ary and Index — Oscan 


- Ajr 

mdlnikd ^communis*, adj., nom. sg. f., 

no. 1 93, abbr. nU^inik., uos. 27-28; — 

ace. 8g. f. muinikam, no. 21; — abl. 

8g. f. miiinikad, no. 1 50 ; — nom. sg. 

n. miiiiii[kiim], no. 1 18 ; — loc. sg. n. 

mtUnlkei, no. 1 19. 66,187,1,256,2. 
m^tasikad ^maltaticia%adj.,abl. sg. f., 

no. 6; — abl. sg. n. multa8[ikud], 

no. 43. 49,264. 
moUaum *multare\ no. 2 (passim). 

210, 1, 262, 1. 
moUo ^mxdtA', nom. sg., no. 2 ii, 26; 

— gen. sg. moltas^ no. 2 13, 27 ; 269 ; 

— ace. sg. moltamf no. 2 2. 49, 146. 
Mr., see Maras. 

Mulukiis ^Moleios', gent., no. 43. 

80, 1. 
Mutll 'Mutilus', cogn., nos. 79-80. 

119, 2, 171, 1. 
Mut[ti]lli[s] *Mutilius', gent., no. 40; 

— gen. sg. Muttillieis, no. 40. 171,1. 
Mz. *Mettus% abbr. praen., nos. 10, 

53. Cf. gent. Metiis. 

N., see Niumsis. 

n. ^nummi% no. 2 12, S6. 

ne ^ne, nisi\ no. 2 14, 25. 202, 20. 

nei 'non% no. 2 20, 28. 202, 20. 

neip *neque, neve', no. 2 15, neip, 

no. 19 4, 5, 6. 202, 20. 
nep *neque, neve', no. 2 lo, 28, nep, nos. 

1 46-17, 20. 92, 202, 20. 
^ , ner., nerum, see niir. 

nessimas *proximae', nom. pi. f., no. 
^V^>-^ 26; — gen. pi. nesimum, no. 2 17, 3i ; 

>- dat.-abl. pi. nesimois, no. 2 25. 

15,8, 86, 1, 138, a, 189,1, ftn. p. 134. 
ni^ne\ no. 2 (passim). 202, 20. 
Ni., see Niumsis. 
niir * vir, princeps, procer,' title of rank, 

no. 40 (and fragments) ; — gen. pi. 

nerum, no. 2 29, 32 ; — abbr. ner. for 

ner(el8), gen. sg., no. 26. 15, 7, 97, 

180, 2, c. 

nip 'neque, neve', no. 19 7, 8. 202, 20. 
nistrus ^propinquos', no. 19 s. 38, 4, 

188, a, 188, 2. 
Niumeriis ^ Numerius' , gent. 2 1 . 
NiJum^is^Numerios', praen., no. 42; 

— gen. sg. Niumsiels, no. 42, "Nivfi- 

ffSiriis, no. 62 (24, c); abbr. Ni., 

nos. 9, 13 ; abbr. N., no. 3. 21, 66. 
Nuvkrinum^Nucerinorum', no. 76. 
Niiyellum ^Novellam', praen., no. 20. 
Ndvland- ^Nolanus', no. 1. Ace. sg. f. 

-nam ; — dat. sg. m. -[niil] ; — nom. 

pi. m. -niis ; — gen. pi. m. -num ; — 

dat.-abl. pi. -niils. 

Uf..., see Upfals. 

Uhtavis ^Octavius', gent., nos. 20, 58. 
142, 191, 8. 

din. . ., no. 50. ? 

uittiuf usus', no. 1 40, 43. 58, 66, 
162, 1. 

iUam^oUam', no. 20. Perhaps bor- 
rowed from rustic Latin, for we 
should expect O. av (cf. the earlier 
Latin aul(l)a)^ not {l, 

iiltiumam ' ultimam', no. 29. 49, 66, 
86, 1, 189, 1. 

timbn . . . , no. 50. ? 

tip *• apud', no. 1 13, op, no. 2 14, 23. 
17, 7, 49, 300, 5. 

Upfals * Of ellus', praen., nos. 35-36 ; — 
gen. sg. Upfalleis, no. 40, Upfaleis, 
no. 22 ; — abbr. iJpf., no. 10 ; — here 
perhaps Uf . . ., no. 58. 119, 2. 

Upils *Opillus' (fragment) ; — abbr. 
t^pQ. for l}pa(lel8), nos. 29, 30. 
119, 2. 

^ppiis *Oppius', praen., no. 20 ; — gen. 
sg- Uppiieis, no. 40; — Oxms, cogn. 

iipsannam ^operandam, faciendam', 
nos. 4, 48; iipsan., no. 7, iipsan- 
n[dm], no. 49, [iips]annu, no. 6; 
185, 245 ; — perf. pass, partic. nom. 
pi. upsatuh, no. 44; 118, c, 808 ; — 


GHossary and Index — Oscan 


perf . indie. 3 sg. upsed, no. 56, ups. , 
no. 67, 8 pi. uupsens, no. 8, upsens, 
no. 10, ovTTffepsj no. 62 (24); 225 with 
a. 17, 4, 49, 88, 3, 99, 8, 122, 3, 
211, 262, 1, 808. 
08ii[n8] ' adsint', no. 2 4. 122, 2, 282. 

Paakiil**Paculus', praen., no. 43; — 

gent. Pakulliis*Paculius\ 119, 2, 

171, 1. 
Paapii, Paapi*Papius', gent., no. 79. 

118, c. 
Pakis *Pacius', praen., nos. 19 9, 60; 

172; — dat. sg. Pakiu, no. 19 2; 

171, 8, a; — ace. sg. Pakim, no. 

19 10 ; 172; — abbr. Pak. for Pak- 

(ieis), nos. 29, 80; — abbr. Pk., no. 

66. 174. 
naKfnis * Paqui' , gen. sg. , praen . Cf . 24 . 
pa^., no. 31 b. ?, 
pai, pae, ete., see under pui. 
Palantid*Pallano', no. 61. 
pan *quam', eonj., no. 2 6, also in pru- 

terpan. 186, 190, 6, 202, 4. 
Papeis *Papi% gen. sg., praen., no. 40. 

Cf. gent. Paapii. 
passtata *porticum% no. 7. 21, 162, 2. 
Patanai *Pandae', dat. sg. , no. 45 14, 42. 

patenslns *panderent, aperirent',^ no. 

150,51. 99, 4, 213, 2, 233.I^^V 
patir * pater', no. 35 ; 78, 2 ; — dat. sg. 

Paterei *Patri', no. 45 25; 81. 82, 

1, 97, 246, 2. 
'p&tt. . . , no. 58, perhaps pa//[rafens 

Pk., see Pakis. 
?^edii * pedes', aec. pi. n., no. 1 56. 

See p. 280. 
per-. 299, 6. 

Perkens **Percennus', praen., no. 42; 

— gen. sg. Perkediie[is], no. 42. 

185, a. 
perkium, meaning uneertaln, nom. sg. 

n., no. 89. 
perek., per., abbr. for perek(al8) ^per- 

ticis', no. 3. A measure of length, 

probably of about five feet. Cf. 

Umbrian perca * staff, rod'. 189, 1. 
peremust *pereeperit', fut. perf., no. 

2 15. 224, 299, 6. 
perfa[kium ?] *perfieere', no. 19 6. 
Pemal **Pernae, Prorsae', dat. sg., no. 

45 22. 800, 8, a. 
?pernum, no. 1 29. 804, p. 230. 
pert * trans', no. 1 33. 16, 9, 299, 5. 
pert-, 299, 6. 
-pert, 192, 2, 299, 6.1 
pertumum * perimere, prohibere', infin., 

no. 2 7 ; 86, 2 ; — fut. 3 sg. perte- 

mestj no. 2 7; — fut. perf. 8 sg. pert- 

emust, no. 2 4 ; 224. 299, 6, p. 235. 
perum' sine', prep., no. 25, 14, 21. 201, 

5, 299, 6. 
pestliim 'templum', ace. sg. n., no. 49, 

peessl[iim] (fragment). 76, 2, 114, 

116, 3, 139, 2, 162, 2. 
petiropert, petlrupert ^ q\ia.teT\ no. 2 14, 

15. 34, 81, 100, 3, c, 160, 192, 2.i 

petora * quattuor ' . * * Petoritum e t Gal- 

"' 5 Ileum vehiculum esse et nomen eins 

dictum esse existimant a numero UII 

rotarum ; alii Osce, quod hi quoque 

petora quattuor vocent, alii Graece, 

sed afoXt/cws dictum." Festus ed. 

Thewrewk, p. 250. 191, 4. 
Pettie/s, Pettieis *Pettii', gen. sg., 

gent., nos. 27-28. 
pid, pidum, see pis, ^pisum. 
-pid *-que', indefinite particle. 201, 4. 

1 Mention should perhaps have been made of another view, which has been revived 
several times in recent years, namely that -pert is not to be compared with L. -per in 
semper etc., but with Skt. -kft in «aA;^^ *once' etc. We still regard the comparison 
within the Italic as more probable. 


Glossary and Index — Osean 


Piihiiii'Pio', dat. sg., no. 46 40. 48, 

88, a, 102, 2. 
Pilstlai ^Fidiae', dat. sg., no. 45 14, 43. 

pis, pld^quis, quid'. Interrogative, 
nom. sg. m. pis, no. 66. Indefi- 
nite, nom. sg. m. ptd, no. 2 (passim), 
pia, no. 30 ; — ace. sg. m. pirn {phim), 
no. 2 35 ; — nom. -ace. sg. n. pid, 
no. 1 41, pid, no. 19 6. Indefinite 
Relative, nom. sg. m. pia, no. 2 8, 
19; — dat. sg. m. ptei, no. 2 7. 199. 
pispis * qaisqais' (fragment) ; — pitpit 
* quidquid' . * * Pitpit Osce quicquid. ' ' 
Festused.Thewrewk,p.263. 200,1. 
*pl8um, pidum ^quisquam, quicquam\ 
Ace. sg. n. pidum, no. 1 47, pidum, 
no. 19 7 ; — gen. sg. m. pieisum, no. 
2 6. 199, 200, 1,201, 5. 
pi, in tr. pi. Hribunus plebis', no, 2 29. 
Plasis^Plarius', praen., no. 20. 
pdkkapid * quaudoque', no. 1 53, poca- 
pitj no. 2 8 (127, 1, a), [p]ocapid 
>.(Avellino fragment). 189, 1, 201, 4, 
\ t Kvr N ^f^2, 13. 1 Fj •f^ H / IVL^ wc^^ 
j>od, conjunction, in pod . . . minis] 
* quominus', no. 2 10 ; 815; — siLae.,. 
pod *sive', no. 2 23, svai puh *sive', 
no. 19 10, 11 (188, a). 190, 6, 202, 1. 
pui*qui', nom. sg. m., no. 19 1 ; — 
nom. sg. f. pal, no. 1 34, pai, no. 19 1, 
pae, paei, no. 2 S3 ; — nom. -ace. sg. 
n. piid, no. 1 12, 13, 14, 49, pod, no. 
2 10 ; — gen. sg. m. pdiieh, no. 39 ; 
61, 8,64, &, 118, c, 199, &; — ace. 
sg. f. paam, no. 4, p]aam, no. 60, 
pam, no. 1 38 ; — abl. sg. f . poizad, 
no. 2 19; 199, d; — nom. pi. m. 
pAs, no. 1 8, 45 ; — nom. pi. f . pas, 
nos. 27, 28, 31 a, b ; — nom. pi. f . 
paf, no. 1 15, pai, no. 19 9. 199. 

pdiiu ^ cuia\ nom. sg. f . , no. 55. 61 , 3, 
199, 6. For puiieh see pui. 

poizadf see pui. 

Pumpaiians ^Pompeianus', no. 4 
gen. sg. m. Piimpaiianels, no. 3 
dat. sg. f. Pihnpaiianai, no. 4 
ace. sg. f . Pthnpaiiana, no. 8. 61 , 3, 
258, 1. 

♦pompe *quinque'. 87, 150 with a. 

pumperials ^ *quincuriis\ name of a 
festival, loc. pL, no. 30, pdmperiais, 
nos. 27-28, abbr. piimpe., no. 32 ; — 
nom. pi. (or gen. sg.?) pumperias, 
no. 23 a, b ; — nom. pi. piimper(i)as, 
no. 33. 87, 150, 191,. 6, 251, 4, p. 
247. CIL-P-1».> Jt%U*A]^ 

nofiTTTies ^Quintius, Pontius', ^ gent., 
no. 62, Piintiis, no. 3. 146, 153, 
174, 191, 5. 

pomtis *quinquiens', no. 2 15. 87, 
146, 158, 191, 6, 192, 2. ' 

pdn^cum', conjunction, nos. 1 5*0, 29, 
30, pun, no. 19 6, 8, pow, no. 2 
(passim). 92, 185, 190, 5, 202, 3. 

^nttram*pontem', no. 8. 162, 1. ^"^ ^'^ 

Pupidiis * Popidius, Cocidius', nos. 7-8. 
Cf. Pupdiis, fragment. 89, 1, 260, 2. 

?[p]i^rtam*portam', no. 50. 

posmom, see pustm[a8]. 

pii8t*post', no. I45, pust, no. 19 5, 
po8t^ no. 2 8, 23, 39. 800, 6. 

piisstist *positumest'(?),no. 1 33. 84, a, 
1 62 , 2. Also taken as *post (adv. ) est' . 

piistin 'according to', prep., no. I34. 
15, 10, 299, 7. 

pustiris ' posterius' , adv. , no. 50. 44, 6, 
81,88,4, 91,1, 188,1, 190,6. 

pustm[as] *postremae', nom. pi. (or 
gen. sg.?), no. 23 a, b; — adv. po8- 
mom, no. 2 J6 ; 190, 6. 114, 189, 2, 
189, 1. 

1 Quintius is the genuine Latm form, while Pontius is the latinized Osean 
form found on inscriptions of Campania and Samnium. Cf. 246, 1, a. 


Glossary and Index — Oscan 


pustrei*in postered loc. sg., no. 31a, 

pustrei, no. 22, abbr. pdstr., no. 31 b. 

81,88,4, 188,2. 
piiterefpid ^in utroque% loc. sg., no. 

45 18, 46 ; — nom. pi. piitiirtispid, no. 

1 9; — gen. pi. pdtiiri9([mpid],no. 1 22. 

81, 88,4, 188, 2, a, 200, 2. 
pdtlad*possit% no. 20, putiiad, no. 

19 6, 7, 8 ; — putlans * possint' , no. 20, 

putiians, no. 19 7. 88, 1, 262, 2. 
pous^ see puz. 
pr., abbr. * praetor ^ no. 2 (passim); for 

gen. sg., no. 2 21. 
j>rae-'prae-% 300, 7. 
pra^ucuB 'praefectus', no. 2 23. 86, 6, 

258, 1. 
praeaentid * praesente*, abl. sg. , no. 2 21 . 

62, 178, 6, a. 
prai *prae', nos. 27-28. 62, 800, 7. 
prebai, meaning uncertain, dat. sg., 

no. 19 3. 
preitLatud^Teo\ abl. sg., no. 2 15, I6. 

17, 10, 64. 
prtifatted *probavit', nos. 4, 8, 48, prii- 

fattd, no. 7 (e omitted for want of 

space); — priif aliens *probaverunt', 

no. 3, abbr. prufts., no. 33. 102, 2, 

228, 262, 1. 
pruffed * posuit', nos. 41 b, 61 ; 88, 3, 223 ; 

— priiftii'posita', no. 1 16; 89, 2, 

244, 1. Ftn. p. 170. 
pnt 'pro', no. 2 13, 24. 53,' 800, 8. 
pru-, 17, 8, 300, 8. 
pruhipid *prohibuerit', perf. subj. 3 sg., 

no. 2 25 ; — f ut. perf. 3 sg. pruhi- 

ptLst, no. 2 26. Cf. hipid, hipusb, 

pnipukid *ex antepacto, by previous 

agreement^ no. 1 2. 17, 8, 86, 6, 

178, 6, 250, 2. 
pruter pan (pam) *priusquam% no. 

2 4, 16. 188, 2, 202, 4. 
Pukalatiil*Puclato% dat. sg., cogn., 

no. 1 4. 81, 259, 1. 

puklum ^puerum, filium% ace. sg., no. 

19 4 (and so to be read in 11. 10, 12, 

for puklui, puklu) ; — (?)dat. sg. 

puklui, no. 19 8 ; — abbr. puk., nom. 

sg., no. 19 9. 16, 10, 81, 248, 3. 
puf *ubi% nos. 14-17. 55, 92, 200, 3, 

202, 6. 
puh, see pod. 
punum ^quandoque% no. 19 6. 201, 5, 

202, 3. 
purasiaf^n igniaria\ loc. sg. f., no. 

45 16,44. 15, 11, 55, 99,6. 
puz *ut', conj., no. 1 17, pous, no. 2 9. 

55 with ftn., 137, 2, 200, 3, 202, 6. 

g., abbr., * quaestor', no. 2 2, 28-29. 
Cf. kyalsstur. 

Rahiis * Baius', gent., no. 40; — gen. 

sg. Rahiieis, no. 40. 176, 2. 
Regaturei ^ Rector!', no. 45 12, 40. 58, 

103, 1, 246, 1. 
r[lhtud] * recto', abl. sg., no. 1 I6. tA. ^^ ' ^/^^ 
Rufriis *Rubrius', gent., no. 40* [^A'^-aS^ ..., 

saahlum ^ sanctum'^ nom. sg. n., no. 
45 17, 45. 73, 142. 

sakahiler ^sanciatur, sacrificetur', no. 
45 19. 210, 3, 232. 

sakaraklum'sacellum, templum', nos. 
1 11, 46 ; — gen. sg. sakaraklels, no. 
1 20 ; — abl. sg. sakarakliid, no. 1 13. 
81, 248, 3. 

sakarater ' sacratur', no. 45 21 ; — pres. 
subj. 3 sg. sakraftir, no. 31 b; 288, 
2, 6;— perf. subj. 3 sg. sakraflr, 
nos. 29, 30 ; 227, 234, note, 238, 2, 
239 ; — gerundive nom. pi. f . sai^n- 
nas, no. 29, abbr. ^aJhrann., no. 30. 

<ra/co/)o* sacra', nom. sg. f. (?), no. 62. 

81,257, p. 258. 
sakrasias '*sacrariae', nom. pi. f., no. 

28. 254. 



Glossary and Index — Oscan 


sakrim ^hostiam^ no. 81 a, sakrim, 

no. 19 11 ; — abl. sg. sakrid, no. 30 ; 

— abl. pi. sakrisis, no. 29. 81, 187, 

2, 257, 2. 
aakruvit *8acrat', no. 22 ; — fut. 3 sg. 

sakrvist, no. 21. 81, &, 214, 3, 221, 

262, 3. 
Sadiriis ^Satrius% gent., no. 12. 81, 

157, 2, 246, 1, a. 
Safinim ' Sainnium', nos. 50, 80. Ftu. 

p. 3, 81, 125, 1, a, 172. 
Saidiieis * Saedii\ gen. sg., gent., no. 

22. 174. 
Saipinaz ^Saepinas', no. 40. 259, 3. 
Saixii's**Saepinus% cogn., no. 66. 
Salaviis ^Salvius% gent., no. 36 ; 80, 1, 

258, 3; — o-aXo^s, salavs ^salvus^ or 

' Salvus' (fragments). 80, 1, 258, 1. 
Santia. 169, 12. 
Sarinu, Sar/nu ^^Sarina*, name of a 

gate at Pompeii, ace. pi. n., nos. 14- 

scnyitas *scriptae', nom. pi., no. 2 25. 

Selisimbrfis**Sezembrius\ gent., no. 

senateis ^senatus', gen. sg., no. 1 8, 35, 

senateis, no.'2 3, 6. 259, 2. 
Sepis * Seppius^ praen., no. 32; — 

gen. sg. S^pieis, no. 33. 174. 
Seppiis * Seppius', gent., no. 10. 174. 
sereykid *auspicio,' abl. sg., no. 3. 

80, 1, 173, 5, 256, 3. 
Seo-rtes, see under F. 
set, sent, see siim. 

Sidikinud ' Sidicino', abl. sg., no. 77. 
slfel * sibi', no. 20 ; 86, 3, 193 with a ; — 

ace. sg. siom, no. 2 5, 6, 9 ; 193 with c. 
sipus *sciens', jao. 2 5, 14. 90, 1, 6, 

99, 1, 225, 306, p. 235. 
S/r., abbr. cogn., no. 1 1. 
Siuttiis * Suttius', gent., no. 3. 56. 
siuom *omnino', no. 2 22. 15, 12, 190, 

5, 258, 1. 

Slabiis ^ Stlabius, Labius', gent. , no. 41. 

slagi^ ^ regionem, finls% no. 1 34, 54 ; — 

abl. sg. [tip] slaagid *ad finem^ no. 

1 12; 300, 5. 114, p. 229. 
Smintiis *Smintius\ gent., no. 37 a, b. 

?s]iUlad, see sulliis. 
siim 'sum', nos. 33, 39, 41 a; 217, 1; 

— pres. indie. 3 sg. est, nos. 27-28, 
ist, no. 1 (passim); 217, 2; — pres. 
indie. 3 pi. sent, no. 44, set, nos. 
26-28, 45 1, set, no. 2 25 ; 108, 2 ; — 
imper. 3 sg. estud, no. 1 40, 44, estiul, 
no. 2 (passim) ; 217, 3 ; — imperf. 
indie. 3 pi. fufans, no. 1 lo ; 102, 
2, 220 ; — imperf. subj. 3 sg. fnsfd, 
no. 1 19; 217,3,288 ;— fut.3sg.fust, 
nos. 29, 30, /u8^, no. 2 (passim); 221 ; 
— perf. indie. 3 pi. fufens, nos. 27-28 ; 
227 ; — perf. subj. 3 sg./uid, no. 2 28- 
29 ; — fut. perf. 3 sg. fust, no. 2 28-29; 

— pres. infin. ezum, no. 2io. 217, 

1, 2, 3. 

siiyad'sua^ abl. sg. f., no. 56; — 

ace. sg. f . suvam, no. 19 i ; — gen. 

sg. m. suveis, no. 1 9, 35. 194 with 

Sp., abbr. praen., *Spedius' or *Spu- 

rius', no. 27. 
Ziredis *Spedius', praen., no. 66. 
S]^riis *Spurius', gent., no. 11; — 

gen. sg. Spuriieis, no. 17. 174. 
Staatiis, see Statiis. 
Staf [iijanam ' Stabianam\ no. 3. 
staflatas 'statutae% nom. pi. f., no. 26. 

136, 248, 2. 
stalls * Stains', gent., no. 47. 176, 

2, 3. 

stalt *stat', no. 45 48 ; — 3 pi. stahlnt, 
stahint, no. 25 a, b, staiet, nos. 1 58, 
26. 99, 2, 215, 1, 2. 

statif ^statua', no. 45 (passim). 99, 2, 

181,a.^J^c.J<>^0^ i/f^^r\ 2f///r -t 

/♦•■•: • -• - ^ I .- ,, 


Glossary and Index — Oscan 


Statiis *Statius% praen., no. 20; — 
gen. sg. ZraTTii/ts, no. 62 ; 64 ; — 
gent. Stoatiis, no. 49. 99, 2. 

statiis ^stati, erectly uom. pi., no. 45 1. 
99, 2, p. 256. 

Stents ' Stenius% praen., no. 52, ^revis, 
no. 62, Steni, no. 20, Sten . . . , no. 48. 

sullus * omnes% nom. pi. m. , no. 40 ii ; — 
nom. pi. f. [sjullas, no. 40 12; — gen. 
pi. avUvLfn, no. 40 is, sulum, no. 21 ; — 
adv. suluh *■ omnino% no. 199; 188, a, 
190,2;— ,?[s]tillad *ubique', no. l56; 
190, 3, p. 230. "Solium Osce totum 
etsoldum significat.^^ **Sollo Osce 
dicitur id quod nos totum vocamus." 
Festus ed. Thewrewk, pp. 412, 426. 
255, 1. 

<rvx*8uV. 802. 

supruis ^superis', dat.-abl. pi., no. 19?; 
— supr. *8upra'(?), no. 19 10. 55, 
188, 2. 

suyels, see stivad. 

8val*si', conjunction, no. 1 41, aval, 
no. 19 (passim), suae, no. 2 (passim). 
62, 102, 1, 202, 14. 

syeminei * arbitro, spokesman' (?), dat. 
sg., no. 1 2. 87, a, 96, 115, 2, 
247, 2, p. 229. 

T., abbr. praen., * Titus' (?), no. 16. 
^., see ttivtiks. 

i<*censeat', no. 2 10. 127, 1, a. 


rav/ooAA Haurum'. no. 64. 61, 2, a, 68. 
teer[dm] *territorium', nom. sg. n., 

no. 1 12, teriim, no. 1 I8 ; — gen. sg. 

tereis, no. 1 21 ; — loc. sg. teref , no. 

Ii9, 46, 49. 76, 4, 115, 1. 
tefuriim^bumt-offering', nom. sg. n., 6H^ ^ 

no. 46 17, 45. 15,13,81,118. ^'^^^<-a^s^c 
teras * terrae', gen. sg. (or ace. pi. ?)jitt^c^cKu 

no. 19 11. 116, 2, note. ^f^-^i^ 

teremenniii *termina', nom. pi. n., ^^o.i^f^"^^ 

115,57; 162, 1,178, 12; — dat. -abl.^Q^^ 

pi. teremn/ss, no. 1 14 ; 178, 12. 80, y^g^ ^ 

1, 88, 4, 108, 1, 247, 8. "^iW " 

teremnatten8'terminaverunt',no.3; — q 

te[r]emnatust *terminataest', no. 8 ;*V]^' , 

84. 262, 1, p. 240. J^^l. I 

tfeiHibi', no. 19 3. 86, 8, 124, 198*^^*^' ^ 

with a. (ul^JclIl 

thesayriim Hhesaurum', ace. sg. T^^ttjlJi^u\. 

no. 1 48-49; — loc. sg. thesaYref, (jPk^^ 

no. l52. 21, 68. 
Tianud *Teano', abl. sg., no. 77 ;— loc. tti,utA 

sg. Tiianei, no. 44. 88, 1. ^^^^ li 

Tiiatium 'Teatinorum', no. 78. 88, 1. 5^-<Ji 2^ 
tiium*tu', no. 19 5, tiu, no. 55. 198 (iJj^ 

with c. 
Tintiriis *Tintirius', gent., no. 60. 

88, 3, 246, 1, a. 
Tirentium*Terentiorum', praen., no. 

21. 38, 2. 
tiurrl*turrim', nos. 14, 15. 21, 56, 

109, 2. 

282. >)LvLC>iv-Ai^^ >-> ^fi"^:- M'itidtilVtuvtlks * publicus' (*tuticus' inLivy; 

afidins **Tafidinub', cogn., no. 47. 

260, 2. 
Tanas. 169, 12. 
tanginom *sententiam', no. 2 9 ; — gen. 

sg. tangineia^ no. 2 9; — abl. sg. tan- 

giniid, no. 1 (passim), tanginud, 

no. 4, tanginud, no. 2 3, 7, abbr. 

tangi[n]., no. 5, [ta]ngin., no. 11. 

16, 11, 98, a, 181,247, 1. 
Tantmnailim **Tantemeiorum\ nos. 

29, 30. 61, 3, 91, 2, 258, 1. 

see 15, 6), no. 41; 145, 2;— ttiv- 
[tlkji, no. 48 ;— abbr. tiiv., nos. 7-9, 
t., nos. 46, 47 ; — nom. sg. f. toutico, 
no. 2 23; — ace. sg. n. touticom, no. 
2 10 ; — gen. sg. f. \touti]cas, no. 2 5 ; 
— loc. sg. f., abbr. tuvtik., no. 81 a, 
tuv., no. 33, t, no. 26; — abl. sg., 
abbr. tiiv., no. 18, tAvtik., no.31 b (?). 
15, 2, 6, 44, 71, 187, 1, 256, 2. 
touto 'civitas, populus', no. 2 9, is, 
TwfTo, no. 62; 24, 61, 2, a; — ace. 


Glossari/ and Index — Oscan 


8g. tovJtam^ no. 2 19 ; — abl. sg. tou- 

tad, no. 2 14, 31. 15, 2, 71. 
<r., abbr., Hribunus', no. 2 30. 
Trebiis *Trebius% gent., no. 9. 
Tpe^is *Trebius', praen., no. 66, abbr. 

Tr., nos. 9, 26, 46. 
tribarakkiuf aedificium\ nom. sg. f., 

no. 137,42. 15,14,68,162,1,247,1, 

268, 1. 
triibarak[aytim] ^aedificare', no. 1 38, 

tribarakayi^m, no. 1 36; 50, 88; — 

perf. sabj. 8 pi. tribarakattfns, no. 

1 48; 228, 284, note; — fut. perf. 

3 pi. tribarakattuset, no. 1 39, 43. 

15, 14, 82, 3, 80, 1, 268, 1. 
trfibiim^domum', ace. sg. f., no. 4, 

[tr]llbu, no. 17; — abl. sg. trfbud, 

no. 18. 16, 14, 94, 171, 14. 
trlsHres^ nom. pi., no. 26. 41, a, 

82, 1, 191, 3. 
tristaamentud Hestamento% abl. sg., 

no. 4. 91,2,247,3, 290. 
trstus * testes', nom. pi. , no. 40. 91, 2. 
trutum *quartum'(?), ace. sg., no. 2 is ; 

— trutas, case uncertain, no. 19 13. 

191,4, p. 237. 
turumiiad Horqueatur, suffer torture', 

no. 19 9. 88, 1, 80, 1, 146, 212, 1, 

262, 2. 
tuyaiHuae', dat. sg., no. 19 ii. 194. 

udy. . . , no. 19 7. Possibly for ud/[a- 
kium * efficere', but very doubtful 
(prefix ud-, Skt. wd-, not otherwise 
known in Italic). 

ufteis ^optati, voluntatis', gen. sg., no. 
19 7; — nom. pi. uhftis ^ voluntates, 
wishes', no. 40. 121 with note, 247, 
1, a. 

ulas411ius', no. 19 4, 12. 197, 3. 

-uw, enclitic particle. 50, 201, 6. 

ungulus * anulus'. " Ungulus Oscorum 
lingua anulus." Festus ed. Thew- 
rewk, p. 670. 

Upfals, Upils, see under 6. 

upsed, uupsens, etc., see iipsaimam. 

Urufiis'Orfius', gent., no. 38. 80, 1, 

wriwi 'oraverit, egerit', fut. perf. 3 sg., 

no. 2 14, 16. 17, 16, 21, 211, 

uruvu*curva, flexa'(?), nom. sg. f., 

no. 1 56. 80, 1, p. 230. 
usur8*08ores'(?), ace. pi., no. 19 2. 

117, a, 188, 178,10. 

teoZaemom ^optimum', ace. sg. n., no. 

2 10. 97, 189, 2. 
Valaimas ^Valaemae', gen. sg., no. 

19 4, 8, 10 (and so to be read in 11. 3, 

9, 13, for Valamais, Valaims, Valai- 

yehiian., see eehiianasdm. 
Velliam ^Velliam', gent., no. 20. 

169, 12. 
Verehasidi **Versori'(?), no. 46 11, 

Verehasiii, no. 46 39 (171, 3, 

a), Cf. Aiovfci fepffopety no. 64, 

and Grk. Zei); Tpowcubt. 80, 1, 

yereiiai * iuventuti' (?), no. 4 ; — gen.© C^^tftVj 

sg. yereias, no. 61 , yeTehias(?), no. 30. ^^^ ^ 

61, 3, 268, 2, p. 240. fi)< rff^ /f^H***^ 
fcpffopei ** Versori' , no. 64. Witn Acovf ei L^^^J^^m 

fcfxropei compare Grk. Zei^ T/wroibs.^ amm 

101,115,3,188. ^fZ 

yeni *portam', ace. pi. n., no. 15, vcr., ^'ji^/^ 

no. 14 ; dat. abl. pi. yeruls, no. 26. jf^ 

16,15. fC^ 

Vestirikiiiii * Vestricio', dat. 8g.,no. 1 1. 

81, 174, 246, 1, a, 256, 4. 
Vesulliais **Vesulliis', probably the 

name of a festival, no. 26, Vesnliais, 

no. 34. 107, 3, p. 247. 
Vesulliais **Vesullieius', gent., no. 46. 

176, 3, 258, 1. 
Vezkel*Vetusci'(?), no. 452,28. 856,j 


Glo8%ary and Index — Umbricm 


Vibiiai*Vibiae*, dat. sg., praen.(?), 

no. 19 3, 10. 
Vibis * Vibius', praen., nos. 37-38, Vil- 

bis, no. 68; — abbr. V., nos. 4, 7, 8, 

12, 14, 16, 17 ; — gen. sg., abbr. Vi., 

nos. 29, 30. 174. 
Vifnikiis ' Vinicius' , gent. , no. 4. 21 , 

174, 256, 4. 
uincter *convincitiir', no. 2 21. 44, 

148, 218, 3. 
yUl *via\ nom. sg., no. 1 56, vlu, no. 3 ; 

— ace. sg. ylam, nos. 1 33, 3, via, no. 
3 ; 109, 2 ; — loc. sg. viai, no. 1 57 ; 

— ace. pi. y lass, no. 3. 81, a, 101. 

Vlrriis, Vlrrliis *Verrius', gent., no. 
20; — gen. sg. Vlrriiels, no. 26, Vir- 
riieis, no. 32; — gen. pi. Viriium, 
no. 34. 88, 2, 174, 176, 6. 

Vltclid atalia', no. 79 a, VitelliA also 
found. 5, 89, 6, 162, 1, 250, 2. 

zicolom *diem', no. 2 14, zico.,, no. 2 15 ; 
— loc. sg. zicel[ei, no. 2 7; — abl. 
sg. ziculud, no. 2 16; — nom. or ace. 
pi. d]iikiilus (fragment) ; — gen. pi. 
zicolom, no. 2 17 ; 268 ; — abl. pi. 
zicolois^ no. 2 25. 81, 88, 4, 100, 3, 
c, 184, a, 249, 2. 


a., abbr., * asses', v b 10 etc., vii b 4. 
aanfehtaf 4nfectas, non coctas' (?), 

iia33. 78, a, 268, 2. 
oftro/ *apros', vii a 3, apruf, i b 24, 33. 

157, 1, 171, 11, a. 
abrunu 'aprum', ii a 11; — ace. pi. 

aJbrons, vii a 43. 157, 1, 181, b. 
Acesoniam-e ' in Acedoniam ' (Aquilo- 

niam ?), a district of Iguvium, ^i b 52 

(181, &), Akefuniam-em, ib 16; — 

loc. sg. Acersoniem, vii a 52 (109, 1), 

Akehinie, i b 43. 54, 144, a. See 

under O. Akudunniad. 
acnu *annos' (?), ace. pi. n., v b 8 etc. 

159, a, 299, 7. 
^akrutu, see ager. 
adro *atra,' ace. pi. n., vii a 25, atru, 

i b 29 ; — dat. -abl. adrir, vii a 9 etc. , 

adrer, vii a I8. 167, 2. 
afero, aferum, see anferener. 
afiktu * infigito', i a 31. See an- and 

aflfcr*ager', no. 84 ; 91, 2, 117 ; — gen. 

sg. dgre, v b 9, 14 ; — abl. sg. akru-tu, 

va9. 82, 1. 

aha-, ah-, a- 'ab-\ 77, 2, 264, 1. 

vii a 23, 36, atripursatu, vi b 16, atro- 

pusatu, vi b 36 (86, 7), ahtrepufatu, 

ii a 24 etc. , atrepufatu, ii b is. 51, a, 

264, 1. 
a Aauendifc *averti to', vii a 27. Cf. 16, 

21, 161, 264, 1. 
ahesnes ^ahenis', iii is, 19. 83, 114, 

255, 3. 
ahtim-em 'ad caerimonium' (?), ib 12; 

— ahtis-per *pro caerimoniis', iii 24, 

29. 247, 1, a. 
Ahtu '*Actui, deo Agonic', iia 10, 11. 

184, 251, 6. 
aitu *agito', imperat. sg., vib is, vii a 

40, 45, aitu, i b 29, 37, pi. aituta, iii 13. 

aiu * agitationes, disturbances' (?), ii a 4. 

147, 3. 
alfu *alba', ace. pi. n., ib 29; — dat.- 

abl. pi. aljir, vii a 25, 26, alfer, vii a 

32, 34. 124. 
am-, an-, a-, ambr-, ampr-, apr- * amb-'. 

89, 1, 161 with a. 

1 Alphabetical order as in Latin, but with k under c; r, rs, after r; 9, «, after s, 
U for is put under when forms with o are also found, otherwise under u. 

r i/i^ 

328-^_ Glossary and Index — Um bria n- 


amboUu * ambulato^vi h 52. 161,218, 
l,a. (UriU^^^^ 

am&refuren^, ambretuto, see amprehtu. 

amparitu^conlocato, set up\ imperat., 
iii 14 ; — imperat. pass, amparihma 
* surgito, raise oneself^ , ii a 43. 216, 
1, 264, 1, 808, b. 

ampentu ^impendito' (see p. 302), im- 
perat. sg., iiaso, iii 23, ampetu, iib 
10, 11, apentu iii 37 (cf. 108, 1, 185) ; 
— jfut 2 sg. anpenes, ii b 27 (n from 
nd by 185); — fut. pert 2 sg. apelus, 
ii b 27, 3 sg. apelust, v a i7. 107, 3, 
185, 226, 264, 1. 

amperia, a portion of the victim, per- 
haps the *part about the foot', abl. 
sg., iia29. 161 y a. 

amprehtu *ambito', imperat. sg., i b 21, 
apretu, ib20 (cf.l08,l),pl.am6re<uto, 
vi b 56, 63, 64 ; — fut. perf . 2 sg. am- 
prefuus, i b 20, 3 pi. ambrefurent, 
vib56; 227. 161,217, 4. 

an-^ a- 4n-', verbal prefix. 264, 1. 

an-, a- *in-', negative prefix. 98, 
268, 2. 

andendu *intendito, imponito', vii a25, 
antentu, iia20, iii 15 etc., iv 21, 27, 
atentu, iib 28. 185, 156, 264, 1. 

ander-, anter- * inter-'. 98, c, 166, 
801, 1. 

andersiatu * *intersidito, intervenito', 
vi a 6 ; 114; — fut. perf. 3 sg. ander- 
sesust, vi a 7. 222, note. 

anderuacose * *intervacatio, intermissio 
8it'(?),vi b 47, anteryakaze, i b 8. 85, 
247, 1, a, p. 306. 

anderuomu * inter ', abl. sg., vi b 

41. 298. 

andiraafust ' circumtulerit, lustraverit', 
vii a 46, anderaafust, viib 3, atefafust, 
i b 40. 181, 161, a, 164, a, 210, &, 
217, 227. 

anferener * circumf erendi, lustrandi', 
vi a 19 ; 186 ; — infin. afero, vi b 48, 


• / 

une, viae; 

aferum, i b 10 ; 108, 1. 161, a,^4, 
a, 217. 

ajifirZc^ * oscines', ace. pL, vi a 5, angh 
vi a 1 etc., ancla, vi a I8 ; — nom. pl\ 
anctor, via I6. 16, 12, 166, 264, ll 

anglom-e *ad angulum', vi a 9 ; — 
glvrto *ab angulo', vi a 8, 10. 166. 

anhostatu ^non hastatos% vi b 60, anoa- 
tatu, viia48; — dat; pi. anhoatatir, 
vii a 28, 50, anoatatir, vi b 62, vii a 13, 

15. 98, 99, 3, 149, a, 268, 2. 
anouihimu *induitor', vi b 49. 16, 13, 

216, 1, 287, 264, 1. 

anpenes, see ampentu. 

arwerioto'observatum', supine, 
aaeriato, vi a 1, 6, anzeriatu, i b 10 ; 
57, 242 ; — pres. subj. 1 sg. aaeriaia, 
vi a 2 ; — pres. imperat. sg. aaerio, 
vi a 4 ; 285 ; — - fut. imperat. sg. aae- 
riatu, vi b 47, azeriatu, i b 8 ; — perf. 
pass, partic. abl. pi. aaeriater, vi a 1, 
anzeriates, i a 1, ii a 17. 102, 4, 108, 
1, 110, 1, 210, &, 264, 1. 

anstintu ^distinguito', iii 20, astintu, 
iii 18, 19. 146, 158, 264, 1. 

anatiplatu ^stipulator', vi a 3. 264, 1. 

anpif, in pustin anpif, probably 4n 
vices, by turns', ii a 25. 144, 299, 7. 

anaihitu *non cinctos', vi b 59, anaihitu, 
vii a 48 ; — dat. pi. anUhitir, vi b 62, 
vii a 13 etc. 78, 144, 268, 2. 

antakres ^ntegris', abl. pi., ii a 42, 
antakre, i b 36, 38. Always in the 
phrase antakres kumates^vnth the 
whole and the broken (cakes?)'. 
82, 3, 268, 2, 825. 

antentu, see andendu. 

anter, see ander, 

antermenzaru *■ intermenstruarum', ii a 

16. 110, 1. 
antefafust, see andiraafust. 
anzeria-, see anseriato. 

ap6* cum, ubi' (always temporal), vib 
5 etc. (17 times), ape, i b 34 etc. 

J'VOJi^tS' XJ 



V r 



(-./. u. 

^-<JLV ^-. I ^ 


1 1 


^ \ v: 

Glossary ar^ Index — Umbri^n ., 

(8 times), api, i a 37, 90, 33, ap, iii 20, 
iv3i, appei^ viib 3. 16, 14, 189, 1, 
802, 8. 

apehtre *ab extra, extrinsecus\ adv., 
iv 15. 142, 188, 2, 268, 3, a, 264, 1. 

apelust, apentu, see ampaitu. 

aplenia 4mpleta% ace. pi. n., ii a 23 ; — 
dat.-abl. pi. aplenies, iia 23. 161, a. 

apretu, see amprehtu. 

apnif , see abrof, 

ar-f ar- 'ad-% see under ars-, af-. 

amipo * donee, until', vi b 25, 41. 202, 
10, 819. 

arplataf ^arculatas, circular cakes% iy 
22. Cf. ^^arculatadlcebanturcirculi 
qui ez farina in sacrificiis fiebant.*' 
Festus ed. Thewrewk, p. 12. 154, 
249, 1. 

arvam-en 'in arvum', iii ii; — loc. sg. 
arven, iii I3. 

arvia'^arvia, frumenta, fruits of the 
field*, ace. pi. n., ia3etc. (7 times), 
arviu, i a 12 etc. (12 times), arnyia, 
iii 31 (81, b), aruiOf vi a 56 etc. (12 
times); — abl. pi. arves, ia 6 etc. 
(11 times), arvis, i a 27,'i b? (178, 5). 
81, a, 102, 1. 

ars-j ai' 'ad-\ 182 with a, 299, 1. 

-af, -a*ad'. 188,6,299, 1. 

afkani 'cantum', iv 28. 82, 8, 250, 1. 

af epes ' adipibus, fatty portions*, abl. 
pi., i a 6 etc., afipes, i b 7, afpes, 
ia 13 (182), afeper, i b 30, 33, afiper, 
i a 27, afepe, i b 26, 44, ii a 7. An 
0- or d-stem, not a consonant-stem 
as in Latin. Occurs always in a 
phrase with following arves (see 
825), hence sometimes with final r 
even in Old Umbrian (cf. treatment 
before enclitics, 118, a). 

arsfertur '*adfertor, flamen*, vi a 8, 
arfertur, vi a 3, vii b 3, affertur, i b 41, 
ii a 16, v a 3, 10 ; — dat. sg. arsferture, 
vi a 2, af ferture, v b 3, 5, 6 ; — ace. 

f ■ 


sg. ar^erturo, vi a 17. 182 with a, 
246, 1. 

arsie ' sancte% voc. sg., vi a 24, vi b 8, 
27 ; — gen. sg. arsier, vi a 24, vi b 27, 
osier, vi b 8. Probably from the j, 
same root as ar«mor' ritus'. 

arsir * alius'(?), vi a 6, 7. 106, o, p. 802. 

arsT^ia^amo 'ordinamini% vib56, ar- 
mamu, ibi9(182,a). 16, 16, 287, a, ^^^ 
251,3. \, 

arsmatiam * ritualem,official% vib 49, so, 
arsmatia, vi a 19 etc. 16, 15, 251, 3. 

arsmor 'ritus', nom. pi., vi a 26 etc.* *i ' 
(4 times), 171, 13 ; — ace. pi. aramo, ^ 
vi a 30 etc. (10 times), dsmo, vi a 49. 
16, 15, 251, 3. 

Ahnune **Admono' or **Admoni', epi- 
thet of Jupiter, dat. sg., ii b 7. 247, 
2, a. Perhaps from the same root 
as arsmor, 

afpeltu'adpellito, admoveto', iia 32, 
ubi9, iv8. 182. 

afputrati ' arbitratu* , v a 12. 59,251,6. 

arsueitu 'advehito, addito% vi a 56 etc. 
(11 times), ahreitu, ii a 12 etc. (5 
times), arueitu, vi b 23, arveitu, i b 6 
(182, a), ayeitu, iv 1. 182 with a, 
148, 160. 

cisa *ara\ abl. sg., vi a 9, asa, iii 23, 
iv 16, e-asa 'ex ara', ii a 38, asa-ku 
'apud aram% ii a 39, 43 ; — asam-af 
*ad aram\ iv 6, asam-a, ii a 39, iv 16, 
aaam-e 'ad aram\ vi a 10 (cf. 801, 2); 
— dat. sg. ase, ii a 19, iii 22. 88, 
112, a. 

aaeria-, see anseriato, 

asepeta * non secta\ abl. sg., ii a 29 ; — 
abl. pi. asepetes, iv 7. 211, 268, 2. 

asiane, meaning uncertain, probably 
loc. sg., i a 25. 

osier, osmo, see ors-, 

asnata 'non umecta', ace. pi. n., iia 19, 
asnatu, ii a 34 ; — abl. pi. asnates, 
iia37, iv9. 114, 268,2, 825. 


Q-loBBary and Index — Umhrian 





080 *arsum', perf. pass, partic, yi b 50. 
242, a, 244, 1, c. 

astintu, see anstintu. 

Apetus ^dis Ancitibu8% ii a 14. 

atentu, see andendu. 

Otero ^ malum, ruin', ace. sg. n., viia 
11, 27. p. 308. 

atefafust, see andirsafust. 

Atiersir *Atiedius\ adj., vii b 3; — 
dat. sg. n. Atiierie, v a 16, ii a i, 3 ; — 
nom. pi. Atiersiury vb u, 16, Atiie- 
fiur, V a 1, 14 ; — gen. pi. AtiersiOj 
vii b 2, Atiief iu, ii a 21, v a 12, etc. ; 
— dat.-abl. pi. Atiersier, vii b 1, Ati- 
ersir, V b 8, 14, Atiiehes, iii 24, Atiie- 
her, V a 4, 16 (or gen. sg.?), Atiierie, 
iia2, iii 29. 172,260,2. 

Atiiefate *Atiedati% dat. sg., ii b 2. 
259, 3. 

atripursatu, atropusatu, etc.', see aha- 

atru, see adro. 

auie *augurio\ dat. sg., vib 11. 186, 
248, 8, a. 

aviekate ^auspicatae% dat. sg., ii a 1, 3. 
^ 248, 3, a. 

auiec^a ^augurali*, abl. sg. f., vib 52, 

, Aviekla, i b 14 ; — ace. pi. m. auiehclu, 

■. vi a 10, auieclu, vi b 51, aviekluf-e, 

i b 14 ; — abl. pi. auiehcleir, vi a 9, 

auieclir, vi a 12, 13. 248, 3, a. 

aui/* avis', ace. pi., vi b 47, 48, audf, 
vi a 4, 18, auuei, vi a 3 (24, a), avif, 
i b 8, avef, i b 10 ; — abl. pi. aueis, 
vi a 1 (29), avis, iiaie, aves, i a 1. 101. 

auirseto *non visum', vi a 28 etc., vi b 
30. 244, 4, 263, 2. 

azeriatu, see anseriato. 

benus * veneris', fut. perf. 2 sg., ii b I6, 
3 sg. henust, vi b 53, 3 pi. henurent, 
vi b 57, benurent, v a 25, 28, v b 5 ; 
224 ; — fut. perf. pass, benuso *ven- 
tum erit', vi b 64, 65, vii a 2 ; 838, 2 ; 

— fut. 2 sg. menes, i b 15 ; 125, 2, a, 

164, a. 151. 
berva 'verua', lia 26, 33; — abl. pi. 

benis, iia23, 35. 161. 
bio *sacellum' {?), no. 83. Cf. Pael. 

biam, Etjrm. uncertain. 
bum * bovem', ii a 5 ; — abl. sg. bue, vi a 

25 etc. ; — ace. pi. buf, vi a 22, vi b 

1, 19, buf, i a 3, 11, 20 ; — gen. pi. &mo, 

vi a 54. 54, 151, 183 with 6. 

-c, -k, pronom. enclitic, 201, 1. 

cabriner *caprini', gen. sg., v b 12, 17. 
157, 1, 255, 6. 

kabru *eaprum', iib 17, kaprum, iib 1, 
kapru, ii b 10 ; — gen. sg. kapres, 
iib 12. 167,1. 

calersu *cal(l)idos, with a white fore- 
head', vi b 19, kalefuf , i a 20. 260, 

kanetu ^canito', iv 29. 88, 1, 141. 

capirse ^capidi', dat. sg., vib 24, 37, 
kapife, i a 29, 32, ii a 8 ; — ace. sg. 
capirsOj vi b 25 ; — abl. sg. kapife, 
ii a 34, 41 ; — ace. pi. capif, vi b I8, 
viia 39, 45 (189, 1), kapi, ib 29, 37, 
kapif, i a 18; 139, 1, 178, 10; — 
abl. pi. kapifus, ii a 33, iv 5. 

kartu ^distribuito', ii a 23. 17, 3. 

karu * pars', v a 24, 27, v b 4 ; — dat. sg. 
karne ^cami', ii a 1, 3; — abl. sg. 
karne *■ came', ii a 30 ; — abl. pi. kar- 
nus 'camibus', iv 7. 17, 8, 97, 181 
with c. 

carsitu 'calato, appellate', imperat., vi 
a 17, vii a 43, kafetu, i b 33, kid^tu, 
iii 21. 106, 212, b. 

carsom-e, name of some building or 
locality at Iguvium, vi a 13, 14. 
Etym. uncertain. 

Casiler **Casili', gen. sg., vb 14. 

Casilos **Ca8ilas', nom. sg., vb 13; — 
dat. sg. Casilate, v b 16, Kaselate, iib 
6. 85, 259, 3. 


Grlossary and Index — Umbrian 


Kastrupiie '*Castrucii', gen. sg., gent., 
vas. 174,256,6. 

cttstrw) * capita' (?), ace. pi., vi a 30 etc. 
(11 times), kastruYuf, v a 13, 18, 
kastniYU, v a 20, 22. 17, 2, 82, 1, 
188, 171, 13, 248, 4, a, ftn. p. 236 f. 

katel *catulus', ii a 43; — gen. sg. 
katles, ii a 32, 27, katle, ii a 15 ; — 
ace. sg. katlu, ii a I8, 20, 29. 88, 4. 

caterahamo ' *catervamini, form in 
troops,' vi b 56, kateramu, i b 20. 
102, 4, 287, a. 

kazi, iii I6, 18^ meaning and etym. un- 

kebu 'cibo', iv 23. 128, 144, a. 

ceh^ * accensum sit' (?), perf . subj. pass. 
3 sg., vi a 20. 144, a, 227, 288, 2, 

cistemo *cistema', nom. sg., no. 83. 

Clauemiur **Clavemii' , nom. pi. , v b s ; 
— dat. pi. Clauerni, v b 10, Klayer- 
nile, ii b 3. 178, 8. 

klavlaf * clunis', ace. pi. , ii a 33 ; — abl. 
pi. klavles, ii a 36, iv 11. From *kldn 
uela- (cf. L. cldvaj cldoola)^ by 88, 4. 

kletram * lecticam', iii 13 ; — abl. sg. 
kletra, iii 13, iv 24 ; — dat. sg. kletre, 
iii 14. 248, 4. 

Kluyiier * Cluvii', gen. sg., gent., v a 15. 

com, -co(7n), -ka(m) *cum', prepos. 
298 with a. 

com-, CO-, ku- *con-'. 800, 2. 

combifiaJtu *nuntiato, mandato', im- 
perat. sg., vi a 17 etc. (5 times), 
kumpifiatu, i b 14, kupifiatu, i b 35 
(108, 1) ; — pres. subj. 2 sg. kupifiaia, 
i b 35 ; — perf. subj. 3 sg. combiflan^i, 
vi b 52 ; 229 ; — f ut. perf. 3 sg. combi- 
fian^iust, vi b 49, comhiflansmst, vi b 
52, combifiansust, viias; 229. 16, 
16, 86, 7, 186, 161. 

comohota ^commota, brought, offered', 
abl. sg., vi a 54. 17, 17, 244, 4, a. 

comoUu * commolito, break in pieces' 
(cakes), imperat., vi b 17, 41, vii a 39, 
44, 45, kumaltu, ii a 9, 41, iv 28, ku- 
multu, i a 34 ; — perf. pass, partic. 
abl. pi. comatir * commolitis', vi b 17, 
41, vii a 39, 44, 45, kumates, i a 34, 
ii a 42, iv a 29, kumate, i b 37, 38, ii a 
10. 97, 105, 2. 

conegos^ genu nixus', vi b 5, 16, vii a 
37, kunikaz, iv 15, I8, 20. 85, 146, b, 
158, b. 

Coredicr **Coredii', gen. sg., name of 
a god, vi b 45, Kureties, i b 4. 1 8 1 , a, 
260, 2. 

coweriw *revertito', imperat., vib47, 
yii a 44, 45, kuyertu, i b 9, 36, 38, ii a 
39 ; — fut. perf. 2 sg. kuvurtus, i b 11, 
3 sg. couortus, vii a 39, courtust, vi a 
6 (5 1) ; 224 ; — fut. perf. pass, couor- 

. tuso, vib64; 288, 2. 17, 13, 97, 
101, 800, 2. 

Crabouie, Krapuvi, see Grabouio-. 

krematra'*crematra', ace. pi. n., iia 
23, krematru, ii a 28, krematruf, ii a 
26; 171, 13. 248,4, p. 309. 

cringatro * cinctum', a sort of band 
worn about the shoulder as a token 
of office, ace. sg. , vi b 49,' krenka- 
trum, ib 11, krikatru, iib27, 29. 
89, 3, 161. 

Cu&rar ^Bonae', gen. sg., name of a 
goddess, no. 83. Cf. **Ciprumsabine 
bonum", Varro L. L. 6, 169. From 
the root of L. cupio {br from pr by 
157, 1). 

kokehes 4ncendet, light up'(?), fut. 
3 sg., iii 21. 144, a. 

ku(m), see com. 

kumaltu etc., see comoUu. 

kumiaf, see gomia, 

kumnakle 4n conventu', loc. sg., iii 7, 
8, kumnahkle, v a 15. (Some prefer 
the dat. in v a 15, iii 7, and the gen. 
in iii 8.) 15, 4, 248, 3. 


Q-loBsary and Index — Umbrian 



kumne ^ comitio* , loc. sg. , i b 4i . 15,4, 

107, 2 withftn., 251, 2. 
kunikaz, see conegos, 
kupifiatu etc., see combiifiatu. 
kuraia ' curet*, pres. subj., vas; — 

perf. pass. part, kuratu, v a 34, S6, 

29. 67, 1, 112, 210, 1, 262, 1. 
Kureiate ^*Cariati% dat. sg., lib 3. 

Cf. 259, 8. 
Kureties, see Coredier. 
cumaco * comicem', vi a 2 etc. ; — abl. 

sg. curnase, vi a i ; 144. 51, 256, 6. 
kurplasiu ^ ^circulario, ultimo* (i.e. 

*that which completes the circle', 

and so *• last' ?), abl. sg., ii a 17. 97, 

kutef ^ murmuraDs, speaking low', i a 6 

etc., kutep, i b 3 (25, a). 262, 2, 

kuyeitu *convehito, congerito', ii a 32, 

40. 148, 160, 800, 2. 
kuvurtus, see couertu. 
kyestretie * quaestora', abl. sg., ib45, 

iia44. 246, 1, a, 251, 1. 
kyestur * quaestor', v a 23, v b 2. 21,68. 

daetom 'delictum', vi a 28 etc., yi b 30. 

800, 3. 
Dei, see Di. 
deitu *dicito', vib 56 etc., teitu, ii a 26 

etc. ; 148 ; — fut. perf. 3sg. dersicust, 

vi b 63, 3 pi. dersicurent, vi b 62. 45, 

95, 228. 
degwner* decuriis', festival of the de- 

curiae, vbu, 16, tekuries, ii b i. 

26, 191, 10,a, 251, 4. 
dersa, see dirsa. 
dersecor ' debiti', vi a 26 etc. , vi b 29 ; 

171, 13. Probably from ^de-deco- 

(L. decet). 
dersicust^ dersicurent, see deitu. 
dersua *prosperam', vi a 2 etc., desua, 

vib 51, 52, tesyam, ib 13. 132,6, 

258, 2. 

dcsendt^^'duodecim', ace. pi., viib2. 
144, 191, 10, 12, 868, 3. 

destram-e * in dextram', vi b 49 ; — loo. 
sg. m. destrCi vi b 50, testre e, ii b 27, 
28 ; — loc. sg. f . destre, vi b 4 ; — 
destm-co ^Bd dextrum', vib 24, 38, 
testru-ku, i a 29 ; — adv. testm sese 
* dextrorsum', iii 23, iv 15 ; 190, 2, 
807. 86, 1, 89, 1, 145, 1, 188, 2. 

dmeia * divinam', vi a 10 ; — abl. sg. 
deueia^ vi a 9. 258, 2. 

Di 'luppiter', voc. sg., vi a 25 etc. (29 
times), Bei^ vi a 26, 27 ; — ace. sg. 
Dei *Iovem', via 23, 24, 25. 188 
with o. 

dia *det, faciat', vi a 20. 102, 3. 

difue * bifidum', ace. sg. n., vi b 4. 102, 
3, 178, 1, 191, 2, a, 268, 1. • 

dirsa *det', pres. subj. 3 sg., vbi3, 
dersa^ vii a 43, 44, tefa, i b 34 etc., 
3 pi. dirsanSy v b 11, 16, dirsas^ v b 8 ; 
45, 181, 218, 4; — imperat. dirstu^ 
vi b 17, 38, 39, teftu, ii a 40 (182), 
tertu, iv28 (182, a), ditUy vib 10, 16, 
25, vii a 38, titu, i a 33, tetu, ii a 9, 
ii b 21 ; 182 with note ; — perf. 3 sg. 
dede, no. 82; 181, c, 228; — fut. 
perf. 3 sg. dirsusby vii a 43, tehist, 
i b 34 ; 228 ; — pres. pass. 3 sg. terte, 
va7; 182, 288, 1. 

disleralinsust *inritum fecerit', fut. 
perf., via 7. 114, 229, 862, 3, 
264, 1. 

ditUy see dirsa. 

dunum *donum', no. 82, also donu. 
107, 1, 181, c, 251, 2. 

dwr * duo', nom. m., vi b 50, vii a 46 ; 
54, 82, 2; — ace. f. tuf, ib4i; — 
ace. n. tuva, ii a 27, iii 32, 34 ; — dat.- 
abl. duir^ vb 10, 15, tuves, iii 19, 
tuver-e, ii a 33; 81, &. 191, 2. 

dupla 'binas', ace. pi. f. , vi b 18 ; — abl. 
pi. m. tupler, vai9. 191, 2, a, 
192, 1. 


Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


dupursus ^\)i^di\)us\ Yih. 10. 54,94, 

191, 2, a, 268, 1. 
dirfi 4terum% adv., vibes. 190, 5, 

191, 2. 

e 'ex% see ehe. 

-e'in', see -en. 

-e, -ci, pronom. enclitic. 201, 3. 

earn, eaf, see erec. 

ebetraf-e * in exitus', vi a 12, kebetafe^ 

vi b 53 (r probably omitted by mis- 
take). 149, a. 
-ec, -ek, pronom. enclitic. 201, 2. 
ecto'omni', abl. sg. f., viia ii, 27. 

Etym. uncertain. 
ekvine, loc. sg., ii a 13. 141, a. 
eest^ eetu^ see etu. 

ef ' ibi, tum ibi', adv. , vi a 4. 195, j^. 
efurfijXu ' expurgato'(?), vi b 17, vii a 38. 

p. 305. 
eAc *ex', vi b 54, e-asa *exara', ii a 38. 

e^e-, e- *ex-'. 77, 1, 300, 4. 
eJieturstaliamu * exterminato, expellito', 

vi b 55, eturstahmu, vi b 53, etuf s- 

tamu, i b 16. 16, 20, 77, 1, 131, a, 

287, 262, 1. 
eAioto * emissos', viib2. 149, 171, 

11, a, p. 308. 
ehvelklu *sententiam' (ehvelklu feia 

*take a vote'), v a 23, v b i. 36, 2, 

248, 3. 
ehueUu *iubeto', vi a 2. 15, 1, 217. 
eikyasati8'collegialibus'(?), iii 24, 29. 

29, a. 
eikyasese*collegis'(?), dat. pi. (or gen. 

sg.*collegii'?) va 4, 16. 29, a, p. 301. 
eine, see enem. 
eiscu rent * arcessierint', v b lo, 15. 29 , a, 

213, 6, 224. 
eitipes 'decreverunt', va2, 14. 84, 

149, a, 218, 264, 2. 
emantur 'accipiantur', v a a, emantu, 

vaio; — emp8*emptus',no.84. 17,9. 

en-. 301, 2. 

-en, -em, -e*in\ 109, 1, 301, 2. 
erufendu ^intendito, iinponito', vib40, 
49, ententu, ib 12, iii 15; 135, 156; 

— fut. perf . 2 sg. entelus, i b 12, 3 sg. 
entelust, vib 50; 107, 3, 135, 226. 

enem Hum, deinde', vii a 44, ene, i b 35, 
eine, via 10, 11. 202, 16. 

eTietu *inito', vi a 1, enetu, i a 1. 

enom Hum*, vi b 38 etc. (16 times), €no\ 
vi b 16 etc. (9 times), ennom, vi b sj 
etc. (5 times), enno, vii a 38, cnu, i b 
36 etc. (6 times) ; — enok, i a 30 etc. 
(3 times), inuk, ib 7 etc. (7 times), 
inumk, iv 23 ; — enumek, i b 11 etc. 
(7 times), inumek, iii 9 etc. (13 
times). 190, 5, 202, 16. 

erec * is', nom. sg. m., vii b 1, erek, v a 
11, ere, vi b 50, ere, v a 4 (201, 1); — 
nom. -ace. sg. n. erse 4d' (201, 1), 
via 8 (adv. *tum', viae), efek, ia 
30, V a 26 (adv. Hum', iii 33, 35, iv 3, 
21, 32); — gen. sg. m. erer *eius', via 
23 etc. (34 times), irer, vi a 25, erer-ek, 
iii 32 ; — gen. sg. f . erar, vi a 23 etCj 
(41 times); — ace. sg. f. earn, vib le, 
24 ; — abl. sg. m. n. eru-com, vi b 50, 
eru-ku, iii 3i (eruk, adv., HUic', iii 
14) ; — abl. sg. f . erak, iii 12 ; — gen. 
pi. erom, vii a 14, 50, ero, vi b 62, vii a 
13, 28, eru, va8 (266); — ace. pi. f. 
ea/, vii a 52, eaf , i b 42 ; — ace. pi. n. 
eo, vi a 20, eu, ii a 2, ii b 9. See also 
er-ont. 196. 

ereplu 'sacrarium', * shrine' or * altar', 
ace. sg., ivi3, ereplum-a, iii 35, iv 3, 
10, ereclum-af, iv e (aes ereplam-af); 

— loc. sg. ereple, iv 17, 19. 112, a. 
eretu, see heri. 

erietu *arietem', ii a e. 99, 4. 

erom, eru, see est. 

er-owi * idem', nom. sg. m., vib 24, 
eri-hont, vi b 50 ; — gen. sg. f . erar- 
unt, iv 1 ; — abl. sg. m. eru-hu, ii b 


Q-lossary and Index — Umhrian 


22 ; 128, 2, a ; — abl. sg. f . era-hunt, 

ib23, era-ford, vibes (201, 6); — 

nom. pi. m. eur-onJt, vi b 63 ; — abl. 

pi. m. erir-ont, vi b 48 ; — abl. pi. f . 

erer-unt, iv 5. 195, 201, 6. 
eruk 411ic', adv., iii 14. Abl. sg. of 

erec (cf. 190, 2). 
en«*magmentum'(?), ace. sg., vib 16, 

25, etc. (12 times), erus, i a 3d, i b 34, 

etc. (12 times). 112, a, p. 304 f. 
erse * turn', adv., vi a 6, efek, iii 33, 35, 

iv 3, 21, 32. See erec, 190, 6, 196, e. 
eskamitu, iv i, name given to some 

part of the struicula, but meaning 

esmei * huic', vi a 5, 18, esmik * ei', i a 28, 

31 ; — loc. sg. esme *in hoc', vi b 55. 

114, 195, c, 197, 1. 
eso 'hie', nom. sg. f., no. 83 ; — abl. sg. 

m. n. essu, vi a 43, esu, vi a 25 etc. 

(13 times), esu-ku, iv29 ; — abl. sg. 

f. e«a, vib 9, 14 ; — gen. pi. (?) esum- 

ek, i b 8, esom-6, vi b 47 ; — abl. pi. n. 

esir, vii a lo etc., istr, vii a 21, 34 

(89, 4), esis-co, vi a I8. 145, 3, 196. 
esoc * ita', adv., vi b 25, eso, vi a 2 etc. 

(14 times), iso, vi a 20 (89, 4), issoc, 

vii b 3 (89, 4), esok, v a 1, esu, ii a 3, 

V a 14. 54, 190, 2, 196, c. 
esono- *sacer,' adj., and neut. subst. 

* sacrum, sacrificium.' See sacri-, 

1) Adj. Dat. sg., f. esune, va 4; 

— abl. sg. f . esuna, v a 5 ; — ace. 
pi. f. eesona, via 18, esona, via 
3, 5. 

2) Subst. Nom. -Ace. sg. esono, via 
57, esunu, i b 9, 38, ii a 20, 21 , 42, iii 1, 14, 
iv 30, esonom-e, vi b .50, 52, esunum-e, 
i b 14, esunum-en, iii 20 ; — dat. sg. 
esone, vi b 11 ; — loc. sg. esune, v a 6 ; 

— gen. pi. (?) esono, vi b 47, esunu, 
i b 8 ; — ace. pi. esunu, ii a 2 ; — abl. 
pi. esoneir, via 18, esunes-ku, van. 
15, 3, 112, a, 256, 6. 

est 'est', via^8 etc. (very frequent), est, 
i b 18, ii a 15 ; — sent 'sunt', vi a 15 
etc. ; — pres. subj. 2 sg. sir, vi b 7, 26, 
si, vi b 26, set, vi a 23, 3 sg. 8i, vi a 
38, 48, si, y a 6 etc., sei, vi a 28 (see 
also anderuacose), 3 pi. sins 'sint', 
vii b 4, sis, V a 6 ; 282 ; — pres. infin. 
erom 'esse', vii b 2, era, v a 26, 29, 
V b 5 ; — - fut. 3 sg. fust, vi a 7 etc., 
fust, i b 7 etc., fv>s, vi b 40, 3 pi. 
furent, v a 22 ; 221 ; — fut. perf. 3 pi. 
fefure 'fuerint', iia4; 128, 2, a, 223; 

— imperat. sg. fvtu, vi a 30 etc. , futu, 
ii a 22 etc., pi. fvtuto, vi b 61. 209. 

esi'ibit', see etu. 

estu 'istum', ace. sg. m., ii b 24; — 
ace. sg. n. este 'istud', vi a 1 etc., 
este, i a 1 ; — ace. pi. n. esto, vi a 15, 
estu, ii a 2, ii b 23. 197, 4. 

esuf 'ipse', ii a 40, iv 15. 110, 6, 122, 
2, 197, 6. 

et, et 'et', vb 9, v a 6 etc. (very fre- 
quent). 92, 202, 16. 

etaians 'itent', pres. subj. 3 pi., vib 64, 
etaias, vi b 65, vii a 1 ; — imperat. pi. 
etato, vi b 63, etatu, i b 21, 22 ; 286, 
2, a. 210, 2, 262, 1. 

etantu 'tanta', nom. sg., v b 6. Prefix 
e- as in L. e-quidem, 

etram-a 'alteram', iii 34; — dat. sg. f. 
etre, ii b 2 etc. ; — abl. sg. n. etru, 
vi a 35, 38, 43 ; — loc. sg. etre, ii b 14 ; 

— ace. pi. f . etraf , i a I8 ; — dat. pi. 
m. etre, ii b 3, 4, 6 ; — abl. pi. n. 
etres, iii 18. 188, 2, a, 191, 2. 

etu 'ito', imperat. sg., vi b 48, vii a 39, 
eetu, vi b 54, etu, i b 10 etc. (66), pi. 
etuto 'eunto', vib 51, 52, 65, vii a 1, 
etutu, i b 15, 23, etuta, iii 11 ; — fut. 
3 sg. eest, vi a 2, est, vi a 6 ; 221 ; — 
fut. perf. 3 sg. iuM, via 7; 224, b; 

— pass. perf. subj. ier 'itum sit', 
vi b 54 ; 288, 2, 289, 820. 209. 

eturstahmu, see eheturstahamu. 


Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


en, see erec, 

euronl, see eront. 

eveietu *yoyeto% ii b 8, ii. 148, 212, b. 

ezariaf 'esca8^(?), iv S7. 112, a. 

fdhe, probably adv.,vb 13. Meaning 
and etym. wholly uncertain. 

famehas^,iib2. 106. 

/ar* far', vb lo, is; — gen. sg. farer, 
vb9, 14. 115, 1, a, 117, 182. 

faraio *farrea', ace. pi. n., vi b 2,/a«io, 
vi b 44, fasiu, ii a is. 89, 1, 115, 1, 
252, 2. 

fapefele **Bacrilicabilem*, ii b 9. 261. 

fapia *faciat% ii a n; 144; — feia 
*faciat', V a 23, V b 1 ; 219 ; — infin. 
fapiu, ii a 16, fa^, ii b 22; 100, 3, 6, 
144 with h ; — imperat. sg. fetu 
'facito', via 22 etc. (52 times), fetu, 
i a 3 etc. (48 times), feitu, vi b 3 etc. 
(5 times), feitu, i a 4 etc. (20 times), 
feetu, viia4i; 99, 1, 148, 219 with 
note ; — fut. perf. 8 sg. fakust, iv 3i, 
8 pi. facurent, viia 43, fakurent, ib 
34 ; — pass, partic. abl. sg. f eta, ii b 
13. 82, 1, 186, 214, 2, 219. 

fato 'factum'(?), vib ii. 825. 

fefare, see under est. 

feia, feitu, see under fapia. 

feliuf *lactentis', ace. pi., i a 14, Jiliu, 
vib 3. 42. 

felsva »holera'(?), va u. 21, 149, 6, 
/ 258, 2. 
^ ferime, see following. 

ferine * in feretro, ferculo'(?), vi a 57, 
vi b 1, 19, 43, 45, vii a 4, ferine, i a 4, 
13, 22, i b 3, 6, 25 (aes ferime), iii 16 
(aes ferime, here retained by some, 
as a different word), iii 31. 178, 6. 

/c?fu *ferto', imperat. sg. , \i b 50, fertu, 

ii a 17 etc. , pi. fertuta, iii 13 ; — fut. 3 

sg. ferest, ii a 26 ; 221 ; — pass. pres. 

subj./erar,yib50; 288,2,289. 86, 

. 1, 124, 217. 


fefehtru, meaning uncertain, ace. sg., 
iii 16, 18. 

fesnaf-e * in fanum', ace. pi., ii b I6 ; — 
loc. pi. fesner-e ' in fano% ii b 11. 99, 
1, 114, 186, 251, 2. 

f eta, fetu, see fapia. 

ficlam *offam, pellet, a kind of cake', 
vii a 42, Jicla, vi a 56 etc. (11 times), 
fikla, ii a is, 29 ; — ' gen. sg. fiklas, ii 
a 41 ; 266. 248, 3. 

fiktu*figito% ia28. 158. 

filiu, see feliuf. 

Fise *Fiso, deo Fidio', dat. sg., ia 15, 
Fiso, vi b 3. 187, 1, 171, 3, a. 

Fisio-, adj., epithet of ocri-, * the Fisian 
Mount'. Gen. sg. Fisier, vi a 30 etc. , 
Fisie, vi b 10 ; — dat. sg. Fisie, vi a 
40, Fisi, vi a 30 etc. (12 times), Fisei, 
vi a 23 (178, 2) ; — ace. sg. Fisim, vi 
a 41, 49, 51, Fisi, vi a 31 etc., Fisei, 
vi a 29 (29); — abl. sg. Fisiu, vi a 23 
etc., Fi88iu, vi a 43, Fisiu, i a 5 etc. ; 

— loc. sg. Fisiem, vi a 46 (169, 7, a), 
Fisie, vi a 26, 36, vi b 29. 252, 1. 

Fiaowma * pertaining to Fisovius', adj., 

abl. sg. f., vib 9, 14. 
Fisouio- **Fisovius', name of a god. 

Gen. sg. Fisouie, vi b 15 ; — dat. sg. 

Fisoui, vi b 5, vii a 37, Fisuvi, i a 17 ; 

— ace. sg. Fisoui, vi b 6, 8 ; — voc. 
sg. Fisouie, vi b 9 etc. 258, 4. 

fito 'fiium'(?), vib 11. 825. 
Fondlir-e * in *Fontulis, at the Springs', 

vii a 3, Funtler-e, i b 24. 249, 1. 
/orw* fa vens', vi a 42 etc. (13 times), 

fos, vi a 23 etc. (4 times) ; — gen. sg. 

foner, vii a 20 etc. ; — nom. pi. foner, 

vi b 61. 90, 1, 255, 2. 
-font, see -hont. 
/rcrfer *fratres', nom. pi., vb 11, fra- 

teer, v b I6, f rater, iii 5 etc. ; 76, 3, 

90, 1,117; — gen. pi. fratrom, vii b 1, 

fratrum, iii 10, fratru, ii a 21 etc. 

(9 times) ;;.— dat. pi. fratrus, vb8, 

(4 L ^i'^'t^ :.^^^ 


'"lK ^^' ^ <li^* A*^i -f^l 




Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


13, vii b 1 ; — abl. pi. fratnis-per, 

ii a 3, iii 23, 28. 88, 124, 246, 2. 
/mireca **fratrica, pertaining to the 

brotherhood', abl. sg., viibs. 
fratrecaie * magisterio, in the office of 

♦fratricus', loc. sg., viib i. 259, 

/roirexs **fratricus, fratrum magister', 

viib 1, fratreks, v a 23, v b i; 145, 2 ; 

— dat. sg. fratreci, vii b 4 ; 144, a. 

45, 256, 2. 
frehtef *iricta', * roasted pieces '{?), 

ace. pi., ii a 26. Also taken as pres. 

partic. nom. sg. *frigidans\ 
frehtu * frictum '(?), iv 31. pune frehtu 

*poscam et frictum' or * poscam cali- 

dam '(?). Also taken as * frigidum'. 
/r^*fruges', ace. pi., vi a 42 etc. (5 

times), fri, vi a 30 etc. (6 times). 

59, 147, 4. 
frite * f retu, fiducia' , vi a 24 etc. 178,5, 

frosetom * fraudatum', vi a 28 etc. 69, 

188, 211, 262, 1. 
fuia * fiat', iii 1 ; — - fut. fuiest * fief, v a 

9. 215, 3. 
FuZonie 'FuUonii', no. 83. 
Funtler-e, see Fondlir-e. 
/wr/awi 'purgant'(?), vi b 43, farfaO, 

i b 1 (25, a). 204, 2, p. 306. 
/uro* forum', ace. sg., vii a 52, furu, 

ib42. 51,186. 
fust, furent, futu, etc., see est. 

gromia * gravidas', vi a 58, kumiaf, i a 7. 
16, 17, 94. 

Grabouio- **Grabovius', epithet of 
Mars, Jupiter, and Vovionus. Dat. 
sg. Grabouie, vi b 19, Grabouei, vi a 
22, vi b 1, Krapuvi, i a 3, ii, 21 ; — 
ace. sg. Graboui, vi a 23, Graboue, 
vi a 24, 25 ; — voc. sg. Grabouie, vi a 
25 etc. (29 times), Crabouie, vi a 27, 
37. Connection with L. Gradlvus 

attractive, but no satisfactory ex- 
planation of IL 6: L. d. 258, 4, jta^i 

^a6e*habet, restat'(?), vi b 54, habe, 
ib 18; — pres. subj. habia, v a 17, 
19, 21 ; — fut. habiest, vi b 50 etc. (6 
times) ; 218 ; — imperat. sg. fiabitu, 
vi a 19, vi b 4, habetu, ii b 23 etc. 
(7 times), pi. habiiuto, vi b 51, habe- 
tutu, i b 15 ; — fut. perf . 2 sg. habus, 
vi b 40, 3 pi. Aadwreni *ceperint', 
vii a 52. 212,3,218. 

habina * agnas' (?), ace. pi., vi b22, 23, 24, 
habina, i a 27, hapinaf , i a 24 ; — gen. 
pi. hapinani, i a 33. 80, 6, 149, a, 

hahtu *capito', imperat. sg., ii a 22, 
hatu, ib 11, hatu, vi b 49, pi. hatutu 
*capiunto', i b 42, hatuto^ vii a 52. 
121, 216, 218. 

hebetafe, see ebetrafe. 

heri * vult', iv 26 ; — fut. 2 sg. heries, i b 
10, ii b 21, 3 sg. Tieriest, vii a 52, heries^ 
vib 48 (127, 3) ; 221 ; — perf. subj. 
3 sg. heriiei, iia I6; 29, 42, 224, 6, 
284, note, 820 ; — pres. indie, pass. 
3 sg. herter *oportet', ii a 40, iii 1, 
herte, v a 6, 8, 10, herti, v b a, 11, 13, I6, 
hertei, viib 2; 29, 89, 2, 216, 238, 
2, a ; — perf. subj. pass. 3 sg. herifi 
'oportuerit', v b 6 ; 227, 288, 2, 289; 
— perf. pass, partic. abl. sg. heritu 
*optato, consulto', vi a 27, 47, vi b 29, 
hereitUj vi a 37, eretu, ii a4 (149, a); 
190, 2, 307. 15, 1, 149, 214, 2. 

heriel *vel', vii a 3, Aerie, vi b 19, 20. 
202, 19. 

heris * veP, i a 4, 1 b 6, heri, 1 a 4, 22, ii b 
9, 10, herij vi a 57, vi b 46. 15, 1, 
202, 19. 

Hoier **Hoii', gen. sg., name of a god, 
vi a 14. 

hoUu * aboleto' (?), imperat. , vi b 60, vii a 
49. 149, a. 


Grlossary and Index — Umhrian 


^omonw* *hoimnibu8', vb lo, 15. 54, 

149, 181 with 6. 
Honde '*Honto, deo inferno', dat. sg., 

vi b 45, Hunte, i b 4, ii a 20, 34. 
^ondtomu *infimo', abl. sg., vi a 9, 10. 

15, 5, 86, 1, 149, 156, 189, 1. 
hondra * infra', prep., vi a 15, vii a 52, 

hutra, ib 42. 15, 5, 149, 156, 188, 

2, 190, 3, 299, 4. 
hondu * pessumdato' ( ?) , imperat. , vi b 

60, vii a 49. 264, 2. 
-Iwnt *-dem', pronom. enclitic. 149, a, 

Horse * *Hodio', dat. sg. , name of a god, 

vi b 43, Hufie, i b 2. 
hostatu *hastatos', vi b 59, vii a 48 ; — 

dat. pi. fiostatir, vi b 62, vii a 13 etc. 

99, 3, 138, a, 259, 1. 
Hule **Holae', dat. sg., name of a god- 
dess, iv 17. 149, a. 
huntak * puteum' ( ?) , iii 3, iv 32. 256,6. 
Huntia, name of the festival in honor 

of the god Hontus, abl. sg., ii a 15, 17. 

Probably ablative of time (295), *at 

the Hontus festival*. 
hutra, see hondra. 

-i, -c, -ei, pronom. enclitic. 201, 3. 

-i = -en. 39, 5. 

lapusco **Iapudicum% adj., ace. sg., 
vii a 47, labuscom, vib 58, lapuzkum, 
i b 17 ; — gen. sg. lapuscer^ vii a 48, 
lahuscer, vi b 54, 59, vii a 12 ; — dat. 
sg. Idbusce^ vii a 12. 256, 1. 

Ikuvins * Iguvinus', coin-legend; — voc. 
pi. Ikuvinus, i b 21, 22, Ikuvinu, i b 
20, liouinur, vi b 63, louinur, vi b 56 ; 
— ace. sg. f . liouinam, vi a 49 etc. , 
louinam^ vi b 12, liouina, vi a 31 etc., 
louina, vi a 29, 39 ; — gen. sg. f . 
liuvinas, i b 2, 5 ; liouinar^ vi a 32 
t'tc, louinar, vi a 30 etc. ; — dat. sg. 
f . Ikuvine, i b 13, lioueine, vi a 5, 
liouine, via 18 etc., louine^ via 33 

etc. ; — loc. sg. f . louinem, vi a 46 
(169, 7, a), liouine^ vib 2§, louine, 
vi a 26, 36 ; — abl. sg. f . Ikuyina, i a 
5 etc., liuvina, ib 5 etc., liouina, vi a 
23 etc., louina^ vi a 25 etc. 48, 148, 
187, 255, 5, 258, 4. 

iepi *ibi, then'(?), iii 21. The form is 
not satisfactorily explained. 89, 1, 
195, d. 

iepru, meaning uncertain, ii a 32. 
Sometimes explained as *pro iis', 
but this is very doubtful. 89, 1, 
195, d. 

ier^ see etu. 

i/e*ibi, eo, there', vib 39, 40, ife, iib 
12, 13 ; — ifont * ibidem', vi b 55; 201, 
6. 195,/. 

inenek *tum', iii 20. Probably a mis- 
take for inemek (cf. inumek). 202, 

inuk, inumek, etc., see enom. 

iouies *iuvenibus', dat. pi. vi b 62 etc. ; 

— ace. pi. iouie, vi b 59, vii a 48. 96, 
100, 1, 186. 

louio- * lovius', epithet of Tefer,Trebus, 
Hontus, and Torra. Also used with- 
out any other name, i b 1 (adj . ), ii a 6, 8 
(subst.). Dat. sg. m. luvie, i a 24 etc. , 
luvi, i a 28, Iouie, vi a 58, loui, vi b 22 
(luvie, i a 8, Iouie, vi a 58, taken by 
some as f.) ; — dat. sg. f. luvie, i b 43, 
Iouie, vii a 53 ; — ace. sg. m. loui, 
vi b 26, 27 ; — abl. sg. m. luviu, i b i; 

— voc. sg. m. Iouie, vi b 28 etc., 
liouie, vi b 35 (this spelling after 
liouine etc.); — voc. sg. f. louia, 
vii a 47, 49. 252, 1 with a. 

irer, see erec. 

isec * item', adv., vi b 25, isek, iv 4. 89, 
4, 196, c. 

isepeles * insectis', abl. pi., iv 7. Prob- 
ably mistake fot isepetes. 39, 5. 

isir, iso, issoc, see eso, esoc. 

isunt ^ item', ii a 28, 36, iii 16, 17. 39, 4. 


Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


itek*ita', iv3l. 195,/. 

iuka'predes^ ace. pi. n., iii28, iuku, 
ii b S3. 249, 1. 

iwengrar *iuvencae', nom. pi., viibs; 
— ace. pi. iuenga, vii a 51, iveka, i b 
40, 42 (108, 1). 31, 6, 156. 

luieskanes '*Iuiescanis% dat. pi., ii be, 
luieskane, ii b 5. 

lupater * luppiter', voc. sg. , ii b 24 ; — 
dat. 8g. luvepatre, ii a 5 etc. (5 
times), luve patre, ii b 7, luvip., ii a 
10, luve, i a 3, luue^ vi a 22. Cf . 
also Di, 188 with a. 

iusty see etu. 

maleta*molitum% ii a 18. 97, 244, 4. 

mandraclo ^ma.nte\e\ ace. sg., vib4, 
mantrahklu, ii a 19, mantraklu, ii b 
16. 97, 268, 1, p. 304. 

mani * manu' , abl. sg. , vi b 24, mani, ii a 
32 (59) ; — loc. sg. manuY-e, iib 23; 
185, 2; — ace. manf, ii a 38. 185 
with 8. 

waronatei * *maronatu, office of rnaro', 
loc. sg., no. 84 ; — abl. sg. maronato 
(171, 6, a), no. 83. 247, 2, 259, 2, 
802, p. 310. 

Marie * Marti' , dat. sg. , vi b i , 43, Marte, 
i a 11, i b 2, Marti, ii a ii (or possi- 
bly »Martio', to foil.). 

Jlfarfio-* Martins', adj., usually epithet 
of Cerrus. Gren. sg. Martier, v b 9, 
15, vi b 58 etc. (31 times), Marties, 
i b 28, 31 ; — dat. sg. Martie, vii a 3, 
Marti, i b 24 ; — voc. sg. Martie, vi b 

57, 61. 

fairer 'Matris', no. 83. 88. 

m^a *mensam, libum', ace. sg., vi a56, 
vi b 17, 20, vii a 4, 38, mefa, i a 16, 
ivH; — abl. sg. mefa, vi b 5, 9, 14, 
vii a 37, mefa, ii b 13 ; — dat. sg. 
mefe, ii b 28. 110, 3 with a, p. 304. 

me^*mihi', vi as. 198 with a. 

menes, see benus. 

menzne 'mense', ii a 17. 110, 1. 
mer«' ins', vi b 31, (mersest), vi b 55, 

{mersi, meraei = merssi *ius sit'), 

vi a 28, 38, 48, mefs, 1 b 18 ; — abl. pi. 

mersus^ex moribus', iiie; 182, a, 

287. 15, 6, 94, 182, 182. 
tnersio Mustum, prosperum' (* right, 

proper', and so * favorable', used of 

birds of omen), ace. sg. m., vi a 3, 

4, 16, 17 ; — ace. sg. f. mersta, via 3, 

4, 16, meersta, vi a 17 (76, 1) ; — abl. 

sg. m. merstu, vi a i ; — ace. pi. f . 

merstaf, vi a 4, mersta, vi a 3, 4, 18. 

15, 6, 88, 3, 259, 1. 
mersuva ' iusta, solita', abl. sg. f., iii 

11 ; — ace. pi. m. mersuva, iii 28. 

15, 6, 182, a, 258, 2. 
mestru*maior', nom. sg. f., va 24, 27, 

vb4. 147, 3, a, 188,3. 
Jlf iZetinar **Miletinae', gen. sg., vi a 13. 
motor *multae', gen. sg., viib 4 (269, 

a) ; — nom. sg. muta, v b 2, qiutu, 

V b 6 ; — ace. sg. muta, v b 3. 49, 

105, 2, 146. 
mugatu *mugito,muttito,makeanoise', 

imperat., vi a 6 ; — perf. pass. part. 

muieto, via?. 58, 148,210,3,211. 
muneklu * munus, sportulam', va 17, 

19, 21. 67, 1, 248, 3. 
Museiate^*Musiati', dat. sg., iib 5. 

Cf. 259, 3. 
muta, see motar, 

n., abbr., *nummis', no. 83. 

^aAarcom **Narcum', ace. sg. n., vib 
58, vii a 47, Naharkum, i b 17 ; — gen. 
sg. Naharcer, vi b 54, 59, vii a is, 48 ; 
144, a ; — dat. sg. Naharce, vii a la. 
256, 1. 

naraklum ^nuntiatio, announcement* 
(of the results of inspecting the en- 
trails), ii a 1. 147, 2, 248, 3. 

Tuzm^u^narrato, speak, announce', im- 
perat., VI a 22, 56, 59, etc. (14 times), 


naratu, iia 3, lib 8 etc. (5 times). 

147, 2. 
natine^natione, gente\ iia si, 35, iib 

26. 147, 2, 181, 247, 1. 
neip *non% vi a 27, 36, 46, vi b 29, vii b 3, 

neip, V a 29, ii a 4 ; — prohib. neip 

*neve', vibsi, neip...nep *nec... 

nee', yi a6. 29, 6, 92, 202, 20. 
neifhabas^ne adhibeant\ iy33. 29, 

84, 202, 20, 218. 
nep^ see neip. 
nepitu * inundate', imperat., vibeo, vii a 

49. 212, 6, 310. 
Ner., abbr. praen. {Nero or Nerius)^ 

no. 84. 
ner/* principes, optimates', title of 

rank, ace. pi., vi a 30 etc. (13 times) ; 
— dat. pi. nerus, vi b 62 etc. (6 times). 

15, 7, 180, 2, c. 

nertru 'sinistro', abl. sg., vi b 25, ncr- 
tru-co^ vi b 37, 39, nertru-ku, i a 32. 

16, 18, 188, 2. 

nersa * donee', vi a 6. 202, 11. 

nesimei * proxime', adv. , vi a 9. 16,8, 
29, 42, 138, a, 189, 1 (with ftn.), 
190, 1, 807. 

ninc^ *ninguito' (transit., *snow up- 
on'), vib60, vii a 49. 114, a, 146, 
153, 161, 213, 3, 310. 

niru, meaning uncertain, ace. sg., iib 
15. Probably some sort of herb, 

wome 'nomen', vi a 30 etc. (13 times), 
numem, i b n (109, 1) ; — gen. sg. 
nomner, vi b 54 etc. (4 times) ; — dat. 
sg. nomne^ vi a 24 etc. (40 times) ; — 
abl. sg. nomne, vi a 17, nomne-per, 
vi a23 etc. (40 times). 54, 181, 247, 

^oniar 'Noniae', gen. sg., via 14. 

woswe 'nisi', vi b 54. 67, 1, 95, 202, 14, 

numem, see nome. 

numer 'nummis', abl. pi., van, 19, 2i. 

Nurpier **Nurpii', gen. sg., vi a 12. 

lufpener * — pondiis', designation of a 
small coin, abl. pi., va 13. 94, 
263, 1. 

nuvime 'nonum', adv., iia 26. 86, 1, 
190, 1, 191, 9. 

nuvis *noviens', adv., ii a 25. 192, 2. 

ocar 'arx, mons', the Sacred Mount of 
Iguvium, nom. sg. , vi b 46, ukar, i b 7 ; 
91, 2, 6; — gen. sg. ocrer, vi a 8 etc. 
(14 times) ; — dat. sg. ocre, vi a 23 etc. 
(14 times) ; — ace. sg. ocrem, vi a 49, 
51, vi b 12, ocre, vi a 29 etc. (6 times) ; 
— abl. sg. ocri'per, vi a 23 etc. (17 
times), ocre-per, vi a 25, 34, 35, ukri- 
per, i a 5 etc. (8 times), ukri-pe, i a 
12 ; — loc. sg. ocrem, vi a 46, ocre, vi a 
26, 36, vi b 29, ukre, v a 16 (usually 
taken as dat.). Cf. "ocrem antiqui, 
. . . , montemconfragosum dicebant. " 
Festus ed. Thewrewk, p. 196. 99, 

3, 257, 2. 
oht, see uhtretie. 

on5c* in umero', loc. sg., vib50, uze, 
ii b 27, 28. 110, 1. 

ooaerclom-e *ad *observaculum'(?), via 
12. 77, 3. 

opener *lecti, choice', perf. pass, partic. 
gen. sg. n., vb 9, 14; — imperat. sg. 
upetu 'optato, deligito', v a 7, iib i, 
8, 11, iii 22, 26, pi. upetuta iii lo. 
212, b. i'or the meaning, cf. the 
early and poetical use of L. opto in 
sense of * choose'. 

orer *illius'(?), vi a 26, 36, 46, vi b 29 ; — 
abl. sg. m. uru, vi b 55, uru, ibis; — 
abl. sg. f. ura-ku, v a 5 ; — abl. pi. 
ures, iv 33. 197, 2. 

ortom 'ortum', nom. sg. n., vi a 46, 
orto, vi a 26, 36, vi b 29 ; — nom. pi. n. 
urtu *orta', ii a 4 ; — nom. pi. f. urtas 
*ortae, surgentes, standing up', iii 
10; — abl. pi. urtes *surgentibus', iii 

4. 17, 11. 


Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


oaatu ' operator, facito, make*, imperat., 
vi b 24, 37 ; — pass, partic. nom. sg. 
f. oseto, no. 83. 17, 4, 49, 88, 3, 
122, 3, 211, 262, 1. 

o«e*opere*(?), abl. sg., via 26, 36, 46, 
vib29. 182, p. 303. 

ostendu ' ostenditx), set out, furnish', 
imperat. sg., vi a 20, ustentu, i a 3 
etc. (12 times), ustetu, i a n etc. 
(6 times) (108, 1), pi. ustentuta, iii 
5; 185, 156 ; — fut. pass, ostensendi, 
via 20; 89,2,187,2,156,221. 17, 
15, 49, 122, 1. 

ote *aut', vb 10 etc. (6 times), ute, va 
23 etc. (4 times). 48, 69, 92, 202, 17. 

oui *ovis', ace. pi., vib 43, uvef, ib i ; 

— ace. sg. uvem, iii 8 etc. (6 times), 
uve, ii a 10, i a 31. 101. 

p., abbr., *pondo', vb 9, 14. 

paca * causa', prepos., vi a 20. 304. 

pacer *propi tins', nom. sg. m., via 23 

etc. (13 times) ; 91, 2 ; — nom. sg. f. 

pacer, vii a 14, n, 31, 50 ; 187, 2, a ; 

— nom. pi. pacrer, vi b 61. 187, 2, 
257, 2. 

Padellar * Patellae', gen. sg., via 14. 

91, 2, a, 107, 3, 158. 
pafCy see poi. 

pane 'quam?, adv., vii a 46, pane, i b40. 

92, 190, 6, 202, 4. 

panta* quanta', nom. sg.'f., vb 2; — 

ace. sg. f. panta, v b 3. 160. 
panupei * quandoque', vii b 1. 54, 201, 

4, 202, 12. 
par/a *parram', vi a 2 etc. (6 times), 

parfam, i b 13 ; — abl. sg. parfa, vi a 

1. 115, 2. 
par s-e8< 'par est', vii b 2. 117, 6, 

pa«e* pace', vi a 30 etc. (15 times). 144. 
-pater * pater' in lupater, voc. sg., iib 

24 ; — dat. sg. in luve patre, ii b 7 

etc. S2, 1. 

-pe^-pei *-que', pronom. enclitic. 201,4. 

pehatu, see pihatu. 

peica 'picam', ace. sg., via 3 etc. (4 
times) ; — abl. sg. pelca, vi a 1. 48. 

peico 'picum', ace. sg., via 3 etc. (4 
times); — abl. sg. peiqu, via 1 (26). 

Peiefiate'*Peiediati', dat. sg., ii b 4. 
Cf. 259, 3. 

peiu *piceos', ace. pi. m., vii a 3, peiu, 
i b 24 ; — ace. pi. f . peia, vii a 6, peia, 
i b 27. 144, b. 

peZmner ' pulmenti, pulpamenti, meat', 
gen. sg., V b 12, 17. 86, 2, 125, 1. 

pelaatu ' sepelito' (?), vi b 40 ; — gerun- 
dive nom. sg. m. pelsans, ii a 43, ace. 
sg. m. pelsanu, ii a 6, iii 32, ace. pi. 
f. pelsana, vib 22, pelsana, ia 26. 
262, 1, a, p. 305. 

peperacust, see perstu. 

pepurkurent*poposcerint', fut. perf., 
vb5. 97, 145, 1,223. 

pegwo *pecuum', gen. pl.(?), vi a 30 etc. 
(11 times). 26, 184, p. 236f. 

per-. 299, 5. 

-per*pro'. 91, 2, 300, 8. 

-per with numerals. 127, 3, 192, 2, 
299, 5. See ftn. p. 321. 

peracni- *sollemnem, sacrificial', and 
subst. 'hostia'. Ace. sg. m. perak- 
nem, ii a 10, perakne, ii a 5, 12, ii b 7, 
10; — ace. sg. n. (subst.) perakne 
*hostiam,' ii a 5, 14 ; — ace. pi. n. 
perakneu, v a 7. For peracnio, vi a 
54, see under peracri-. The meaning 
is not essentially different from that 
of seuacni-. The two words occur 
together only in iib 8, 11, and here 
possibly sevakne is used substan- 
tively. 159, a, 187, 2, 263, 1, a. 

peracri- * opimus, in perfect condition'. 
Ace. sg. perakre, i b 40 ; — abl. sg. 
peracri, vi a 34 etc. (7 times), pera- 
crei, vi a 96, 29 ; — gen. pi. peracrto. 


Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


vii a 51, vi a 54 (in vi a 54, aes pefrae- 
nio^ but cf. bueperacri^ vi a 34, 45, 53); 
— abl. pi. peracria, vi b 52, 56. 187, 
2, 299, 5. 

Peraznanie **^erasiiamis% dat. pi., 

percam * virgam', vi b 53, perca^ vi a 19 
etc. (6 times) ; — ace. pi. perca, vi b 
51, perkaf, ib 15. 189, 1. 

peretom^perit\im\ vi a 27, 37, 47, vi b 30. 

pemaiaf ^anticas% ace. pi. f., i b lo ; — 
abl. pi. f. pernaies, i a 2. 61, 3, 
258, 1, 800, 8, a. 

pcme * ante,' adv., vib 11. 300, 8, a. 

persaea etc., perse, persi, perso, see 
under rs = f . 

perscZo * precationem, sacrificium', ace. 
sg., vi a 1, persklum, i a i, persklum- 
af , iii 21 ; — gen. sg. perscler, vi a 27 
etc. (4 times), pescler, vi a 47 etc. 
(4 times) ; — abl. sg. persclu, vi b 36 
etc. (4 times), pesclu, vi b 15, vii a 8, 
persklu, iii 12. 97, 116, 1, 129, 2, 
145, 1. 

j)er«nimu 'precator,' imperat. sg. pass, 
(dep.), via 55 etc. (20 times), pers- 
nihimu, vibn etc. (4 times), pes- 
nimu, vib 9, 23, persnimu, i b 7, 21, 
persnihmu, ii a 27 etc. (16 times), pes- 
nimu, iaeetc. (23 times), pi. persni- 
mumo, vi b 57, persnihimumo, vii a 
47, pesnimumo, vi b 64, 65, vii a 1 ; — 
perf. pass, partic. nom. sg. m.persnis, 
vib39,i)e«nw, vib40, 41. 97,116,2, 
145, 1, 146, 214, 1, 287, 262, 3. 

persontro- * figmentum' (?) , subst. m. 
Ace. sg. peaondro, vi b 24, 37, 39, 40, 
pesuntru, i a 27, pesuntrum, i a 30, 
pesutni, ii a 8, persutru, ii b 13, per- 
suntru, ivi7, 19; — dat. sg. persun- 
tre, iv 21 ; — abl. sg. persorUru, vi b 
28, peraondru, vi b 31, 35 ; — ace. pi. 
peaondrOf vi b 37 (171, 11, a) ; — abL 
pi. peaondria-co, vi b 40. p. 305. 

peratico, see under persi, below. 

perstu*ponito'(?), imperat., ii a 32, 
pestu, ii b 19 ; — f ut. perf. 3 sg. pe- 
peractLSt, vi b 5, pepescua, vii a 8. 
116, 3, 146, 218, 5. 

pert Hrans', ii a 36. 15, 9, 299, 5. 

pertentu *protendito,' ii a 31, iv 8. 
299, 5. 

pertom-e, ace. sg. , vi a 14, name of some 
building or locality at Igiivium. 

peraaeo- 'humi stratus, pronus'(?), adj. 
Ace. pi. f . peraaea, vii a 41, 54, pe- 
raaia, vii a 7, pefaia, i b 28, 32, 44 ; — 
ace. sg. m. pefaem, ii a 11, iii 32 
(178, 1); — nom. ace. sg. n. (* sacri- 
fice ' being expressed or understood) 
peraae, vi a 58, vi b 3, pefae, ii a 13, 
22 (178, 1). 61, 3, 253, 1, p. 304. 

per«i, pefe, see pirae, 

perai *pede', abl. sg., vib 24 etc., pefi, 
i a 29, 32 ; — perai'CO or peraei-co * ad 
pedem', vi b 25 (aes peratico); — ace. 
sg. pern, ii a 24 (or 'fossam'?). 131, 
178, 5, a. 

perso * solum, fossam, trench for the 
libations', vi b 24, 37, peraom-e, vi b 
38 etc., pefum, i a 29, 32, pefum-e, ii a 
27, iii 33, peru, ii a 9. Cf. Grk. ir4dov, 

peaetom *peccatum', vi a 27, 37, 47, vi b 
30. 144, 211. 

pestu, see perstu. 

petenata *pectinatam, comb-shaped', 
iv4. 259,1. 

Petrunia-per * pro Petronia', ii a 21, 35. 

peturpursws ^quadrupedibus', vib 11. 
54, 94, 131, 150, 191, 4, a, 263, 1. 

pihaclu *piaculo', abl. sg., vi a 25 etc. 
(12 times) ; — gen. pi. pihaclo, vi a 54, 
pihaklu, V a 8. 248, 3. 

pi^^M *piato', imperat., vi a 29 etc. (15 
times), pehatu, iii 3 ; — perf. subj. 
pass. 3 sg. pihqfi, vi a 38, 48, vi b 31, 
pikafei, vi a 29 ; 227, 238, 2, 289 ; — 
gerundive gen. sg. pihaner, vi a 19, 


Grlossary and Index — Uinbrian 


peJianer, vi a 20, peikaner^ vi a 8 ; — 
perf . pass, partic. nom. sg. m. pihoa, 
vi b 47, pihaz, i b 7; 86. 48, 88, a, 
102, 2, 262, 1. 

Piquier '*Piquii', gen. sg., vb 9, 14. 
258, 3. 

pir 4gnis, incendium\ nom. sg., via 
26 etc. (5 times) ; — ace. sg. pir, vi b 
49, 50, pir, ib 12 etc. (6 times), purom-^ 
*in ignem', vi b 17, vii a 38 (180, d) ; 
— abl. sg. pure4o, vi a 20, pure, i b 20. 
16, 11, 65, 69, 99, 6, 180, d, 

pir8e,pefe, etc. ' quod, si, cum', conjunc- 
tion, pirse, vi a 46, vi b 55(?), pirn, 
via 5, 48, perai, vi a 37, 38, perse, vi a 
47, vi b 29, 30, 31, peraei^ vi a 26, 27, 28, 
36, pift, iv 32, pefe, i b 18(?), ii a 3. 
46, 190, 6, 202, 2. 

pi«-65< * quisquis est', vib 53. 118, a, 

pts^er 'quilibet', vib 41. 16, 1, 90, 2, 
127, 3, 200, 1, 216. 

pisi » quis, quisquis'. 1 13, a, 199, 200, 1. 
Indef . piaij vi a 7. 
Indef. rel. piai, vii a 52, viib 1, 
'quisquis'; pisipumpe*quicumque,' 
V a 3, 10 ; pif e * quidquid', v a 5 ; — 
ace. pi. pjfiy vii b 2 (with definite 

pistu *pistum', ii b 15. 

plenasier * *plenariis% loc. pi., v a2, 14. 
42, 112, a, 254. See umasier. 

pZencr' plenis', abl. pi., vii a 21, 34. 
42, 255, 1. 

podru^pci 'utroque', adv., vi a 11 (in 
aeipodruhpei * seorsum utroque') ; — 
gen. sg. putrespe 'utriusque', iv 14. 
54, 88, 4, 157, 2, 188, 2, a, 190, 2, 
200, 2, 201, 4. 

poi' qui,' nom. sg. m., via 5, vib 24, 
53, poe^ vi b 50, poei, vi a 1 ; — dat. 
sg. m. pusme, iia40; 114, 197, 1 ; — 
abl. sg. f. pora, vib 65, vii a i; 67, 1, 
199, d] — nom. pi. m. pun, vbio. 

15, pure, V a 6, 25, 28, V b 4 ; — ace. pi. 
f . pafe, vii a 52. 199. See also porse. 

*pompc *quinque'. 87, 150 with a. 

poni 'posca' (mixed wine and vine- 
gar ?), abl. sg., vi a 57 etc. (12 times), 
ponCf vi a 59, puni, i a 4 etc. (22 
times); — ace. sg. pune, iiai8 etc. 
(6 times) ; — gen. sg. punes, ii a 41 ; 

— dat. pi. panes, iv 33. 54, 261, 2, a, 
ponwiaier* calatoris'(?), gen. sg., vib 

51, punipate, ibi5. 259,1. 
ponne ' cum', conj. , vi b 43, vii b 2, pone, 
vi b 48, 49, pune, i b 1 etc. (14 times), 
puni, i b 20. 92, 136, 190, 5, 202, 3. 
* popZom^populum', ace. sg., vii a 15, 
vii b 3, poplo, vi b 48, vii a 29, 46, pu- 
plum, i b 10, puplu, i b40 ; — gen. sg. 
popler, vi a 19 etc. (4 times) ; — dat. 
sg. pople, vi b 61 etc. (6 times) ; — 
abl. sg. poplu, vi b 54, poplu-per, vi b 
43 etc. (15 times), poplu-per, i b 2, 5 ; 

— loc. sg. pople, vi b 55. 49. 
pora, see poi. 

porca *porcas', ace. pi., vii a 6, parka, 

portatu * portato', imperat. , vi b 55, pur- 
tatu, i b 18 ; — pres. subj. 3 sg. por- 
taia, vii b 1 ; 282 ; — fut. perf. 8 sg. 
portuat, viib 3; 211, 224. 

porae, pure, conj., used also for some 
cases of rel. pronoun, puf e * quod, 
cum, quomodo', conj., iia26, iii 5, 
V a 7 ; — used for nom. sg. m., poraCj 
vi b 63, vii a 46, 51, porai, vi a 6, poraei, 
vi a 9 ; — for nom. pi. , poraiy vi a 19, 
poraei, vi a 15 ; — for ace. pi., porae^ 
vi b 40. 49, 190, 6, 199, /, 202, 1. 

post * post,' prep., vi a 58 etc. (4 times), 
pus, i a 7, 14, 24 (189, 2) ; paste, i a 
25 (or loc. sg. of a noun ♦po«ti- ?). 
49, 300, 6. 

posii* pro, in, according to' (distrib.), 
vb 8, 12, 14, 17, pastin, ii ass, iv 13, 
pusti, V a 13, 18, 20, 21. 16, 10, 299, 7. 


Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


*postr(pane ' postquam' , con j . , in poster- 
tio pane * postquam tertium', vii a 46, 
pustertiu pane, i b 40. 202, 4, 800, 
6, a. 

pustnaiaf posticas\ ace. pi. f., ibii ; 
— abl. pi. f. pusnaes, ia2. 61, 3, 

189, 2, 253, 1. 

postne'post', adv., vibii. 300, 6, a. 

posira *posteras, posteriores' (pretra 
. . . postra ' the former . . . the lat- 
ter'), ace. pi. f.,vbi3; — ace. pi. n., 
used predicatively in sense of * retro ' 
(306), postro, vi b 5, vii a 8, pustni, 
iibi9, pustra, 11 a 32. 88, 4, 188, 

postro * retro', adv., vii a 43, 44, pustra, 
i b 34, 36. 190, 6, a. 

jsracoianiwi *saeptarum'(?), vi a 13. 

praco, name of some locality at Igu- 
vium, gen. pi. (or ace. sg.?), via 13. 
Possibly related to Low Latin par- 
ens (whence Eng. park etc.) and 
from the same root as L. com-peseo. 

pre 'prae', vi a 22 etc. (8 times), pre, i a 
2, 11, 20. 63, 800, 7. 

l)re- *prae-', 800, 7. 

prehabia 'praebeat', v a 5, prehubia, 

V a 12. 86, 4. 

prepa * priusquam', vi b 52. 202, 4. 
prepesnimu * praef ator' , ii b 1 7. 800 , 7. 

See persnimu. 
preplotatu * *praeplauditato, strike 

down'(?), imperat., vi b 60, preploho- 

taiu, vii a 49. 262, 1. 
preaoliaf-e, name of some building or 

locality in Iguvium, vi a 12. 
Pres^oto 'Praestita', voc. sg., vi b 57 

etc. (19 times) ; — gen. sg. Prestotar, 

vii a 20, 22, 33, 36 ; — dat. sg. Prestote, 

vii a 6, 8, 24, Prestate, i b 27. 35, a. 
pretra 'priores' (see posira)^ ace. pi. f., 

V b 12. 188, 2. 

preve ^singillatim', adv., i a 28, ii a 9. 

190, 1. 

prever * singulis', abl. pi. m., v a 13, 18. 

17, 10, 65, 192, 1. 
preuendu *advertito', vii a 11. 16, 21, 

preuislatu 'praevinculato', imperat., 

vii a 49, preuilatUj vi b ao. 144, 

248, 1. 
prinuatur Megati, deputies, assistants', 

nom. pi., vi b 50 etc. (5 times), prinu- 

vatus, i b 19, 23, prinuvatu, i b 15, 41 ; 

— abl. pi. prinuatir, vi b 55, 56, 57. 
No satisfactory etymology. 

j)ro-* pro-'. 800,8. 

jsrocanurewi **proeinuerint', fut. perf., 

via 16. 82,3,224. 
promom *primum', adv., vii a 52, pru- 

mum, iii 15, prumu, iii 3, 23. 189, 1, 

a, 190, 6, 191, 1. 
Proparf ie 'Propertii', gen. sg., gent., 

no. 84. 
prufe * probe', adv. , v a 27. 190, 1, 307. 
pnipehast * ante piabit', iv32. 17,8, 

800, 8. See pihatu. 
prusekatu ^prosecato', imperat., iia28, 

iii 33, 35, iv 2, prusektu, ii a 28 (211); 

— perf. pass, partic. ace. pi. n. pro- 
aesetOj vi a 56, prusepetu, ii b 12, 
gen. pi. proseseto, vi b 16, 38, dat. 
pi. pros^etir, vi b 44, 46, proaeaet'.r, 
vi a 56 etc. (9 times), proaeaeter, vi b 
20, prusepete, ii a 12. 210, 3, 211. 

prusepia ^prosicias', ace. pi., iia 23. 
prusikurent *pronuntiaverint', fut. 

perf., V a 26, 28. 94, 154, 225. 
pruzufe 'praestante'(?), iv 23. 94, 

137, 2. 
pue *ubi, where', adv., vi b 38, 39, 40, 55, 

pue, i b 18. 54, 202, 7. 
Puemune * Pomono' or *Pomoni', dat. 

sg. iii 26 etc. (6 times) ; — gen. sg. 

Puemunes, iv 3 etc. (4 times). 88, 

247, 2, a. 
pufe *ubi', vi a 8, vib 50, vii a 43, pufe, 

i b 33. 55, 92, 200, 3, 202, 5. 


Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


pumpe * -cumque' in pisi pumpe * qui- 
cumque', v a 3, lo. 201, 4, 202, 3. 

pompefias * *quincuriae, groups of 
five', nom. pi., ii b 2. 37, 160, 191, 
5, 251, 4. 

puni *po8ca', see poni. 

puni *cum', seepon?ie. 

puntes *quiiiiones, pentads', nom. pi., 
iilQ, 10 ; — abl. pi. puntis, iii 4. 146, 
153, 191,5,247, 1, a. K^AIzW 

Puphke' Publico' (?), epithet o\ Pue- 
mone, dat. sg., iii 27, 35, iv 10, 12, 
Pupfipe, iv 24; —gen. sg. Pupfikes, 
iv 11, 13, Pupfifcs, iv 4, Pupfpes, iv26. 
106, a. 

pur- *por-\ 264, 1. 

purka, see porca. 
Y p^ f X '^ purdoultu ' porricito', imperat. , vi a 56, 
ytjjj^h^ purtuvitu, ii a 24 etc. (10 times ; in iv 
20 with = t ; see 26, a), purtuvetu, 
ii b 17, purtuetu, ii b 11 (31, 6) ; — 
fut. 2 sg. purtuvies, ii b 28 ; 221 ; — 
fut. perf. 2 sg. purtiius, i a 27 etc. (5 
times ; aes once purtitius) ; 224, b ; 
— fut. perf. 2 sg. purtinpus, 1 b 33, 
3 sg. purdinhiiist, vii a 43, purdinhts^ 
vi b 23, 37, 38, purdinsust^ vi b 16, 24 ; 
144, 229, 264, 1 ;— -perf. pass, partic. 
purditom ^ poTTecium\ nom. sg. n., 
vii a 45, purdito, vi b 42, purtitu, i b 
39, ii a 43, iv 31, V a 18 ; — ace. pi. f . 
purdita, vi b I8, purtitaf, i a 18. 16, 
19, 61, 96, 102, .3, 216, 1. X(j^ ziL 

pure, pureto, purome^ see pir. *9»jLkk » 

purtifele **porricibilem', ii b 25. 261. 

Purtupite *Porricienti'(?), iv 14. Prob- 
ably mistake for Purtuvite. 

pure, seeporse. 

pus, see post. 

pvie *ut', vi a 59 etc. (11 times), pwsi, 
vi a 20 etc. (7 times), pusei^ vi a 27 
etc. (3 times), puze, i b 34 etc. (3 
times). 55, 137, 2, 200, 3, 202, 6. 

j)usme, see under poi. 

paste, pustin, pustnaiaf, see under 
post etc. 

randem-e, name of some building or 
locality in Iguvium, vi a 14. 

ranu, meaning uncertain, probably 
name of some kind of liquid, abl. sg., 
ii b 19. 

re-per * pro re', abl. sg. , vii b 2, ri, v a 5 ; 
— dat. sg. ri, V a 4. 186. 

re-* re-'. 264,1. 

rehte *recte', adv., va24, 26, 29. 42, 
142, 190, 1. 

restatu ' instaurato, offer anew', im- 
perat., iia5; — pres. part. nom. sg. 
m. restef, i b 9, reste, vi b 47 ; 110, 

4. 213, 4, a, 264, 1. 
revestu*revisito, inspicito', v a 7, 9. 

137, 1, 264, 1. 
ri, see re-per. 
rofu * rufos', ace. pi. m. , vii a 3 ; — ace. 

pi. f. rofa^ vii a 6. 72, 96. 
i?u/rer' Ruhr i', gen. sg., via 14. 66. 
rufru * rubros,' ace. pi. m. , i b S4 ; — 

ace. pi. f. rufra, ib27. 56, 06, 136, 

267, 1. 
Rubinam-e *in *Rubiniam', vii a 43, 

44, Rupinam-e, i b 35, 36 ; loc. sg. 

Rubine, vii a 6, Rupinie, 1 b 27. 100, 

3, b. 
rusem-e, meaning uncertain, vii a 8, 9, 93. 

«., abbr., *semissem', vbi7. 
sacrir * sacrificial', adj., and neat. 
subst. *hostia'. 187, 2, 257, 2. 

1) Adj. Ace. pi. f. sakref, la I8, 
19; — nom.-acc. sg. n. sakre, iia 6 
(possibly subst.), sa/ire^ no. 84. 

2) Subst. Nom.-acc. sg. sakre, iia 

5, 21, iii 8, 9, etc. ; — ace. pi. sakrea, 
V a 6 ; — abl. pi. socrid, vibss, 56. 

socro-* sacrificial'. Ace. pi. f. sakra, 
i b 29, 37, sacra^ vi b 18, vii a 40, 45. 
257, 1. 


Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


Note that esono- means 'sacred' or, 
as subst., * sacred rite, sacrifice' (i.e. 
the ceremony), while sacri-, sacro-, 
means * pertaining to the sacrifice' 
(sacrificial cups etc.) or, as subst., 
the * sacrifice' (i.e. the object sacri- 

Sahatam^Sa.uct3im\ probably the 'Sa- 
cred Way', €icc. sg., viia 39, 44, 45, 
Sahata, vii a 5, 39, Sahta, i b 35, Sa- 
tam-e, i b 38 ; — loc. sg. Sahate^ vii a 
41, Sate, ib3i. 73, 75, 142. 

iSaZter' Sal ii', gen. sg., via 14. 

salu*salem', iiais. 

«aiMom*salvum', ace. sg. m. n., via 
51 etc. (5 times), scUuuom^ via4i 
(81, 6), saluo, vi a 31 etc. (8 times) ; — 
ace. sg. f. saluam^ vi a 5i, scUua, vi a 
31 etc. (4 times) ; — ace. pi. f . (see 
822) salua, vi a 32 etc. (6 times), 
saluua, vi a 42 (31, 6). 258, 1. 

sanes'sanis', abl. pi., iv8. 

Sansio- '*Sancius', usually epithet of 
Fisovius, but also of Fisus, Jupiter, 
and Vesticius. Once (iibio) used 
alone. Voc. sg. SanHe, vib9 etc. 
(6 times), Sape, ii b 24 ; — ace. sg. 
Sanhi, vi b 8, Sansi^ vi b 6 ; — dat. 
sg. Sansie, vi b 3, Sansii, vii a 37 (173, 
2), Sansiy vibs, Sapi, i a 15, iibio, 
17, Sape, iia4. 144, 262, 1, a. 

sarsite * sarte, wholly', adv., vi b ii. 
244, 3, 325. 

Sape, Sapi, see Sansio-. 

Satanes'Satanis', dat. pi., iib4, Sa- 
tane, ii b 4. 

Sate, see Sahatam. 

5aMi<u*sauciato'(?), imperat., vibeo, 
vii a 49. 212, b. 

scalse-to^ex patera', vi b 16, skalpe-ta, 
iv 15, 18, 20; — loc. sg. scalsie *in 
patera', vi b 16, vii a 37 ; 178, 6. 

scapla ' scapulam', vi b 49. 

screWo 'scriptum', nom. sg. n., viibs ; 
— nom. pi. n. screihtor^ via 15; 171, 
13. 48, 121. 

seAew-eniar 'seminarium', adj., ace. sg. 
n. , vii a 52, sehmeniar, i b 42. 257, 4. 

setoenier'sementivis', dat. pi., vb u, 
16, semenies, ii b i . The sehmenier 
dequrier were the seed-time festivals 
of the decuriae. Cf . L. feriae semen- 

sei'seorsum', adv., via ii (in seipo- 
druhpei ' seorsu m utroque' ) . 200, 2, 
263, 2. 

sei'sis, sit', see est. 

scTwu' medio', abl. sg., vib 16, sehemu, 
vib?6. 189, 1, a, 305. 

sent^ see est. 

seples *simpulis', abl. pi., iii n. 

sepse 'sane, completely' (?), adv., vib ^^ 
11. 244, 1, 6, 325. 

ficriiw'servato,' 'observe' and * pre- 
serve', imperat., vi a 11 etc. (29 times), 
serituu, vii a 1 5, seritu, ii a 24. 1 02, 4 . 

sersi ' sede, ' abl. sg. , vi a 5. 298. 

sersitu 'sedeto', imperat., vi b 41 ; ^ — 
pres. partic. nom. sg. m. serse, vi a2 
etc. (7 times), zefef, i a 25, 33, 34 
(137, 2, note); 110, 4. 131, 212, 3. 

sese 'versus', adv., in testru sese'dex- 
troversus', iii 23, iv 15, and supru sese 
'sursus', iv3. 307. 

5680 'sibi', vi b 51. 193 with b. 

sestentasiaru 'sextantariarum, bi- 
monthly'(?), iii2. 145, 1, 191, 6, 
p. 301. 

sestu'sisto', pres. indie. 1 sg., iib24, 
2 sg. seste, ii b 22 (90, 2) ; — imperat. 
sg. sestu, iib 22. 45, 213, 4. 

sesust, see sistu. 

seuacni' 'sollemnis, sacrificial', and 
subst. 'hostia'. In many passages 
it is uncertain whether the form is 
used as adj. or subst. 159, a, 187, 
2, 263, 1 with a. See also peracni-. 


Glossary and Index — Umhrian 


1) Adj. Ace. sg. sevakne, ii a si, 
iii 22, iv 16, 18, 19, sevakni, iii 25, 26, 
27 ; — abl. 8g. sevakni, ii a 38, 39, 
sevakne, iv 23 ; — ace. pi. sevaknef , 
iv 22 ; — abl. pi. sevaknis, ii a 36, 37, 
iv 25, sevakne, iv 9 (178, 9). 

2) Subst. m. Ace. sg. sevakne, 
ii b 8, 9, 10 (adj. possible in all these); 

— ace. pi. aeuacne, vii b i. 

aeiLom *totum', ace. sg. n. (probably 
persclo understood; cognate ace. 
after persnimu), vi a 56, sevom, i a 5; 

— abl. pi. n. «ew6ir * omnibus', via 
18. 15, 12, 268, 1. 

sihitu, see aihitu. 

aim 'suem% ace. sg., ii b i, si, ii b 7; 

— ace. pi. sif , i a 7, 14, 8if, vi b 3, si, 
vi a 58. 69, 183. 

air, si, aina ^sis, sit, sint', see est, 
sistu 'sidito', iii 8; 114; — fut. perf. 

3 sg. seaust *sederit' (given here 

rather than with aersitu on account 

of anderaeauat beside anderaiatu)^ 

vi a 5. 138, 222, note. 
arhuraini-e, name of some building or 

locality in Iguvium, ace. sg., vi a 13. 
snata ^ umecta\ ace. pi. n., iia 19, snatu, 

ii a 34 ; — abl. pi. snates, iv 9, snate, 

iia 37. 114,325. 
8omo *summum,' ace. sg. m., vi a 9 ; — 

— abl. sg. m. aomo, vi a lo ; 171, 6, a ; 

— loc. sg. sume, ii a 15, iii i. 67, 
126, 1, 189, 1. 

soni^u ^sonato' (transit., ^ fill vvith noise, 
confuse'), imperat., vi b 60, aunUu^ 
vii a 49. 37, a, 61, 6, 212, 6, 310. 

sopir *siquis'(?), vib 54. 199, 202, 14, a. 

aopo- *suppus, supinus, the imder', 
adj. ;neut. pi. used subst., * the under 
parts' (Grk. inrna). Ace. sg. f. aopa, 
vi b 17, aopam^ vii a 38 ; — ace. sg. m. 
supu, iv 17 ; — ace. pi. f. supaf, ii a 
22 ; — ace. pi. n. aopo, vi b 5, aupo, 
vh a 8f supa, i a 9, 16, ii a 22, 30, 32. 

67, 306, p. 304. The adjective, ex- 
cept in ii a 22, is used predicatively, 
in sense equivalent to an adverb or 
preposition ' under'. See 806. 

aoracUem *suillam'(?), adj., ace. sg, 1, 
vi b 39 ; — gen. sg. f. aoracUir, vi b 38. 
67, 260, 1, p. 306. 

sorser* suilli', gen. sg., v b 12, 17; — 
here also, probably, ace. sg. aoraom, 
vi b 24, aorao, vi b 38, suhim, i a 27, 30, 
sufu, ii a 8, 9 ; — abl. sg. aorau^ vi b 
28, 31, 35, 37 ; — ace. pi. m. used 
subst., sufuf, i a 33. 57, 260, 1, j 
p. 305. 

spaJuxtu *iaeito', imperat., vi b 41 ; — 
imperat. pass, (dep.) apahmu, vi b 17, 
apahamu, vii a 39 ; — perf. pass, partic. 
nom. sg. n. spafu, v a 20. 110, 3 
v^ith a, 808, 6. 

spanti 4atu8', ace. sg., iii 34, iv 2, 
spantim-af, iii 33. 247, 1, a. 

spantea Materalia', ace. pi. n., ii a 30. 

spe/a * *spensam, sparsam', ace. sg. f., >j^, 9 
vi a 56 etc. (4 times) ; — abl. sg. sp^a, 
vi b 5 etc. (5 times). 110, 3, p. 304. 

Speture * *Spectori', name of a god, dat. 
sg., iia 5. 142. 

speturie **spectoriae', adj., dat. sg. 1, 
ii a 1, 3. 246, 1, a. 

spinia *columnam, barrier' (?),, 
ii a 36, spina, ii a 38 (100, 3, 2>), spi- 
niam-a, ii a 37, spinam-af , ii a 33. 
Denotes some object, near the altar, 
which played a part in the ritual 

stakaz ^statutus', ii a 15. 262, 1. 

stqflarem '*stabularem, ovillam'(?), 
adj., ace. sg. f., vi b 39 ; — ace. sg. m. 
atqflare, vib 37, 40. 186, 248, 2, 
p. 305. 

staflii ' *stabularem, ovillum'(?), adj., 
ace. sg. m., i a 30. Footnote, p. 305. 

sto^mei 'statui', dat. sg., vi a 5, I8. 
262, 3. 


Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


stahmito ^statutum*, nom. sg. n., vi a 8 ; 

— dat. sg. stahmitei, vi a 18, stahmei- 
teifVias. 262,3. 

«to^w 'sto', no. 84; — imperat. sg. 
staJiitu, vi b 56, pi. stahituto, vi b 53 ; 

— fut. 3 pi. staheren, ibi9; 128,2, 
a. 83, 204, 6, 210, a, 215, 1. 

statita ^statuta', ace. pi. n., iia43. 

262, 3. 
statitatu *statuito\ imperat., iiass, 

ii b 19, iv 9. 262, 1. 
stiplo *8tipiilare', pres. imperat., vi a 2 ; 

235 ; — fut. imperat. sg. stiplatu 

* stipulator', vib48, 51, steplatu, ib 

13. 45. 
struhla * *struiculam, struem', a sort of 

cake, ace. sg., via 59 etc. (6 times), 

stnihpla, ii a 18, 28, iv 4, stru^la, iii 34 ; 

— gen. sg. struhplas, ii a 41 (266), 
iv 1. 58, 144, 249, 2. 

9U *sub', no. 83. 302. 

«/6-, su-'sub-'. 302. 

subahtu ^ deponito, setdown, lay aside', 
imperat., ii a 42, subotu, vi b 25 (? see 
85, a); — perf. pass, partic. aubator 
*omi8si', vi a 27, 36, 46, vi b 29 ; 171, 
13. 121, 218, 802. 

subocau *invoeo', vi a 22 etc. (15 times), 
aubocauu, vii a 20 etc. (8 times, all 
in vii). Also taken by many as 
perf. *invocavi'. 102, 2, 163, 6, 
204, 6, p. 303. 

»u6oco *invoeationes', ace. pi. n., via 
S3 etc. (9 times). Also taken by 
many as pres. 1 sg. *invoeo\ 279, 
p. 303. 

subotu^ see subahtu. 

subra 'supra', adv., vi a 15, vi b n, etc., 
subra, v a 20 ; — subra^ prep. , vi a 15 ; 
299, 8. 55, 157, 1, 188, 2, 190, 3. 

sukatu 'declarato'(?), iv I6. 94, 154. 

sufafiaf 'partis exsertas (hostiae), the 
projecting parts' (?), ace. pi., iia 22; 
^ gen. sg. sufafias, ii a 41 ; 266. 802. 

sufefaklu, meaning uncertain, ace. sg., 

iii 17, 19. 302. 
sume, see somo. 

sumel 'simul', ii a 27. 36, 2, 86, 3. 
sumtu 'sumito', imperat., ia 9, 16. 

114, c. 
sunitu, see sonitu. 
supa, see sopo-. 
super * super', prep., ib 41, iv 19. 65, 

801, 3. 
swperne 'super', prep., vii a 25. 65, 

301, 3. 
supru sese '*supro-versus, sursus' , adv. , 

iv 3. 167, 1, 190, 2, 307. 
supu, see sopo-. 
surur ' item', vi a 20 etc. (6 times), suror, 

vi b 37 ; — sururont, vi b 39 etc. (9 

times), 8urur0y vib 48 (128, 2, a); — 

surontj vi b 8 etc. (11 times). 197, 

6, 201, 6. 
suhim, see aorser. 
sutentu 'subtendito, supponito', ii a 23. 

sue 'si', eonj., vi a 7, 16, vii b 3, sve, 

va24, 27. 63, 202, 14. 
svepis 'siquis', i b I8, iv 26. 199, 202, 

14, a. 
suepo ' sive', vi b 47, svepu, i b 8. 133, 

202, 1. 
sweso'suo', poss. pron., loc. sg.* viib 

1, svesu, i b 45, ii a 44. 194 with 6. 
sviseve'in sino', loc. sg., ii b 14, 15. 

p. 309. 

iSer/er ' Cerri, Genii', gen. sg., vib 57 
etc. (25 times), Serferj vib 61 etc. (4 
times), (erfe, ib28, 31; — dat. sg. 
Serfe, vii a 3, (^eiie, i b 24 ; — voc. 
sg. Serfe, vib 57, 61. 116, 2. 

i§fei:^o-'*Cerrius,' epithet of Praestita, 
Torra, and Hontus. Gen. sg. f. Ser- 
flar, vii a 20 etc. (4 times) ; — dat. sg. 
f. ^erfie, vii a 6 etc. (4 times), ^rfie, 
i b 28, 31 ; — dat. sg. m. ^erfi, vi b 45, 


Grlossary and Index — Umbrian 


fefi, i b 4 ; — voc. sg. f . iSerflay vi b 

57 etc. (19 times), Serfia^ vi b 61, 

vii a 16. 252, 1 with a. 
persiaru * f eriarum epularium^(?), gen. 

pi., iiai6. 
9ersnatur*cenati% nom. pi., vass. 

116, 2, 144. 
Se«na *cenain', v b 9, 13, 15, 18. 116, 2, 

144, 261, 2, a. 
■^i^ittt *cinctos% ace. pi., vib59, sihitu^ 

vii a 48 ; — dat. pi. ^ihitir, vii a 14, 

28, 50, sihitir, vi b 62, Mtir, vii a 13. 

78, 144. 
pihpera 'cancellos'{?), ace. pi., iiii5. 

Possibly from *kinkeda- (of. Grk. Kiy- 

K\Ld€$, L, cingro), but very uncertain, 
iimo * retro', adv., vi b65, vii a i, pimu, 

ib23. 54, 189, 1, a, 190, 2. 
pive*citra', adv.,iib ii. 189, 1, a, 190, 

1, 258, 1. 'On this side' is in this 

passage * outside', contrasted with 

fesnere * within the temple' of the 

following clause. 

T., see Titis. 

-ta, see -to. 

tafle4n tabula', loc. sg., iibi2. 

Talenate**Talenati% dat. sg., iib4, 5. 

259, 3. 
tapistenu'caldariolam'(?), iv 30. 99, 

Tamna^em *Tadinatem', vibss, vii a 

47, Tafinate, ibie, 17 ; — gen. sg. 

Tarsinater, vi b 54 etc. (8 times) ; — 

dat. sg. Tamna^e, vii a 11. 259,3. 
toses'tacitus', via 55 etc. (11 times), 

taais^ vi b23, tapez, i a 26 etc. (8 times) ; 

— nom. pi. tasetur, vib57, vii a 46. 

137, 2, 144, 306. 
tekuries, see dequrier. 
tekvias*decuriales', nom. pi. f., ii b i. 

31, a, 191, 10, a. 
tefenibi\ vi a 18, tefe, ibi3, ii b 24. 

124, 198 with a. 

Te/raii '*Tefrali, pertaining to Tefer', 

adj., abl. sg., vib28, 35. 
r^re**Tefer,' voc. sg., vib27 etc. (10 

times), 171, 5 ; — ace. sg. TefrOj vib 

26, 27 ; — dat. sg. Tefrei, vi b 22, Te- 

fre, ia24, Tefri, ia28. 
tefru-to * ex rogo, from the (place of the) 

burnt-offering', abl. sg., vii a 46 ; 

— ace. pi. n. tefra *carnes creman- 

das', ii a 27, iii 32, 34, iv2. 15, 13, 

tehtef im * tegumentum' (?), iv 20. 
teio, see tiom. 
teitu, see deitu, 

tenitu ' teneto', vi b 25. 212, 3. 
tenzitim, meaning uncertain, ace. sg. , 

i b 6, tesedi, vi b46. 131, a. 
terkantur * suffragentur'(?), pres. subj. , 

iii 9. 308. Possibly related to Grk. 

dipKOfiai, etc., the meaning being 

* point out (with approval)'. Cf. 

Goth, ga-tarhjan ^'pomt out'. 
<er»ina5*terminatus', no. 84. 
^mnom-6* ad terminum', ace. sg., vi b 

57, 63, 64 ; — abl. sg. termnu-co^ vi b 53, 

55, 57 ; — abl. pi. termnes-ku, i b 19. 

103, 1. 
^er^im *tertium', adv., vib 64. 190, 5, 

191, 3. 
ier<io- *tertius', adj. Ace. sg. n. terti, 

iia 28; 172, 173, 1; — ace. sg. f. 

tertiam-e^ vi a 13, tertiam-a, iv 2 ; — 

dat. sg. f . tertie, ii b 6 ; — abl. sg. n. 

tertiu^ vi a 45 ; — loc. sg. tertie, ii b 

14. 191, 3. 
tertio*tertium', adv., vii a 46, tertiu, 

i b 40. 190, 2, 800, 6, a. 
tefte, terust, etc., see dirsa. 
tesedi^ see tenzitim. 
Tesewocir **Tesenacis,' abl. pi., vibi, 

3, Tesonocir, vi a 20, vii a 38, Tese- 

nakes, 1 a ii, h. 35, a, 256, 7. 
testre etc., see destram-e. 
tesvam, see dersua. 


Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


Teteies * Tetteius' (?) , i b 45, ii a 44. 61 , 

3, 253, 2. Cf. also 174, end. 
tettom-ef name of some building in 

Iguvium, vi a 13, 14. 
tetu, see dirsa. 
Ti., see Titis. 
tikamne ^ dedicatione' , ii a 8. 45, 1 07, 

2, a, 247, 3. 
tiom * te\ ace. sg., vi a 43 etc. (33 times), 

tiOj vi a 24 etc. (8 times), teiOy vi a 22, 

tin, ii a 25. 193 with c. 
tipel * dedicatio', ii a 15 ; — ace. sg. ti- 

plu, iii25, 27; — abl. sg. tiplu, iib22. 

45, 88, 4, 95, 144, 248, 1. 
tif it * decet', ii a 17. 89, 5, 144, 212, 3. 
Titis, praen., gen. sg., * Titi'(?), i b 45 ; 

— abbr. Ti, iia44, T., va3, 15, T., 

no. 84. 
titu, see dirsa, 

Tlatie ^L&tii\ gen. sg., vb9. 129, 1. 
|-<o, -ta, -tu*ex, ab\ 286, 300, 9. 
\toco *sale (conditas)'(?), probably adv., 

V b 13. Cf. L. tucceta (pi.) and 
tucca (Corpus Gloss. Lat. II, p. 

I 202 ; also tur{e) ttic(ca) vin(o)f CIL. 

V 2072). 

todcom^^ad urbicum', ace. sg., vi a 
10; — nom. pi. totcor, via 12; 171, 
13 ; — abl. pi. todceir, vi a 1 1 ; 144, a. 
15, 2, 89, 1, 168, 187, 1, 256, 2. 

toru Hauros', ace. pi., vi b 43, 45, turuf, 
i b 1 , turup, i b 4 (25, a) ; — abl. pi. 
tares, i b 20. 69. 

totor'civitatis, urbis', gen. sg., via 30 
etc. (44 times), tutas, ib2, 5; — dat. 
sg. tote, via 5 etc. (24 times), tute, 
ibi3; — ace. sg. totam, via 41 etc. 
(9 times), tota, via 29 etc. (4 times), 
tuta, i b 16 ; — abl. sg. tota-per, vi a 
23 etc. (35 times), tuta-per, i as etc. 
(12 times), tuta-pe, iii24; — loc. sg. 
tote, vi a 36, vi b 29, toteme, vi a 26, 46 
(169, 7, a). 16, 2, 72. 

touer, see tuer. 


traf^ trans' , prepos. , vii a 39, traJiaf, vii a 

41, traJia, vii a 5, 39, 44, 45, tra, i b 31, 

35, iiai3. 110, 4, 301, 4. 
trahuorfi * transverse', adv., vii a 25. 

115, 3, 138, 190, 1, 301, 4. 
Trebe**Trebo', dat. sg., i a 8, Treho, 

via 58. 171, 3, a. 
ire66ti*versatur', via 8. 15, 14, 94, 

212, 6. 
TreftZamr *Trebulanis', adj., abl. pi., 

vi a 19 etc. (12 times), Treblaneir, vi a 

22, Treplanes, i a 2, 7 ; — ace. pi. Tre- 

blano, vi b 47, Treplanu, i b 9. 255, 4. 
tremitu * tremefacito', imperat., vi b 60, 

vii a 49. 212, 6, 310. 
iremnw *tabemaculo', abl. sg., via 2, 

16. 15, 14, 94, 126, 1, 261, 2, 298. 
tribf ipu * ternio', nom. sg., va9; 110, 

5; — abl. sg. tribrisine, via 54; 132, 

a. 106, a, 144, 181. 
<n/*tris', ace. pi. m. f., via 58 etc. (11 

times), treif, via 22 (74), trif, ib24, 

tref, i a7 etc. (7 times), tre, i a 3 etc. 

(4 times) ; ace. pi. n. triia, iv 2 ; — 

abl. pi. tris, iii I8. 191, 3. 
iW/o*tribum', ace. sg., vib58, vii a 47, 

trifu, i b 16 ; — gen. sg. trif or, vi b 54 

etc. (4 times) ; — dat. sg. trifo, viia 11; 

— abl. sg. trefi-per, iii 25, 30. 184, 185. 
irioper *ter', adv., vi b 55, viia 51, tri- 

iuper, ib 21 etc. (5 times). 192, 2, 

p. 321, ftn. 
tripler * trinis', abl. pi. , v a 21. 192, 1. 
-tu, see -to. 
iitder'finem*, ace. sg., via 10, Ji; — 

nom. pi. tvderor, vi a 12 ; 171, 13 ; — 

ace. pi. tudero, vi a 15, I6 ; — dat. -abl. 

pi. tuderus, vi a 11 (288), vi b 48. 16, 

20, 131, a, 182. 
fudera to *finitum', perf. pass. part. 

nom. sg. n., via8. 16, 20, 131, a, 

262, 1. 
iutr*tui', poss. pron., gen. sg., via 27 

etc. (5 times), touer, vi b 30 (2 times) ; 

f iuJu 'it, 3(11/2.) /»«■>" 3WS<- iyo. S'l'-J— } MM4UJA « 

8»0^~-~-— ...^ (ft08sarjf and Indeif — ymbnan ' [W- 

— abl. Bg. I. tua, Tra"3»-,ete. (13 

tJineB),luua,Tia49(81,&). 104 
tnf, tnpler, Boe tmder i-. 
tuplak 'furoam'(?), aoc. sg. n., iii 14. 


20), 1 

tures, see torn. 

TuTga '"Torni', voc. sg., tI b 58, fli,Tll a 
47,40; — gen.Bg. Tursar, Tila46; — 
dat. sg. Tur»e, vii a 41, 53, Tnrae, 'm 
19, Tnse, ib 3i, 43. BelaWd to L. 
teirftJ, not (orreO. CI. targita. 

Turakum 'Tascum', adj., aco. t%. n., 
ibiT, Tuacom, vibss, vii 8 47; — 
gen. sg. n. Tuscer, vi b 54 etc. (4 
times) ; — dat. sg. n. Turtce, tH b la. 
2Se, 1, 116, 1. 

htrsidi'terreto', imperat., vibao, viia 
49,tuBetQ'fuga,ta',ib4a, pi. turstluto, 
Tiia 51, tusetutu, i b 4i ; — pres. subj. 
3 pi. (ursiandu'fugentur', viibS; 
39, 1, SI, 166. 17, 12, 61, 97, 118, 
1, 212, 2. 

tuta, tntas, etc., see totar. 

tuva, tuves, etc., see dur. 

urfeta 'orbilam', a wheel-shaped object > 

held in the hand as a token, ii b as. ^ ^ T 

•amariis', abl. pi,, vaa, is; ^ ^ 

— gen. pi. uTDBsiani, iii 3. 112, n, f\^ 
140, 254, p. 301. 

nitas, see arioin,. 

, imperat., ii 

ufetn 'adoleto', 
lOe, 212, I 

Qsa; e, ii a 44, nsaie, i b 45. 
Probably adj., loc. sg., but meaning * 
and etym. wholly uncertain. Pos-^J 
Bibly from •opiaiio-, aa if L. •opera- ^ 

nstentn. Bee ostendu. f 

nstite 'tempeatate'(?), loc. sg., iia i5,.£> 

iii 9. Etym. unknown. 

!, iibao. 131,0, ISO, 0,160, f 

aze. Bee (mte. 

'ur. U., Bbbr. praen., 'Vibius', nos. 83, 84j 

rakaie, uacose, see anderuacose. 
u = T, see under t. rapdie 'sella', abl, sg., iii 7; — ace. pl.T,'^, 

nkai, ukii-pei, see ocar. Iwipff-e, via lo, yibsi, Tapef-em;^ J . 

nfestne 'opercu1atis'(?j, ivaa. 138, a. / ibi4; — abl. pi. uoperaui, viiig, 
nhtretie '"auotura', loc. sg. (?), v a B, / uapertu&io, vi a is, is. 104. W, 7, 

246, 1,0,291, 1, p. 

nhtnt 'aactor', title of an ofBcial, 

sg., iii 7, 8;^acc. sg. nhturn, 

69, 148, p. 301. 
ulo 'iUuc', adv., v) b 5&, uln, I b : 

95, as, Tb4. 64, 180,2, 19T, : 
nmen 'unguen', ace, Bg,, ii a is, 

abl. sg. nmne, iia 

I vaputu >ture'(?), abl. sg., ii b id, 
(for ii b 10, see footnote, p. 302) ; — 
abl. pi. Tapntis, ii b t3. Probably 
I connected with L, vapor. 
1 rJarte'Varii', gent., gen. sg., no, 83. 

I 4*03 'vitium', vi a as, 3S, 48. 14S, 3. 1 ' 
- I uotirstom-e, name of some locality in 


b 3B, uageto, vi a 97 ; — . 





Glossary and Index — Umbrian 


»«. , 



uaaetom-e^ vi b 47, yapetiim-i, i b 8 
(p. 806). 811. 
^j vatra •extaii'(?), adj., abl. sg. f., iii 3i. 
\ uatuo *exta*(?), ace. pi. n., yi a 57 etc. 
^ ^ (6 times), yatava, i a 4 etc. (5 times), 
^ ^-f"^ yatmro, i b 25. Etym. wholly uncer- 
tain. See p. 304. 

u^^partis', ace. pl.,ybi2, 17. 186, a. 

UcAicr •Veiis', abL pi., vib 19, 22, 
Uehieir, vi a 21, Vehiies, i a 20, 24. 

ueiro, see uiro, 

▼elta * deligito', imperat. , iy 2J . 86,2, 
105, 2, 217. 

▼enpersuntra *ficticia'(?), adj., abl. sg. 
f., ii a 30, yepesntra, ii b is ; — ace. 
sg. f. yepesutra, ii b 15 ; — abl. pi. f. 
▼empesmitres, iy 7. 268, 2. 

In iia30 the word agrees with 
kame of the preceding clause, simi- 
larly in iy 7 with karnus. In the 
other two passages it is used sub- 
stantively, the word for flesh being 

yepuratu *restinguito'(?), imperat., iia 
41. 262, 1. 

▼epurus ^non igneis, (sacrifices) with- 

/Dut fire'(?), adj., abl. pi., van. 
268, 2. 
wer/aZe*templum', place marked off 
for taking the auspices, vi a 8. 186. 
Cf. *In terris dictum templum locus 
augurii aut auspicii causa quibus- 
dam conceptis verbis finitus', Yarro 
Ii. Ii. 7, o. 
t*mr * porta', abl. pi., via 58 etc. (11 
times), uereir, vi a 22, ueris-co, vi a 
19 etc. (9 times), yeres, i a 2 etc. 
(6 times); — ace. pi. tierof-e, vi b 47, 
: yemf-e, i b 9 (171, 13). 15, 16. 
*^ yeskla *yaseula% ace. pi., iia 19, yes- 
klu, i b 29, 37, ii a 34, ii b 19 ; — abl. 
' pi. iLeacUr, vii a 9 etc. (8 times), Tes- 
kles, ii a 31, 37, etc. (5 times). 88, 4, 
99, 7, 144, 249, 2. 



uesticatu 4ibato', imperat. , vi b I6, vii a 
8 etc. (5 times), yestikatu, ii a 24 etc. 
(4 times); — lAes^icos'libaverit', vib 
25 ; 280, a, 808, a. 808, c. 

uestis 'libans', vi b 6, 25, uesteis, vi a 22. 
808, c. 

yestipia *libamentum', ace. sg., iv 14, 
19, yestipam, i a 28, yestipa, i a 17, 31, 
yestepa, iv 17, liestisiam^ vi b 39, ues- 
tisia^ vi b 6 etc. (6 times); — gen. sg. 
uestisiar, vi b 16, 38, vii a 38 ; — abl. 
sg. yestipia, ii a 27, yistipa, ii b 13 
(89, 5), uestisia, vi b 5, uestisa, vii a 
37. Like L. libamentum, not wholly 
confined to liquid offerings. 808, c. 

Uestisier **Vesticii', gen. sg.,name of 
a god (probably of libation, like 
L. Libasius), via 14; — dat. sg. Ves- 
tipe, ii a 4. 808, c. 

ueatra *yestra', abl. sg. f., vi b 61. 194. 

Vesune **Vesonae', dat. sg., name of a 
goddess, iv 3, 6, etc. 247, 2, a. 

yetu *dividito', i b 29, 37. 186, a. 

uia *via% abl. sg., vib 52 etc., via, iii 
11, yea, ib 14, 23. 81, a, 101. 

yinu *vinum', ace. sg., iia 18, 40, iib ^ 
14; — abl. sg. yinu, ia 4 etc., winw, 
vi a 57, vi b 19, 46. 21. 

uiro 'viros', vi a 42 etc. (8 times), iieiro, 
vi a 30, 32, 39. 99, 5, 171, 11, a. 

uirseto * visum', via 28, 38, 48, vib 30. 
45, 244, 4. 

Uistinie * Vestinii', gent. ,, no.84. 

yitlaf ^vitulas', ace. pi., ib3i, uitla, 
vii a 41. 

yitlu 'vitulum', ace. sg., iib 21, 24; — 
ace. pi. yitluf, ib 1, yitlup (25, a), 
i b 4, ulUu, vi b 43, 45. 89, 6, 88, 4. 

t*ocM-com * ad aedem'(?), abl. sg., vib 
43, 45, yuku-kum, ib 1, 4; — ace. sg. 
yuku, iii 21, yukum-en, iii 20 ; — loc. 
sg. yoke, iii 3, 21. 67, 1. Connec- 
tion with L. lucus (by 104) is also 
held by some. 


f r 





Glossary and Index — Umbrian [Uojione-tetef 


ETq/Iojic **Voviono' or **Vovioni', *deo 
' votorum', dat. sg., vib 19, Vufiune, 

i&^20. 247, 2,0. 
Uois., abbr. praen., * Volsii'(?), no. 84. 
. Ct 105, 3. 
Uowiencr * Volsieni', gen. sg., no. 84. 

.105,. a 

uomu, 8ee andenwmu, 

t40M«e *yoto'(?), dat. sg., vi b 11. 

152, a. 
Yuke, yuka, see uocti-com. 
Yttfetes^Yotis, consecratis^ abl. pi., 

iiasi, iy25. 152. 

Vufiune, see TJojume, 

Yufru * YOtiYum', ace. sg. m., ii b 21, S4, 

25. 152, 257, 1. 
Yurtus ^mutayerit^ fut. perf., iia2. 

17, 14. 
Vupiia-per 'pro Lucia' (?), adj., abl. 

sg. f., lib 26. 72, a. 
Yuttt * laYato' , imperat. , ii a 39. 104, 

218, 1, a. 
VuYpis'l4Ucius'(?),ib45,iia44. 78, a, 


zef ef , see sersitu. 


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ON THE Front op the "House now in the Naples Museum. 

or Panba" at Pompeii. Our Our no. 29 { 

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